Change search
Refine search result
1 - 17 of 17
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Laboratory study of stormwater biofiltration in low temperatures: total and dissolved metal removal and fates2011In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 219, no 1-4, p. 303-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater biofilters, which are recommended for application in both Water-Sensitive Urban Design and Low Impact Development, can remove up to 80% or 90% of total metals found in stormwater. However, their winter operation is a common concern. That was addressed in this study by investigating the metal removal effectiveness of replicate laboratory biofilter mesocosms at 2°C, 8°C and 20°C. As recommended for cold climate bioretention, coarse filter media were implemented and in the top 100 mm layer topsoil was added to increase the sorption capacity. Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations measured in the biofilter effluent were far below those in the influent and this significantly improved the treated stormwater quality. Contrary to a common notion that coarse media in the main filter body impair dissolved metal sorption, satisfactory removals of dissolved metals were found in this study with most metal burdens retained in the top layer of the filter in which the sorption capacity was enhanced by topsoil. Some metal uptake by the plants was also detected. Temperature did not affect Cd, Pb and Zn removals in general, but Cu removals increased with decreasing temperatures. This was explained by increased biological activities in the filters at warmer temperatures, which may have led to an increased release of Cu with dissolved organic matter originating from root turnover and decomposition of organic litter and debris. Furthermore, plant uptake and biofilm adsorption may also be influenced by temperature. However, even in the worst case (i.e. at 20°C), Cu was removed effectively from the stormwater. Further research needs were identified including the effects of road salts on stormwater biofiltration during the winter period.

  • 2.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Sundelin, Monica
    Hjortens Lab, Östersund.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Comparison of indicator bacteria concentrations obtained by automated and manual sampling of urban stormwater runoff2014In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 225, no 9, article id 2065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study of indicator bacteria concentrations obtained by laboratory analysis of grab samples of storm water, which were collected manually or by automatic samplers, was carried out in two urban catchments. Samples were analyzed for four types of indicator bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens and further documented by measurements of total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity. Analysis of complete data sets (N=198) indicated no statistically significant differences in the geometric means of all the constituent samples collected automatically or manually, but there were some small differences between the results produced by the two sampling methods applied. Total coliform concentrations were positively biased in samples collected by automatic samplers, but for the three remaining indicator bacteria (E. coli, enterococci, and C. perfringens), the opposite was true. Risk of sample cross-contamination in automatic samplers was assessed in the laboratory by sampling consecutively synthetic storm water with high and low concentrations of E. coli and enterococci. The first low-concentration samples preceded by high-concentration samples were cross-contaminated and the measured concentrations were positively biased. This cross-contamination was explained by storm-water residue in the sampling line. Such a residue remained in place even after line purging by compressed air, and its mass depended on the sampling line length (tested up to 5 m), as verified by measurements in the laboratory. The study findings should be helpful for improving field protocols for indicator bacteria sampling.

  • 3.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Mineral and Anthropogenic Indicator Inorganics in Urban Stormwater and Snowmelt Runoff: Sources and Mobility Patterns2017In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 228, no 7, article id 263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inorganic chemicals in urban stormwater and snowmelt runoff originate from catchment geology and anthropogenic activities. The occurrence, partitioning and mobility of six minerals and six trace metal (TM) indicators of anthropogenic activities were studied in stormwater, snowmelt and baseflow in four urban catchments, and the sampling of inorganics was supplemented by measurements of electrical conductivity (EC), pH and total suspended solids (TSSs). Minerals occurred at concentrations several orders of magnitude higher (1–102 mg/L) than those of TMs (10−2–102 μg/L) and reflected the composition of local groundwater seeping into sewers. Concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and Na were enhanced by baseflow contributions and followed closely the electrical conductivity. Al and Fe minerals occurred in insoluble forms, and their pollutographs were similar to those of TMs, whose concentrations mimicked, to some extent, the flux of TSS. The TMs with the highest and lowest particulate fractions were Cr&Pb and Cu&Zn, respectively. The concentrations of total TMs in snowmelt were two to four times higher than those in stormwater, and both sources likely exceeded some of the stormwater effluent limits (for Cd, Cu and Zn) proposed in Sweden. Where such concentrations depended on water hardness, the risk of toxicity might be reduced by elevated hardness of the monitored snowmelt and stormwater. Recognizing the good ecological status of the study area receiving water, Lake Storsjön, some protection against polluted runoff and snowmelt may be needed and could be achieved by implementing stormwater management measures controlling TSS and TMs.

