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  • 1.
    Domaschuk, L.
    et al.
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.
    Shields, D.H.
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.
    Fransson, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Reactive soil pressures along pile in frozen sand1991Inngår i: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 174-194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A multistage, lateral, pile-load creep test is carried out in a frozen sand maintained at -3° C. The pile is a tubular pipe, 150 mm square and 1,800 mm long. A series of plate load cells is mounted along the primary bearing face of the pile. Application of lateral loads of 35, 65, and 115 kN result in attenuating creep, whereas a lateral load of 145 kN leads to accelerating creep. The immediate components of pile displacement increase approximately linearly with applied load, while the creep components increase exponentially. Generally, the soil reaction forces near the ground surface decrease as the result of pile creep, and those further down the pile increase. Moduli of horizontal subgrade reaction computed on the basis of the measured soil reaction forces and the pile displacement are found to vary with applied pressure and creep. Magnitudes based on immediate displacements range from 1 to 7.5 GN/m3, while those based on total displacements range from 0.3 to 2 GN/m3.

  • 2.
    Eigenbrod, K. Dieter
    et al.
    Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sheng, Daichao
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pore-water pressures in freezing and thawing fine-grained soils1996Inngår i: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 77-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory freezing tests were performed on laterally confined samples of lightly overconsolidated fine-grained soil exposed to one-dimensional freezing at a constant temperature gradient. Pore-water pressures and temperatures were measured at the perimeter of the specimens at various points along their height during freezing and thawing. Vertical heave and water inflow and outflow were also recorded in the sample. X-ray pictures were taken in order to correlate ice lens formation to the measured data. Of particular interest were occurrences of high pore-water pressures shortly after the freezing front had stabilized. Pore-water pressure peaks coincided typically with temperature peaks. Maximum negative pore-water pressures measured during freezing can be correlated to the compression observed in soft clay specimens subsequent to freezing and thawing, which is often called freeze-thaw consolidation. During early freezing, no heave was indicated in soft clay specimens even though numerous ice lenses had formed. No freeze-thaw-consolidation was recorded for stiff clay specimens with initial water contents near the plastic limit.

  • 3.
    Eppanapelli, Lavan Kumar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Casselgren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Wåhlin, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Estimation of specific surface area of snow based on density and multispectral infrared reflectanceInngår i: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a multiple regression method for predicting snow SSA based on multispectral reflectance and snow density. Multispectral near-IR reflectance from snow was measured at wavelengths 980 nm, 1,310 nm and 1,550 nm. In total, 16 different artificially prepared snow samples were investigated using two optical sensors, a spectrometer and a Road eye sensor. Both the sensors measured backscattered radiance from snow and measurements were carried out in a climate chamber.  Snow types with variations in physical properties such as grain distribution, surface texture, SSA, density and depth are considered. Variations in snow density were obtained through compaction and aging process. Correlation between the snow density and reflectance is investigated and influence of snow density and multispectral reflectance on snow SSA is also investigated. A generalized linear model is developed to predict the snow SSA with a coefficient of determination equal to 98\%. The preliminary validation of results show that the SSA can be accurately estimated from the density and multispectral reflectance. The model results indicate that the snow density has minor effect on the variations in snow SSA. Results suggest that snow with varying physical properties can be qualitatively characterized based on the presented approach, which is of interest for applications such as winter roads classification and pistes classification.  

  • 4.
    Eppanapelli, Lavan Kumar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Lintzen, Nina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Casselgren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Wåhlin, Johan
    Department of Civil and Transport Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Estimation of Liquid Water Content of Snow Surface by Spectral Reflectance2018Inngår i: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 32, nr 1, artikkel-id 05018001Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study measures the spectral reflectance from snow with known liquid water content (LWC) in a climate chamber using two optical sensors, a near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer and a Road eye sensor. The spectrometer measures the backscattered radiation in the wavelength range of 920–1,650 nm. The Road eye sensor was developed to monitor and classify winter roads based on reflected intensity measurements at wavelengths of 980, 1,310, and 1,550 nm. Results of the study suggest that the spectral reflectance from snow is inversely proportional to the LWC in snow. Based on the effect of LWC on the spectral reflectance, three optimum wavelength bands are selected in which snow with different LWCs is clearly distinguishable. A widely used remote sensing index known as the normalized difference water index (NDWI) is used to develop a method to estimate the surface LWC for a given snow pack. The derived NDWI values with respect to the known LWC in snow show that the NDWI is sensitive to the LWC in snow and that the NDWI and LWC are directly proportional. Based on this information, the NDWI is used to estimate the surface LWC in snow from measurements on a ski track using the Road eye sensor. The findings suggest that the presented method can be applied to estimate the surface LWC in order to classify snow conditions potentially for ski track and piste applications.

