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  • 1.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Bagcilar, Turkey.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis2018In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 512-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work. POLICY RELEVANCE The empirical basis for an egalitarian rule of equal emissions per capita in the design of global climate agreements is not solid; this supports the need to move beyond single allocation rules, and increase knowledge about the impacts of combined scenarios. However, even in the context of the 2015 Paris Agreement with its emphasis on voluntary contributions and ‘national circumstances’, different equity-based principles could serve as useful points of reference for how the remaining carbon budget should be allocated

  • 2.
    Bezabih, Mintewab
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Portsmouth.
    Chambwera, Muyeye
    International Institute for Environment and Development.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Climate change and total factor productivity in the Tanzanian economy2011In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 1289-1302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The economic impacts of climate-change-induced adjustments on the performance of the Tanzanian economy are analysed, using a countrywide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The effect of overall climate change on agricultural productivity (modelled as reduced land productivity) is projected to be relatively limited until about 2030, thereafter becoming worse. The simulation results indicate that despite the projected reduction in agricultural productivity, the negative impacts can potentially be quite limited. This is because the timescales involved, as well as the low starting point of the economy, leave ample room for factor substitutability and increased overall productivity. This indicates that policies that give farmers the opportunity to invest in autonomous climate adaptation, as well as those that improve the overall performance of the economy, can be as important in reducing the impacts of climate change in the economy as direct government policies for adaptation.

  • 3.
    Harring, N.
    et al.
    Centre for Collective Action Research (CeCAR), Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Centre for Collective Action Research (CeCAR), Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Centre for Collective Action Research (CeCAR), Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    The significance of political culture, economic context and instrument type for climate policy support: a cross-national study2019In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 636-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While many countries have pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the choice of national climate policy measures demonstrates widespread variation. Although system of government, path-dependency and economic entanglements can explain a certain amount of variation in policy choice, research also points specifically towards the highly politicized nature of climate policy instruments and their sensitivity to public support as explanatory factors for cross-national differences. Previous studies hypothesize that various country-specific contextual factors determine both general preferences for environmental protection and the public’s preferences for different types of policy instruments. One suggestion is that countries’ prevailing political cultures have significant consequences for such public support. Another supposition is that, since countries differ in their economic dependency on climate detrimental industry such as fossil fuel production, this should be a significant factor determining both public attitudes and subsequent political decisions. This paper applies unique, original data from four countries with significant variation in (i) political-cultural contexts (Sweden and Norway vs New Zealand and Australia and (ii) economic dependency (Norway and Australia vs Sweden and New Zealand) to analyze how, and to what extent, these two contextual variables interact with, and moderate, the effect of individual-level factors on support for climate policy measures in the four countries. Furthermore, the paper explores variations in support for different types of CO2 taxes (directed towards individual consumers, industry, and fossil-fuel producers) in the four countries. Key policy insights Across contexts, public policy support is lower for taxes directed towards private consumption than for taxes directed towards industry, and the strongest for CO2 taxes on fossil fuel producing industry. Political culture and economic context influence the effect of individual-level factors on policy support. In a context of high economic dependency on the fossil-fuel industry, people are less likely to support the introduction of CO2 taxes. The effect of left-right ideology on policy support is sensitive to political-cultural context.

  • 4.
    Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Martinsson, Johan
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Centre for Collective Action Research (CeCAR), University of Gothenburg.
    The impact of compensatory measures on public support for carbon taxation: an experimental study in Sweden2019In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 147-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at better understanding how, and to what extent, perceptions of a policy instrument’s distributional effects impact on policy support, focusing on the case of CO2 taxes on petrol in Sweden. Through a large-scale (N = 5000) randomized survey experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design, the extent to which perceptions of fairness determine attitudes to a suggested increase of the Swedish CO2 tax is explored. Furthermore, the study considers whether these effects change with the level of the suggested tax increase, as well as whether negative sentiments can be alleviated by combining it with a compensatory measure in the shape of a simultaneous income tax cut financed by the revenues from the tax increase. The results show that a higher tax increase is both viewed as more unfair and enjoys weaker support. Furthermore, compensatory measures can be a powerful policy design tool to increase perceptions of the policy as fair, but the effect of compensation on policy support is conditioned by the individual’s left–right ideological position. Whereas people self-identifying to the right react favourably to compensatory measures, people self-identifying to the left become less supportive of a tax increase when combined with a simultaneous cut in income taxes.

  • 5.
    Jernnäs, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Thematic Studies – Environmental Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Department of Thematic Studies – Environmental Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Duit, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Political Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cross-national patterns of governance mechanisms in nationally determined contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement2019In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 1239-1249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuous submission and scaling-up of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) constitutes a key feature of the Paris Agreement. In their NDCs, states propose governance mechanisms for implementation of climate action, in turn distinguishing appropriate roles for the state in climate governance. Clarity on Parties’ suggested roles for the state makes explicit assumptions on the premise of climate policy, in turn contributing to enhanced transparency in negotiations on the scaling-up of NDCs. This also speaks to ongoing debates on roles for the state in climate governance literature. This article identifies the governance mechanisms proposed by states in their NDCs and the roles for the state envisioned by those governance mechanisms, and also examines how cross-national patterns of roles for the state break or converge with conventional patterns of international politics. The analysis shows that states propose a plurality of roles, which to different extents may be complementary or conflictual. We conclude that income, region, and the Annexes under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are important for understanding suggested roles for the state, but that there are nuances to be further explored. We argue that this paper has three key findings: i) a majority of states rely on market mechanisms to implement their NDCs while rules on implementation and assessment of market mechanisms are still an outstanding issue in the negotiations, meaning that resolving this issue will be essential; ii) the process for evaluating and assessing qualitative governance mechanisms needs to be specified; and iii) increased awareness of differing views on the state’s roles makes explicit different perspectives on what constitutes an ambitious and legitimate contribution to combating climate change.