  • 4.
    Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Jourak, Amir
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Enhancing the reliability of laboratory phosphorus filter tests: effect of influent properties and interpretation of effluent parameters2014In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 225, no 1, article id 1766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filtration can be a convenient technique for removing phosphorus (P) at on-site wastewater treatment facilities to recycle this non-renewable element. When testing potentially suitable materials for these filters, the properties of the influent and the method used to analyse measured effluent concentrations both affect the P binding capacity determined in filter tests and therewith filter longevity predictions. At present, there is a lack of robust methods for material investigation and filter test interpretation. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of inflow PO4-P concentrations (concentration) and hydraulic surface load (load) on P binding capacity and to analyse possible interpretations of laboratory filter tests. A 22 factorial experiment with replicates was performed on the calcium-based filter material Filtra P. The investigated concentrations ranged from 12 to 50 mg L-1 and loads from 419 to 1,023 L m-2 day-1. P binding capacity (calculated by mass balance including data until PO4-P breakthrough point) was negatively affected by concentration and positively affected by load, with the effect of concentration being slightly greater. Depending on the factors' settings and on the method of evaluation (i.e. analysing all pre-saturation data or considering only pre-breakthrough results), the total measured P binding capacity varied between 2.2 and 9.0 g kg-1. The part of the breakthrough curve between the breakthrough point and saturation contributed significantly to the measured P binding capacity, and it took about three times longer for the filters to become saturated than to reach breakthrough. Furthermore, a considerable amount of P that had reacted with the filter material was washed out of the filters as particle-bound P. This indicates that it is important to determine both the PO4-P and the particle-bound P phases in the filter effluent

  • 5.
    Husson, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lindgren, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Assessing biomass and metal contents in riparian vegetation along a pollution gradient using an unmanned aircraft system2014In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 225, no 6, article id 1957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying plant biomass and related processes such as element allocation is a major challenge at the scale of entire riparian zones. We applied sub-decimetre-resolution (5 cm) remote sensing using an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in combination with field sampling to quantify riparian vegetation biomass at three locations (320-m river stretches) along a mining-impacted boreal river and estimated the amounts of Cd, Cu, and Zn stored in the dominant species. A species-level vegetation map was derived from visual interpretation of aerial images acquired using the UAS and field sampling to determine species composition and cover. Herbaceous and shrub biomass and metal contents were assessed by combining the vegetation maps with field sampling results. Riparian zone productivity decreased from 9.5 to 5.4 t ha-1 with increasing distance from the source of contamination, and the total amount of vegetation-bound Cd and Zn decreased from 24 to 0.4 and 3,488 to 211 g, respectively. Most Cu was stored at the central location. Biomass and metal contents indicated large variation between species. Salix spp. comprised only 17% of the total dominant-species biomass but contained 95% of all Cd and 65% of all Zn. In contrast, Carex rostrata/vesicaria comprised 64% of the total dominant-species biomass and contained 63% of all Cu and 25% of all Zn. Our study demonstrates the applicability of UAS for monitoring entire riparian zones. The method offers great potential for accurately assessing nutrient and trace element cycling in the riparian zone and for planning potential phytoremediation measures in polluted areas

  • 6. Karlsson, Kristin
    et al.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in water and sediment from gully pots2008In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 188, no 1-4, p. 271-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A gully pot is often cleaned with the help of an eductor truck, which uses hydrodynamic pressure and a vacuum to loosen and remove the solids and standing liquid from a gully pot. This paper considers the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content in the gully pot mixture (water and sediment) after it has been discharged from the eductor truck. The results show that most PAH was attached to particles, and the dissolved phase represented approximately 22% of the total water concentration. No significant difference was found for the water phase between a housing area and a road, whereas a significant difference was found for NAP, ACE, FL, ANT, FLR, PYR, BaF, and BPY in the sediment at a 95% confidence level. Source identification showed that the PAH in the gully pot mixture came from mixed sources. Both the water and sediment phase exceed all or some of the compared guidelines. The result from this paper shows that not only the sediment needs to be discussed, but also the water phase created during the maintenance of different BMPs.