  • 5.
    Hanaeus, Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Division of Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University.
    Johansson, Erica
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Seasonal operation of ponds for chemical precipitation of wastewater2010Inngår i: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 98-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater precipitation ponds (fellingsdams) are conventional stabilization ponds adapted to cold climate by the use of chemical precipitation to attain sufficient removal efficiency of impurities, primarily phosphorus. The objective with this investigation was to study the influence of an interruption of the dosage of coagulant during summer periods at two fellingsdam systems (Orrviken and Lockne) in the middle of Sweden. The investigation took place over two years characterized by unusual precipitation conditions; 2001 was intense in precipitation whereas summer 2002 represented a dry season. The results showed that there is a potential to utilize the summer biological activity in fellingsdams. At Orrviken the effluent quality measured as organic matter and phosphorus in the effluent was just slightly above the values that were reached by chemical precipitation. At Lockne the performance was lower. The organic matter reduction at Orrviken in the summers of 2001 and 2002 were 71 and 67%, respectively, compared to previous years using precipitant when the average was 78%. At Lockne, however, the values in the summers of 2001 and 2002 were 36 and 18%, respectively, compared to previous years using precipitant when the average was 55%. The phosphorous reduction at Orrviken in the summers of 2001 and 2002 were 85 and 89%, respectively, compared to previous years using precipitant when the average was 95%; at the Lockne plant, the phosphorous reduction during the summers of 2001 and 2002 were 60 and 66%, respectively, compared to the previous years' average of 86%. The nitrogen reduction varied considerably over the two summer periods. The reduction at Orrviken was 13% in 2001 and 58% in 2002; the reduction at Lockne was 13% in 2001 and 33% in 2002. Reference values of nitrogen reduction during normal operations were not available

  • 6.
    Hedström, Annelie
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hanaeus, Jörgen
    Natural freezing, drying, and composting for treatment of septic sludge1999Inngår i: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 167-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A full-scale experimental plant intended for local treatment of septic sludge, situated in northern Sweden, is presented in this paper. The concept investigated included natural freezing, thawing, and drying in combination with composting. The experimental plant consisted of an undrained freezing-thawing-drying bed and a heat-insulated composter. About 500 L of fresh sludge, with a dry matter (DM) content of 4–5%, collected from a septic tank employed by one family, was transferred to the freezing-thawing-drying bed in the beginning of November 1996. During the winter months, the sludge froze and then thawed in the middle of May 1997. During a drying period of three weeks, the DM content increased from 10.6–21.3 to 25–95%. The final sludge volume and weight were 180 L and 54 kg, respectively. Approximate concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and total organic carbon of the dried sludge were determined to be 23, 5.9, and 346 g/kg DM. From June until the end of August, the sludge was cocomposted with kitchen refuse. Within two weeks, the composting temperature exceeded 65°C. The measured composting temperature indicated a high pathogen die-off, but before this concept can be suggested as an alternative to conventional septic sludge treatment, further studies should be conducted, including direct measurements of pathogens. The concept, however, has proved to be of interest in cold regions due to its simple construction and operation

  • 7.
    Hellström, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Natural sludge dewatering. II: Thawing-drying process in full-scale sludge freezing ditches1997Inngår i: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 15-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The thawing and drying process in full-scale sludge freezing ditches was studied. The ditches are located in northern Sweden. The treated sludge derived from a small wastewater-treatment plant with mechanical and chemical treatment. Due to the relatively warm winter of 1994–1995, it became possible to study the effect of incomplete freezing. The results show that frozen and thawed sludge has a porous and humus-like structure, whereas unfrozen sludge has a compact and smeary consistency. The study also shows that incomplete freezing decreases the dewaterability of the sludge, but that the result measured as solid content is satisfactory even if all the sludge is not well frozen. Moreover, the study indicates that the thawing depth could be estimated by a simple equation based on the number of positive degree-days.

  • 8.
    Hellström, Daniel
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Natural sludge dewatering. I: Combination of freezing, thawing, and drying as dewatering methods1997Inngår i: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 1-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A Swedish full-scale pilot plant employing all-year-round natural sewage sludge dewatering is presented in this paper. The treatment includes three different types of outdoor ditches: a freezing ditch for the winter months, a drying ditch for the early summer months, and a combined drying-freezing-thawing-drying (DFTD) ditch for sludge produced in late summer and early autumn. The test period included two consecutive winters. Complete freezing of the sludge was achieved in the first winter in contrast to the second when incomplete freezing of the sludge occurred due to an unusually warm winter. The dry matter content for the freezing ditch was, at the harvest in August, 30–70 of the first test year. The second test year yielded a sludge with a dry matter content of 20–40 in the freezing ditch. The final dry matter result for the DFTD ditch was 20–40. The summers included were similar to the extent that both late summers were unusually warm, helping to produce sludge of high final dry matter content. The first summer, being somewhat warmer and with a lower sludge loading, yielded a sludge of 60–90 dry matter in the drying ditch. The second summer, when the sludge load was approximately double the preceding year, resulted in a sludge of 20–60 dry matter.

  • 9.
    Lindhagen, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Low Temperature Strength and Notch Sensitivity of Glass Mat Polypropylene1997Inngår i: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 180-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature on the effects of lowered temperature on the toughness of random short fiber composites have neither offered a clear trend nor explained the mechanisms of failure. In this work, unnotched and notched strengths at room temperature and -30°C of two glass mat polypropylenes with different fiber architectures are investigated. Observations are explained based on models for Young's modulus and notch sensitivity. Increases in strength and stiffness with lowered temperature are caused by increased matrix modulus and yield stress. Fiber bridging operating in a damage zone of substantial length was the major toughening mechanism and forms the basis for the modeling approach for notch sensitivity. Increased notch toughness at low temperature is caused by increased work of fracture in the damage zone. The increased matrix modulus and yield stress lead to an increased toughening efficiency of short fibers.

  • 10.
    Lintzén, Nina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Danvind, Jonas
    Dept. of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Söderström, Erik Melin
    Peak Innovation, Östersund, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kajsa
    Dept. of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Skoglund, Per
    Dept. of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Laboratory Investigation of Different Insulating Materials Used for Snow Storage2019Inngår i: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 33, nr 4, artikkel-id 04019012Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Storage of snow has become of increasing interest for the winter business industry. Covering a pile of snow with an insulating material protects the snow from heat transfer from the surroundings and reduces the melting. Storing snow enables ski resorts to set an opening date, and it can also be used to secure winter sports events that are dependent on snow. Cover materials that are commonly used as insulation are wood-based materials, such as sawdust, and textile materials and sheets. How efficiently a cover material functions as thermal insulation depends on the material characteristics and thickness of the insulating layer. In this study, results from a laboratory experiment are presented, which aimed at comparing different commonly used cover materials, as well as some other materials that have not previously been used as thermal insulation on snow. Different layer thicknesses were also investigated. The results show that the insulating capacity of sawdust is reduced with time. Despite degrading insulating properties with time, sawdust is still considered one of the best materials to use as insulation on snow, and it is also more efficient than the textile materials investigated in this study. Doubling the textile layers or adding a three-dimensional (3D) spacer textile, which implies adding a layer of air between the textile and the snow, reduces the snow melting. Water absorption, water transport, and evaporation of water affect the melting. In this work, evaporative cooling did not prove to reduce melting; therefore, it was not evident whether a textile material should be permeable. An interesting material used in the study was Quartzene, which absorbed all the melt water and protected the snow most efficiently of the materials tested.

  • 11.
    Lintzén, Nina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Edeskär, Tommy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Uniaxial Strength and Deformation Properties of Machine-Made Snow2015Inngår i: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 29, nr 4, artikkel-id 4014020Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Snow as a construction material has been used for centuries, with igloos among the first examples. Each winter, snow and ice villages, buildings, and artwork are built in many places around the world. Machine-made snow manufactured by snow guns is commonly used for constructions made of snow. However, only a few basic studies on machine-made snow have been published. Knowledge based on experience and studies on natural snow constitute the basis for constructions made using snow and ice. Through material tests on machine-made snow used for construction, data on important physical and mechanical properties have been established that aim to improve and optimize safe constructions made from snow. Strength tests have been performed using two different qualities of machine-made snow. Specimens used for testing were cut out from one block of snow that had a coarse-grained structure with clusters of ice in the snow and from one block of snow with a fine-grained and homogeneous structure. The density for each tested snow sample was measured and strength tests were performed at different deformation rates to investigate the relationship between mechanical properties and deformation rate or strain rate. The load response curves achieved from the strength tests were used to evaluate compressive strength, Young’s modulus, and the residual modulus. The results show that compressive strength increases with increasing density. Increasing compressive strength with an increasing strain rate was also observed for fine-grained snow quality specimens, whereas no similar tendency was observed for coarse-grained snow. The residual modulus increased with an increasing strain rate up to a certain critical value for the fine-grained machine-made snow specimens. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether any dependence was observed between the calculated mechanical properties; no further relationship between the mechanical and the physical properties was noticed

  • 12.
    Mattsson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten. S-Group Solutions, Malmö.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Westerlund, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Ashley, Richard
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Impacts on rural wastewater systems in subarctic regions due to changes in inputs from households2018Inngår i: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 32, nr 1, artikkel-id 04017019Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of water-saving appliances and heat exchangers is becoming increasingly popular to decrease water consumption and recover energy from preheated water. However, such in-household changes can bring particular implications for subarctic rural areas, in terms of solids deposition in sewers and drops in performance of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), because these are already experiencing diminishing wastewater flows due to depopulation and seasonal dips in wastewater temperature resulting from infiltration into sewers. Hence, this study has considered two communities in Sweden, postulating three different cases with various scales of retrofitting and usage. The results indicate that the decrease in in-pipe velocities when all households are retrofitted with water-saving appliances could be counteracted by sewer relining, but not by the inclusion of a conventional estimate of infiltration. However, for the case in which retrofitting was combined with decreased usage of the appliances, the decrease in self-cleansing capacity could not be counteracted. The retrofitting of heat exchangers under shower trays in all households did not have a significant effect on treatment processes at the WWTP.

  • 13.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Modeling Urban Runoff from Rain-on-Snow Events with the U.S. EPA SWMM Model for Current and Future Climate Scenarios2018Inngår i: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 32, nr 1, artikkel-id 04017021Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A methodological study of modeling runoff from rain-on-snow events was conducted using the northern Swedish city of Kiruna as a test case, with respect to physiographic, drainage system, and the current and projected future climate data. Runoff simulations were carried out with the PCSWMM, which is a geographic information system (GIS) supported version of the U.S. EPA Storm Water Management Model (U.S. EPA SWMM5) developed by Computational Hydraulics International (CHI). In total, 177 simulations were run covering four scenario categories: eight rain events, three climates (the current and two projected), three soil infiltration rates, and five snow water equivalent (SWE) values. Simulation results were analyzed with respect to influential rainfall/snowmelt/runoff factors and the noted differences were statistically tested for significance. Result analysis revealed new findings concerning the differences between runoff generated by rain-on-snow and summer thunderstorm events. In particular, it was noted that a relatively frequent rain-on-snow event, with a return period of 1.4 year, caused fewer flooded nodes and surcharged pipes in the catchment sewer system, but almost five times greater runoff volume, when compared to the same drainage system performance indicators corresponding to a 10-year event occurring in the summer. Depending on the physical characteristics of the snow cover, among which the depth appears the most important, rainwater and snowmelt may be retained in, or released from, the snowpack, which acts as a dynamic reservoir controlling the generation and release of runoff. Smaller snow depths produce smaller volumes of melt, smaller storage capacity and less effective insulation of soils, which may freeze to greater depths and become practically impervious, until the process of soil thawing has been completed. The impacts of climate change in the study area, described by increases in precipitation and air temperatures, are likely to cause more frequent runoff problems attributed to the future rain-on-snow events. Even though the runoff tendencies reported here reflect the characteristics of the study area and climate, they suggest the need to consider rain-on-snow events in sewer design and storm water management in regions with seasonal snow covers, certainly with respect to runoff volumes.

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