  • 6.
    Linde, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Political communication and public support for climate mitigation policies: a country-comparative perspective2018In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 543-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding under what conditions individuals are willing to support policies aimed at mitigating climate change has important consequences for the legitimacy, costs, effectiveness, and longevity of any policy alternative. Given the politicized nature of climate change, one factor that has been found to be important in explaining public support is partisan political communication. It has, for example, been shown how political communication has important effects on public beliefs and attitudes regarding climate change. A lack of country comparative studies, together with methodological limitations in previous research, has, however, led to a limited understanding of how these processes work, especially in a comparative perspective. In this paper, the effects of political communication on public support for climate mitigation, and the cross-country variations of these effects, is studied. Specifically, this paper investigates: (1) to what degree individual policy attitudes varies across party lines, (2) to what degree variations in policy attitudes can be explained by the effect of party cues, and (3) to what extent the effect of partisanship and political communication varies across political contexts. Using original data from a country comparative online public opinion survey covering Australia, New Zealand, Norway and Sweden political communication is found to significantly influence public policy attitudes in all contexts studied, albeit to different degrees.

  • 7.
    Lindman, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Voluntary citizen participation in carbon allowance markets: the role of norm-based motivation2013In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 680-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results from a semi-experimental study of Swedish students' stated willingness to purchase emission allowances for carbon dioxide are presented. Drawing heavily on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behaviour into neoclassical consumer theory, it is assumed that individuals have a preference for maintaining a self-image as a responsible (and thus norm-compliant) person. The results indicate that students' willingness to purchase carbon allowances is determined by both price and the presence of norms: those who feel personally responsible for contributing to reducing climate damages also appear more inclined to buy allowances. The empirical findings are consistent with the notion that a person's beliefs about others' stated willingness to purchase carbon allowances imply improvements in their own self-image and ultimately behavioural change. This suggests that information campaigns that attempt to influence beliefs about others' intentions could promote 'green' consumer behaviour in the carbon allowance market. Such (stated) behaviour also appears to be influenced by a person's awareness of the problem of climate change and their beliefs about their own ability to contribute to solving it. Policy relevance Although there is a concern that public goods such as reduced climate change may be under-provided in the free market, individual concern for the environment occasionally has profound impacts on consumer choice and voluntary action. This research suggests that information campaigns that attempt to influence beliefs about others' intentions could promote 'green' consumer behaviour in carbon allowance markets. Publicly-provided information about the impacts of climate change and the ways in which these damages stem from individual choices could also induce this type of behaviour

  • 8.
    Reid, Hannah
    et al.
    International Institute for Environment and Development.
    Sahlén, Linda
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    MacGregor, James
    International Institute for Environment and Development.
    Climate change impacts on Namibia’s natural resources and economy2008In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 452-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is likely to exacerbate the dry conditions already experienced in southern Africa. When rainfall does come, it is likely to be in bursts of greater intensity, leading to erosion and flood damage. However, these predictions have had very little influence on policy in southern African countries. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model simulations for Namibia indicate that over 20 years, annual losses to the Namibian economy could be up to 5% of GDP, due to the impact that climate change will have on its natural resources alone. This will affect the poorest people the most, with resulting constraints on employment opportunities and declining wages, especially for unskilled labour in rural areas. Namibia must take steps to ensure that all its policies and activities are ‘climate proofed’ and that it has a strategy to deal with displaced farmers and farm workers. The need to mainstream climate change into policies and planning is clear, and it is the responsibility of industrialized nations, who have largely created the problem of climate change, to help Namibia and other vulnerable countries cope with climate change impacts and plan for a climate-constrained future.

  • 9.
    Ren, Xin
    et al.
    UNFCCC Secretariat.
    Zeng, Lei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Zhou, Dadi
    Energy Research Institute.
    Sustainable energy development and climate change in China2005In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 185-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the national circumstances and major factors underpinning China's energy demand and supply, energy-related emissions, and consequently China's sustainable development. These factors include the huge, still growing, and aging population, rapid economic growth, ongoing industrialization and urbanization, environmental and health concerns at local, regional and global level. Against such background analysis, the article explores the potential and constraints of non-fossil fuel, fuel-switching to natural gas, economy restructuring and clean coal technology in mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and ensuring energy supply in China. The authors reiterate the importance of improving energy efficiency in China and discuss how to integrate renewable energy into rural development. The article concludes with an in-depth discussion about redefining development goals, the equity issue in climate change process, and the linkage with sustainable development.

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