  • 7.
    Kylefors, Katarina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Accuracy of COD test for lanfill leachates2003In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 146, no 1-4, p. 153-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COD (chemical oxygen demand) has historically been considered to be an estimate of organic matter, and though this is no longer the case, for most kinds of water it is still a fair approximation. Landfill leachates may, however, be one of the exceptions. Landfill leachate contains many inorganic substances and, in certain circumstances, high concentrations of volatile organic compounds like acetic acid; the COD value may be affected by these conditions. Designed experiments were performed to determine how COD could be affected by the composition of landfill leachates. The factors studied include the content of iron(II), manganese(II), sulphide, ethanol, acetic acid, ammonia, and chloride as well as different aspects of the COD analysis design. The results show that up to about one-third of COD may be due to the inorganic components of leachates. The main conclusion from the experiments is that COD cannot be used solely as a measure of the organic matter of landfill leachate since inorganic substances as well as interactions between substances may interfere with the COD results.

  • 8. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ettala, M.
    University of Kuopio.
    Effects of leachate irrigation on landfill vegetation and subsequent methane emissions1999In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 113, no 1-4, p. 203-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-rotation tree forests are irrigated with landfill leachate to reduce both leachate volume and nutrient content. It is of interest both for leachate treatment and energy recovery to optimise the productivity of such plantations. This study's aim was to investigate the effects of irrigation on soil quality, tree growth and on emissions of landfill gas (LFG) produced in the wastes. Soils irrigated with leachate had a higher average nutrient and organic matter contents, and a lower dry solids content. Larger trees occur on plots irrigated with leachate, presumably due to the positive effect of water and nutrient supply. The willows used in this experiment seemed to be tolerant of high carbon dioxide concentrations, as no statistically effect arising from LFG emissions could be linked to tree growth. Methane oxidation levels between 50 and 950 mol m(-2) yr(-1) were observed. The positive correlation between soil methane oxidation capacity and tree presence is an interesting perspective on reduction of methane emissions by landfill's top cover vegetation type. Optimising methane oxidation using vegetation as a 'cover crop' could reduce the amount of methane discharged into the atmosphere.

  • 9.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Paus, Kim, H.
    Muthanna, Tone Merete
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Hydraulic and Environment Engineering, Trondheim, Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Trondheim.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Accumulation of Traffic-Related Trace Metals in Urban Winter_Long Roadside Snowbanks2015In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 226, no 12, article id 404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulations of mass loads of selected chemicals in roadside snowbanks were studied at five sites with various traffic densities in the City of Trondheim (Norway) by collecting snow samples throughout the winter period and analysing them for 13 water quality constituents: pH, EC, alkalinity, Cl, Na, TSS, Cd, Cr, Cu. Ni, Pb, W, and Zn. The resulting dataset was then supplemented by similar data collected earlier in the City of Luleå (Sweden). Regression analyses for individual sites indicated linear trends in unit-area constituent accumulations with time (0.65

  • 10.
    Muthanna, Tone M.
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gjesdahl, Nina
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Thorolfsson, Sveinn T.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Heavy metal removal in cold climate bioretention2007In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 183, no 1-4, p. 391-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A bioretention media is a stormwater treatment option designed to reduce peak runoff volumes and improve water quality through soil infiltration and plant mitigation. To investigate the heavy metal removal in a bioretention media in a cold climate setting, a small pilot sized bioretention box was built in Trondheim, Norway. The system was sized using the Prince Georges County bioretention design method from 1993. Three runoff events, created using historical data, were undertaken in April 2005 and then again in August 2005. Both the peak flow reduction and the total volume reduction were significantly lower in April compared to August. Peak flow reduction was 13% in April versus 26% in August and the total volume reduction was 13% in April versus 25% in August. Metal retention was good for both seasons with 90% mass reduction of zinc, 82% mass reduction of lead and 72% mass reduction of copper. Plant uptake of metals was documented between 2 to 7%; however adsorption and mechanical filtration through the mulch and soil column were the most dominant metal retention processes. The metal retention was independent of the selected hydraulic loading rates (equivalent to 1.4–7.5 mm h−1 precipitation) showing that variable inflow rates during this set of events did not affect the treatment efficiency of the system.

  • 11. Reinosdotter, Karin
    et al.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    A comparison of snow quality in two Swedish municipalities - Luleå and Sundsvall2005In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 167, no 1-4, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In municipal planning of locations of snow deposits and investigations of the environmental effects of snow dumping, the partitioning of contaminants between particulate and dissolved matter is of great importance. This paper compares snow quality in two Swedish municipalities - Luleå and Sundsvall over time. The two municipalities have differences in used de-icing material and winter conditions. Because Luleå has a longer winter season and a lower average temperature, higher accumulations of chemicals were found in Luleå than in Sundsvall. A multiple regression analysis indicated relationships between the dissolved fraction of heavy metals and the concentration of suspended solids and chloride.

  • 12.
    Rentz, Ralf
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Impact of urban stormwater on sediment quality in an enclosed bay of the Lule river, northern Sweden2011In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 218, no 1-4, p. 651-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment and porewater samples from an enclosed bay receiving stormwater discharge (Skutviken) near the centre of Luleå, northern Sweden were analysed for major and trace elements and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Among the studied metals Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were enriched at Skutviken. Also, the PAH content was enriched, in particular for phenantrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene which are regarded as common constituents in stormwater. The use of trace metal ratios provided indications about pollutant sources for the sediment. Cs-137 dating was used to determine historical changes in metal and PAH fixation in the sediment. The bay Skutviken is enclosed through the construction of a road bank since 1962. The enclosure led to reduced water circulation in the bay that promotes the occurrence of anoxic conditions with sulphate reduction within the bay. As a consequence of these conditions, metals are trapped in the sediments as sulphides. This study suggests that enclosed bays with restricted water circulation may be efficient traps for urban pollutants, reducing the present-day input of pollutants to the sea. In areas with postglacial land uplift, where such bays are common, bay sediments are a potential future source of pollutants when uplift results in erosion and oxidation of the sedi

  • 13.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Engström, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Sörlin, Dieke
    ALS Scandinavia AB.
    Baxter, Douglas
    ALS Scandinavia AB.
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies.
    Nyholm, Erik
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Uptake and accumulation of anthropogenic Os in free-living bank voles (Myodes glareolus)2011In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 218, no 1-4, p. 603-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Osmium tetroxide (OsO4) is one of the most toxic air contaminants but its environmental effects are poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we present evidence of osmium uptake in a common herbivore (bank vole, Myodes glareolus) in boreal forests of northern Sweden. Voles (n = 22) and fruticose arboreal pendular lichens, the potential main winter food source of the vole, were collected along a spatial gradient to the west of a steelwork in Tornio, Finland at the Finnish-Swedish border. 187Os/188Os isotope ratios increased and osmium concentrations decreased in lichens and voles along the gradient. Osmium concentrations in lichens were 10,000-fold higher than those in voles. Closest to the steelwork, concentrations were highest in kidneys rather than skin/fur that are directly exposed to airborne OsO4. The kidney-to-body weight ratio was higher at the two localities close to the steelwork. Even though based on a small sample size, our results for the first time demonstrate that osmium is taken up, partitioned, and accumulated in mammal tissue, and indicate that high kidney-to-body weight ratios might be induced by anthropogenic osmium.

  • 14.
    Vijayan, Arya
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Laboratory Melting of Late-Winter Urban Snow Samples: The Magnitude and Dynamics of Releases of Heavy Metals and PAHs2019In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 230, no 8, article id 182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory snow melting experiments were conducted with actual late-winter snow samples, collected just before the final snowmelt, in two similar northern Swedish cities, Luleå and Umeå, to investigate releases of the selected heavy metals (HM) (Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd) and 16 USEPA PAHs from melting snow. Metal concentrations were determined in three fractions: total, dissolved, and truly dissolved (defined as the fraction passing through a 3-kMWCO ultrafilter). Total HM concentrations in snowmelt were rather high at both sites and reflected the accumulation of pollutants in the roadside snowbanks over a period of about 5 months: Cd = 0.43, Cu = 303, Pb = 41.9, Zn = 817 (μg/l), and TSS = 2000 (mg/l) in Luleå samples and Cd = 1.87, Cu = 905, Pb = 165, Zn = 3150 (μg/l), and TSS = 4800 (mg/l) in Umeå samples. The difference between metal and TSS concentrations at the two sites of similar characteristics was attributed to a smaller volume snowbank in Umeå. The dissolved HM concentrations represented relatively small fractions of the total concentrations (0.3–6.9% in Luleå and 0.01–3.1% in Umeå). The truly dissolved fraction represented 71–90% of the dissolved fraction in Luleå and 74–98% in Umeå. At both sites, the dissolved fractions exhibited preferential elution from the laboratory snow piles. The PAHs studied (16 US EPA PAHs) were mostly particulate bound, with only 5–12% of the total burden contributed by the meltwater, and most dissolved concentrations below the reporting limits. PAH concentrations in the Luleå samples were about one-third to one-fourth of those in Umeå. In general, the releases of PAHs from the snowbank were delayed, compared with releases of meltwater, and showed similar release patterns as TSS.

  • 15.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Substances in Urban Snow: A comparison of the contamination of snow in different parts of the city of Luleå, Sweden1999In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 114, no 3-4, p. 377-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate how the quality of snow varies within a city. The study area is situated in the Luleå municipality, in northern Sweden (lat. 65°35'N and long. 22°10'E). For this study, the city was divided into three different types of areas: housing areas, city centre and outskirts. In one area of each type, sampling sites were selected. Snow samples were taken at nine occasions, once every fourteenth day in the city centre and in the housing area. Analyses were carried out for pH, conductivity, suspended solids and both the total and dissolved concentration of phosphorus and selected metals. It was concluded that traffic or activities related to traffic were a major source of heavy metals and phosphorus in urban snow, both in the city centre and in the housing area. Also, the type of area and the design of the street were important for the quality of snow. A clear relation was found between the pH and the quantity of suspended solids in the snow. Higher pH values were found in snow samples from sites with higher traffic loads, and lower pH values at sites, which were the no-traffic sites, with small quantities of particles. The particulate and dissolved substances in the snow behaved in different ways.

  • 16.
    Wang, Yu
    et al.
    School of Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Lahti Center, School of Science and Technology, Aalto University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Kotro, Mikko
    Nordic Envicon Oy.
    Treatment of high ammonium-nitrogen wastewater from composting facilities by air stripping and catalytic oxidation2010In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 208, no 1-4, p. 259-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composting municipal wastewater sludge may generate composting wastewater (acid washer water and tunnel wastewater) with high ammonium-nitrogen (NH 4-N) concentration; this kind of wastewater is usually generated in a rather small daily amount. A procedure of air stripping with catalytic oxidation was developed and tested with pilot-scale and full-scale units for synthetic disposal of the high NH4-N wastewaters from composting facilities. In air stripping, around 90% NH4-N removal efficiency was reliably achieved with a maximum of 98%. A model to describe the stripping process efficiency was constructed, which can be used for process optimization. After catalytic oxidation, the concentrations in the outlet gas were acceptable for NH3, NOX, NO2, and N2O, but the NH3 and N2O concentrations limited the feasible loading range. The treatment costs were estimated in detail. The results indicate that air stripping with the catalytic oxidation process can be applied for wastewater treatment in composting facilities

  • 17. Westerlund, Camilla
    et al.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Transport of total suspended solids during snowmelt: influence by road salt, temperature and surface slope2008In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 192, no 1-4, p. 3-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the beginning of March 2006, polluted snow from a roadside in Luleå, in the north of Sweden, with a traffic intensity of approximately 7,400 vehicles per day, was collected. The snow was homogenously mixed and divided into samples of 30 litres. The initial volumes and densities of the snow samples were measured and calculated. The snow samples were melted in climate rooms, with four different experimental configurations, to investigate the influence of road salt, temperature, and surface slope upon the transport of total suspended solids (TSS) (three replicates for each experimental configuration). The total volume of snowmelt runoff was collected and analysed for pH, conductivity, and concentrations of TSS and chlorides. The results showed that measured concentrations, calculated mass loads, and performed statistical t-tests of TSS for the snowmelt of the four different configurations implied that the transported mass load of TSS was higher with the addition of road salt and at higher ambient temperatures. However, the results showed a lower mass load of transported TSS for the lower slope.

1 - 17 of 17
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf