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  • 1.
    Ahlborg, Helene
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Environmental Systems Analysis.
    Broäng, Frida
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Provision of electricity to African households: The importance of democracy and institutional quality2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 87, p. 125-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can differences in per capita household electricity consumption across African countries be understood? Based on theories that highlight the importance of democracy and institutional quality for provision of public goods, the aim of the paper is to analyse the degree to which the level of per capita household electricity consumption in African countries can be attributed to the countries’ democratic status and their institutional quality. We rely on regression analysis employing a pooled data set for 44 African countries over the time period 1996–2009. The analysis shows that democracy and institutional quality both have significant positive effects on per capita household consumption of electricity. Our results have implications for how energy sector reforms are promoted in developing countries. At a more general level they illustrate that institution-building policy efforts are relevant also in areas where contemporary debates have tended to primarily centre on economic development, financial prerequisites and ownership issues.

  • 2.
    Bai, Yang
    et al.
    School of Business, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, United States.
    Evaluating the Management of U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve during Oil disruptions2018In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 117, p. 25-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous countries have set up strategic petroleum reserves (SPRs) in response to oil disruptions since 1970. While numerous studies model such programs, we found few that evaluate SPRs' historical performance. Thus, we evaluate the U.S. SPR's performance by comparing actual real costs with estimated real benefits. From 1976 to 2014, the real U.S. SPR cost was about $219 billion real (2014$) dollars, whereas the real benefit was only $122 billion. Sensitivity testing suggests such negative net benefits are qualitatively robust. However, if world oil demand is extremely inelastic to oil price or GDP is elastic enough to oil price shocks, the estimated U.S. SPR net benefit is positive. Sensitivity testing around total real costs and benefits range from $380 billion to $80 billion. Limited testing of IEA coordinated drawdowns suggests that total U.S. benefits jump from $122 billion to more than $400 billion putting the SPR strongly in the black. Limited testing of private sector inventory changes was more disappointing and tentatively suggests private activities may at times have offset some of the government drawdowns. With 20-20 hindsight, initial experimentation found that better management could have significantly enhanced the value of the U.S. SPR, especially for the 1990-91 disruption.

  • 3. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Modeling technical change in energy system analysis: analyzing the introduction of learning-by-doing in bottom-up energy models2006In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 34, no 12, p. 1344-1356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview and a critical analysis of the recent literature on incorporating induced technical change in energy systems models. Special emphasis is put on surveying recent studies aimed at integrating learning-by-doing into bottom-up energy systems models through so-called learning curves, and on analyzing the relevance of learning curve analysis for understanding the process of innovation and technology diffusion in the energy sector. The survey indicates that this model work represents a major advance in energy research, and embeds important policy implications, not the least concerning the cost and the timing of environmental policies (including carbon emission constraints). However, bottom-up energy models with endogenous learning are also limited in their characterization of technology diffusion and innovation. While they provide a detailed account of technical options—which is absent in many top-down models—they also lack important aspects of diffusion behavior that are captured in top-down representations. For instance, they often fail in capturing strategic technology diffusion behavior in the energy sector as well as the energy sector's endogenous responses to policy, and they neglect important general equilibrium impacts (such as the opportunity cost of redirecting R&D support to the energy sector). Some suggestions on how innovation and diffusion modeling in bottom-up analysis can be improved are put forward.

  • 4.
    Blomberg, Jerry
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Henriksson, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Energy efficiency and policy in Swedish pulp and paper mills: a data envelopment analysis approach2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 42, p. 569-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper provides an empirical assessment of the electricity efficiency improvement potential in the Swedish pulp and paper industry by employing data envelopment analysis (DEA) and mill-specific input and output data for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005. The empirical results are discussed in relation to the reported outcomes of the Swedish voluntary energy efficiency programme PFE. The estimated electricity efficiency gap is relatively stable over the time period; it equals roughly 1 TWh per year for the sample mills and this is three times higher than the corresponding self-reported electricity savings in PFE. This result is largely a reflection of the fact that in the pulp and paper industry electricity efficiency improvements are typically embodied in the diffusion of new capital equipment, and there is a risk that some of the reported measures in PFE simply constitute an inefficient speed-up of capital turnover. The above does not preclude, though, that many other measures in PFE may have addressed some relevant market failures and barriers in the energy efficiency market. Overall the analysis suggests that future energy efficiency programs could plausibly be better targeted at explicitly promoting technological progress as well as at addressing the most important information and behaviour-related failures.

  • 5.
    Boräng, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Political Science and the Quality of Government Institute.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Povitkina, Marina
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, University of Gothenburg, Department of Political Science and the Quality of Government Institute.
    Political determinants of electricity provision in small island developing states2016In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 98, p. 725-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper approaches provision of affordable and reliable electricity in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) as a case of public good provision. It aims to contribute to our understanding of how regime type and the quality of implementing institutions within political systems affect the prerequisites for successful electrification in SIDS. More specifically, we analyse the independent and interdependent effects of level of democracy and control of corruption on per capita household electricity consumption in SIDS, using data from 34 SIDS over the period 1996–2009. The results show that although the independent effects of level of democracy and control of corruption are sensitive to model specification, these two factors do have an interdependent impact on per capita household electricity consumption: democratization has positive effects on provision of electricity to the general population only when there is a certain level of corruption control in place. The results imply a) that it is important for policy actors to acknowledge the interaction between regime type and the quality of implementing institutions, and b) when planning electrification projects in SIDS, it is necessary to have information about the social and political context in order to design the most effective projects.

  • 6.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Public and private attitudes towards “green” electricity: the case of Swedish wind power2005In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 33, no 13, p. 1677-1689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There exists a political goal in Sweden and elsewhere to increase the use of renewable energy and wind power seems to be a favourable choice from an environmental perspective. However, although the public generally expresses a positive attitude towards wind power, the experience often shows that specific wind power projects face resistance from the local population. This paper analyses the attitudes towards wind power among the electricity consumers as well as the foundations of these attitudes. Results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1000 Swedish house owners. According to the results, the public is generally positive towards wind power. The probability of finding an average individual in support of wind power decreases with age and income. People with an interest in environmental issues are, however, more likely to be positive towards wind power than the average respondent and the results do not support the NIMBY-hypothesis. In addition, people that are more inclined to express public preferences are also more likely to be positive towards wind electricity than people who are less inclined to do so. These results imply, for instance, that the potential of markets for “green” electricity may be limited, other support schemes is thus required if the politically stated goal to increase wind power capacity is to be fulfilled.

  • 7.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Department of Economics, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics.
    Johansson, Maria
    Lund University, Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment.
    Waldo, Åsa
    Lund University, Department of Sociology.
    Location of Swedish wind power — random or not?: A quantitative analysis of differences in installed wind power capacity across Swedish municipalities2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 58, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of installed wind power varies significantly across municipalities although the financial support for wind power production and the technology available is identical in all Swedish municipalities. This study analyses how local differences between municipalities, such as local wind prerequisites and socioeconomic conditions, might explain the establishment of wind power. The analysis is carried out for a cross section of Swedish municipalities. The time periods before and after 2006 are analyzed separately; and results reveal that the factors affecting wind power establishments are different between the two periods. In the later time period we found a statistically significant positive relationship between good wind resources and the presence of wind power as well as with the amount of wind energy installed. This result is consistent with the idea that the first wind power investments in Sweden were highly affected by individual wind energy enthusiasts, while in the more recent large-scale investments market-based judgments about future profitability may have become increasingly important. In addition, previous experience seems to be a factor that in itself facilitates additional future wind power establishments, thereby pointing to the role of accumulated institutional capacity.

  • 8. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The devil is in the details: household electricity saving behavior and the role of information2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 1578-1587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze Swedish households' willingness to increase their daily efforts to save electricity. The analysis builds on a broad theoretical framework, which embraces both economic and norm-based motivations in explaining household behavior. The paper pays particular attention to the role of information about the availability of different behavioral changes that can be undertaken at the household level. The empirical results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1200 Swedish households, and the econometric analysis is carried out within a so-called ordered probit framework. Our results indicate that costs, environmental attitudes and social interactions are all important determinants of electricity saving activities within Swedish households. We tested the hypothesis that information about available savings measures that is presented in a more concrete and specific way is more likely to affect (stated) behavior than is more general information, and the data collected support this notion. The paper ends by discussing some implications of these results for the design of future informative policy measures in the energy-efficiency field.

  • 9.
    Gawel, Erik
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Lehmann, Paul
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Purkus, Alexandra
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Witte, Katherina
    Leipzig University, Institute for Infrastructure and Resources Management.
    Rationales for technology-specific RES support and their relevance for German policy2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 102, p. 22p. 16-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve cost-effective RES-E deployment it is often argued that technology-neutral support schemes for renewables are indispensable. Against this background, RES-E support policies making widely use of technology differentiation in remuneration settings, e.g. across the EU, are frequently criticized from a theoretical point of view. However, in this paper we provide a systematic critique of the technology neutrality concept as a foundation for designing policy support schemes in the RES-E technology field. Specifically, the main objective of the paper is to scrutinize the arguments for technology-neutrality, and discuss three conceptual arguments for why technology-specific support schemes could in fact help minimize the societal costs of reaching future RES-E targets. We also briefly address different political economy concerns, which could constrain the choice of cost-effective policy support schemes, and that have to be taken into account for economic policy advice. For empirical illustration of the key arguments we refer to the case of German RES-E policy-making. The central conclusion from this paper is that technology-specific RES-E support schemes may generate significant economic benefits, particularly if technology markets work imperfectly and in second-best policy settings with additional non-internalized market failures.

  • 10.
    Gullberg, Monica
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Avdelningen Byggnadsteknik.
    Ilskog, Elisabeth
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Katyega, Maneno
    Tanzania Electric Supply Company Ltd.
    Kjellström, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Village electrification technologies: an evaluation of photovoltaic cells and compact fluorescent lamps and their applicability in rural villages based on a Tanzanian case study2005In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 33, no 10, p. 1287-1298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrification of remote sites in developing countries is often realised trough diesel generator sets and an electric distribution network. This was also the technology used in the village Urambo, where the first rural electrification co-operative in Tanzania was started in 1994. Climate change however calls for decreased fossil fuel combustion worldwide and new technologies have been further developed since the erection of the diesel generator sets in Urambo. It is therefore not obvious that electrification of other rural areas shall follow the Urambo example. In this article, the situation for 250 electricity consumers in Urambo will be demonstrated and the implications for them of introducing new technologies will be evaluated. Technology options regarded in the study are individual photovoltaic (PV) power systems and either incandescent lamps, tube lights or compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) supplied by diesel generation. The different options have been evaluated with respect to consumer costs and environmental impact. The results of the comparison show that PV generation is able to compete with diesel generation if combined with incandescent lamps, but not when tube lights or CFLs are used in the conventional supply system. It should be noted, however, that while the diesel option offer financially more attractive solutions, individual PV systems do not result in any CO2 emissions. Furthermore, PV systems normally have a higher reliability. However, since the diesel option is not only cheaper but also offers a wider range of energy services and facilitates, future connection to the national electric grid, the conclusion is that this is preferable before individual PV systems for communities similar to Urambo, if the consumers shall pay the full cost of the service.

  • 11.
    Hellmer, Stefan
    et al.
    Blekinge tekniska högskola.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    On the evaluation of market power and market dominance: the Nordic electricity market2009In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, no 8, p. 3235-3241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies different concentration and dominance measures using structural indexes used to initially screen the competitive situation in a market. The Nordic and Swedish electricity markets are used as the empirical cases. Market concentration issues in the Nordic electricity market in general and in Sweden in particular have been, at least in initial screenings, approached by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). This article uses an alternative measure to HHI, which is based on market shares of the two largest firms in the market. The results shows that only the Swedish wholesale market has a firm that can be regarded as dominant, but only during very short periods. The results from a hypothetical merger between the second and third largest company in the Swedish wholesale market shows that when the dominant position of the largest firm is reduced, by increasing the size of the second largest firm, the threshold value indicates that competition actually will increase (contradicting to the HHI).

  • 12.
    Henriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Industrial electricity demand and energy efficiency policy: The role of price changes and private R&D in the Swedish pulp and paper industry2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 47, p. 437-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to analyze electricity demand behaviour in the Swedish pulp and paper industry in the context of the increased interest in so-called voluntary energy efficiency programs. In these programs tax exemptions are granted if the participating firms carry out energy efficiency measures following an energy audit. We employ a panel data set of 19 pulp and paper firms, and estimate both the own- and cross-price elasticities of electricity demand as well as the impact of knowledge accumulation following private R&D on electricity use. The empirical results show that electricity use in the Swedish pulp and paper industry is relatively own-price insensitive, and the self-reported electricity savings following the voluntary so-called PFE program support the notion of important information asymmetries at the company level. However, the results display that already in a baseline setting pulp and paper firms tend to invest in private R&D that have electricity saving impacts, and our model simulations suggest that up to about one-third of the industry sector's self-reported electricity savings in PFE could be attributable to pure baseline effects. Future evaluations of voluntary energy efficiency programs must increasingly recognize the already existing incentives to reduce energy use in energy-intensive industries.

  • 13.
    Ilskog, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Kjellström, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    And then they lived sustainably ever after?: assessment of rural electrification cases by means of indicators2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 2674-2684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the current low level of access to electricity in developing countries is important for economic development and poverty eradication. Encouraging the involvement of new actors for implementation of rural electrification projects is a relatively new policy. At the same time, it is required that the projects contribute to sustainable development. It is therefore of interest to investigate whether, for instance, private sector involvement can contribute more to some aspects of sustainability than the conventional approach where rural electrification is the responsibility of a government utility. It seems that so far no studies have addressed this issue.This paper presents findings from field trips to seven rural electrification areas in Eastern and Southern Africa and shows how these studies can be used to illustrate different dimensions of sustainability by means of indicators.The field studies generated valuable experiences regarding collection of data for evaluation of the indicators and illustrate some difficulties associated with comparing the different aspects of sustainability.The evaluation indicates that the national utilities perform better from a social/ethical perspective, whereas the private organisations and the community-based organisations manage their client-relation issues in a more sustainable way.

  • 14.
    Ilskog, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Kjellström, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Gullberg, Monica
    Avdelningen Byggnadsteknik, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Katyega, Maneno
    Tanzania Electric Supply Company Ltd.
    Chambala, William
    Urambo Electric Consumers Cooperative Society.
    Electrification co-operatives bring new light to rural Tanzania2005In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 33, no 10, p. 1299-1307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One possibility to accelerate the progress of rural electrification in developing countries could be to form independent electrification co-operatives that are allowed to generate and distribute electric power and set their own tariffs. This approach has been successfully tried in the village Urambo, located about 80 km west of Tabora in Tanzania. The co-operative was formed in 1993 and started regular operation in 1994 with 67 consumers. The co-operative received initial financial support for rehabilitation of a diesel power plant and some other investments. The national utility TANESCO has provided technical support and training for operators and an accountant. Despite a tariff more than 15 times higher than in the nearby town Tabora that is served by TANESCO, the number of consumers in Urambo has been growing and reached 241 in October 2002. About 70% of the supplied electricity in 2002 was used by households, 15% in businesses, 12% in institutions and public buildings and approximately 3% for street lighting. The reliability of the supply has improved from 80% in 1994, to 97% during 2002. The experiences must be considered as very promising. Several more electrification co-operatives have been formed in Tanzania and are looking for financing for the necessary initial investments.

  • 15.
    Jaunky, Vishal
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Divergence in technical efficiency of electric utilities: evidence from the SAPP2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 62, p. 419-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the convergence pattern of technical efficiency of the South Africa Power Pool (SAPP) utilities over the period April 2003–March 2010 by means of parametric and non-parametric techniques. Technical efficiency scores are computed via both stochastic frontier analysis and data envelopment analysis. Mixed results are obtained from the neoclassical convergence approaches. In addition, distribution dynamics methods reveal some evidence of club-formation and this result is supported with the occurrence of γ-divergence. Taken as a whole, technical efficiency is found to diverge among the utilities operating in the power pool.

  • 16. Keikkala, Gudrun
    et al.
    Kask, Andrey
    Murmansk State Technical University.
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Malyshev, Vladimir
    Murmansk State University.
    Kotomkin, Viktor
    Kola Energy Efficiency Centre.
    Estimation of the potential for reduced greenhouse gas emission in north-east Russia: a comparison of energy use in mining, mineral processing and residential heating in Kiruna and Kirovsk-Apatity2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 1452-1463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy demand at Murmansk Oblast in North-East Russia is covered at 60% by fossil fuels and at 40% by electricity. This study estimates the potential for reduction of fossil fuel consumption and CO2-emissions at Murmansk Oblast. The study focus on the municipalities of Apatity and Kirovsk and the apatite ore mining company Apatit JSC . The potential for energy efficiency, reduced fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions is estimated by comparison with the of city Kiruna in Northern Sweden, with a climate similar to that of North-East Russia, and with the iron ore mining company LKAB. This study shows that the potential for reduced CO2-emissions is about 630,700 tons CO2 annually in the municipalities of Apatity and Kirovsk or 6.3 tons of CO2 per capita, Apatit JSC not included. These results applied on Murmansk Oblast gives a potential for reduced CO2-emissions of about 6 Mtons annually in the municipalities together. The specific energy consumption at Apatit JSC is 6-7 times per ton product compared to LKAB. The mining has 4 times higher specific energy consumption per ton raw ore compared to LKAB.

  • 17.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ahlgren, Erik O.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ancillary benefits of climate policy in a small open economy: the case of Sweden2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 4985-4998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is increasingly recognised that GHG reduction policies can have important ancillary benefits in the form of positive local and regional environmental impacts. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the domestic ancillary pollution benefits of climate policy in Sweden, and investigate how these are affected by different climate policy designs. The latter differ primarily in terms of how the country chooses to meet a specific target and where the necessary emission reductions take place. The analysis relies on simulations within the energy system optimisation model TIMES-Sweden, and focuses on four non-GHG pollutants: Nitrogen Oxides (NOX), Non Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOC), inhalable particles (PM2.5), and Sulphur dioxide (SO2). The simulations permit detailed assessments of the respective technology and fuel choices that underlie any net changes in the estimated ancillary effects. The results indicate that the ancillary benefits constitute a far from insignificant share of total system costs, and this share appears to be highest in the scenarios that entail the largest emission reductions domestically. This result reflects the fact that carbon dioxide emission reductions abroad also implies a lost opportunity of achieving substantial domestic welfare gain from the reductions of regional and local environmental pollutants

  • 18.
    MacGregor, James
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Determining an optimal strategy for energy investment in Kazakhstan2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 107, p. 210-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The economy of Kazakhstan is locked into reliance on fossil fuel energy sources. Its government is seeking to diversify and deliver sustainable development. We develop an approach to decision-making to support critical decisions over the necessary $67 billion in electricity investments to 2050 that can simultaneously contribute to a sustainable economy. We apply structured decision-making and cost-benefit analysis, align politically by incorporating the collective expertise of an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders to identify Policy Options, commercial assumptions and externalities, and fill data gaps using technical, economic and environmental data from global sources. Our approach quantifies net present value of these identified Policy Options, explores sensitivities, and suggests alternative investment pathway. Our results indicate policymakers should switch from coal and focus on harnessing the commercial and economic advantages of gas and hydropower for electricity generation. These options would be cheaper and have considerably lower emissions and water usage than the current production mix.

  • 19. Michanek, Gabriel
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Licensing of nuclear power plants: the case of Sweden in an international comparison2009In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, no 10, p. 4086-4097Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient power plant licensing procedures are essential for the functioning of deregulated electricity markets. The purpose of this paper is to review and analyse the licensing process for nuclear power plants in Sweden, and in part contrast the Swedish case with the corresponding approaches in a selection of other countries. This approach permits a discussion of how licensing processes can be altered and what the benefits and drawbacks of such changes are. The paper highlights and discusses a number of important legal issues and implications, including, for instance: (a) the role of political versus impartial decision-making bodies; (b) the tension between national policy goals and implementation at the local level; (c) public participation and access to justice; (d) consistency and clarity of the legal system; and (e) the introduction of license time limits.

  • 20.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Electric power oligopoly and suspicious minds: a critique of a recently approved merger2005In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 33, no 15, p. 2023-2036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the welfare effects of a proposed merger in the Swedish electric power market, using firm level data on power capacity. By using a simulation model we calculate the unilateral effects of the merger on the welfare effects for society. The merger is then evaluated, using a tacit collusion (coordinated effects) framework highlighting important features of the institutional setting. The latter mimics the methodology some European competition authorities use to evaluate mergers in oligopolistic settings, when it is obvious that it is joint dominance, not single dominance that may result. The results from our simulations suggest that in most cases the unilateral effects will decrease the welfare. The outcome of the qualitative elaboration using the tacit collusion framework basically confirms these results.

  • 21.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Red light for Green Paper: The EU policy on energy efficiency2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 540-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Green Paper on energy efficiency calls for action to decrease energy use and thus achieve increased competitiveness, fulfil the environmental targets and increase security of supply. In this comment, we examine the role the EU Commission suggest that energy efficiency, and policies supporting energy efficiency, takes. The policies and the suggestions are qualitatively elaborated upon in the light of the goal of a common European electricity market. We suggest that the rationales for the energy efficiency measures are weak, and that the suggested goals of increased competitiveness, environmental targets, and security of supply are best reached with the direct measures especially designed for each goal. Some of the energy efficiency measures may counter-act other direct policies. Further, The Green Paper measures may prove detrimental to the European Electricity market insofar as the policies suggested could lead to a policy fatigue among the electricity consumers.

  • 22.
    Pettersson, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Carbon pricing and the diffusion of renewable power generation in Eastern Europe: a linear programming approach2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 2412-2425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the costs for reducing CO2 emissions in the power-generating sectors in Croatia, the European part of Russia, Macedonia, Serbia and the Ukraine in 2020 by using a linear programming model. The model takes into account the impact of technology learning and is based on the underlying assumptions of the so-called RAINS model frequently used to assess the potential and the costs for reducing air pollution in Europe. The results based on an exogenously given 15 percent reduction target for CO2 emissions show that the marginal cost for switching from a carbon-intense fuel to either a low-carbon or to a renewable energy source differs significantly among the countries. The marginal costs range from 4 to 90€ per ton CO2, and are mainly due to country differences in the availability of renewables, existing technologies and costs. The results also indicate that although it is clear that the Eastern European countries are not homogeneous in terms of CO2 abatement potential and costs, no general conclusions can be made of the region. This may have important implications for future JI/CDM activities. For instance, risk factors such as policy uncertainty and institutional obstacles may become crucial in determining the future allocation of JI/CDM projects across the region.

  • 23.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Coal in Europe - implications of dismantled subsidies: Editor's introduction1995In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 481-482Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Elimination of West European coal subsidies: implications for coal production and coal imports1995In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 509-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expanding volumes of international coal supply can be secured in West European harbours at US$50-60 (1993) per tonne. In 1993, Western Europe produced 160 million tonnes of coal, but the cost was far above the import price. High subsidies are needed to keep the production viable. Removal of these subsidies will force a large part of the West European coal industry to close down. A cut of the current output by 91 million tonnes in the medium run, rising to 108 million in the longer run, can be anticipated in consequence of subsidy elimination. Even though coal usage in Western Europe could conceivably decline, as existing obligations to purchase domestic coal are removed, most of the cut production is likely to be replaced by foreign coal. A very large increase in West European coal imports can therefore be anticipated after a discontinuation of the region's coal protection policies.

  • 25.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    European natural gas: market forces will bring about competition in any case1999In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 17-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to analyze the emergent commercial forces that promote increasing competition in the European natural gas market. The paper begins by describing the traditional market organization, along with its monopolistic elements and inflexibilities. It goes on to illuminate the destabilizing frustration among producers with fast growing supply potential, caused by the limited growth in demand under prevailing market arrangements. Two emergent commercial forces promoting competition are then dealt with. The first is the increasingly widespread effort by large consumers to procure gas on improved terms by circumventing the national transmission companies. The important role played by Wingas in this respect is reviewed in detail. The second is the impending impact of the Interconnector, a gas pipe between the UK and the continent, which becomes operational during 1998. The paper argues that these commercial developments are undermining existing monopolies and will bring about increasing competition, even if the formal regulatory regime stays intact.

  • 26.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gas in Europe - the thrust for change1999In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 1-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Peak Oil and other threatening peaks: chimeras without substance2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 6566-6569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Peak Oil movement has widely spread its message about an impending peak in global oil production, caused by an inadequate resource base. On closer scrutiny, the underlying analysis is inconsistent, void of a theoretical foundation and without support in empirical observations. Global oil resources are huge and expanding, and pose no threat to continuing output growth within an extended time horizon. In contrast, temporary or prolonged supply crunches are indeed plausible, even likely, on account of growing resource nationalism denying access to efficient exploitation of the existing resource wealth.

  • 28.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Politics - not OPEC interventions - explain oil's extraordinary price history2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 46, p. 382-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oil prices in 2008–10, measured in constant money, were almost eight times the level of 1970–72. The prices of minerals and metals, another exhaustible resource group, increased by a mere 45% in the same period. The paper contends that the actions of OPEC, primarily production quotas, cannot account for this stark difference in price performance. Neither can the evolution of oil prices be rationalized by cost developments, for costs have remained far below the prices. The price evolution is better explained by capacity constraints caused by the inefficiency of state owned enterprises that dominate the oil industry since the 1970s, and that, additionally, have been deprived by their owners of financial resources to invest in capacity maintenance and growth. A capacity-destroying “resource curse” afflicting many oil producing nations, has been a further factor driving prices upwards.

  • 29.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The economics of biomass in industrialized countries: an overview1997In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 545-554Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass accounts for 3.5% of primary energy use in the OECD region, and 3.1% of final energy consumption. Biomass is the source of 14% of total heat produced in the region. Its role in electricity production (1.4% of total) is much less significant. Most biomass energy is consumed by households (wood burning) and paper pulp and wood industries. The political and public interest in expanded biomass use is based on the supposition that the external costs of this fuel are much smaller than those of coal, oil and gas. Comparison of full social costs are very hard to make, since uniform value measures of the respective external costs do not yet exist. The scattered and limited assessments that are available suggest that the difference between biomass and fossil fuels in this regard may have been exaggerated in policy debates, and may not be sufficient to warrant a large-scale expansion of biomass use.

  • 30.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The role of biomass in the energy systems of iIndustrialized countries: Editor's introduction1997In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 543-544Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    What will happen to the producer prices for fossil fuels if Kyoto is implemented?2002In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 357-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implementation of the Kyoto commitments will result in lesser global fossil fuel consumption in 2010 than would occur in the absence of climate policy. The paper explores how the consumption change resulting from climate policy implementation could affect the producer prices of fossil fuels. The conclusion is that the price impact will be insignificant if the climate policy goals are established credibly and in the near future, for that will give rationally behaving fossil fuel producers ample time to adjust production capacity to the changed outlook for future demand. It is argued that as long as capacity develops in line with demand, prices should remain the same. irrespective of the speed and direction of demand change.

  • 32.
    Schade, Jutta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Wallström, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lagerqvist, Ove
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    A comparative study of the design and construction process of energy efficient buildings in Germany and Sweden2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 58, p. 28-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the energy consumption of buildings is an important goal for the European Union. However, it is therefore of interest to investigate how different member states address these goals. Countries like Sweden and Germany have developed different strategies for energy conservation within the building sector. A longitudinal comparison between implemented energy conservation key policy instruments in Sweden and Germany and a survey regarding the management of energy requirements in the building process shows that:– No evidence is found that energy consumption is of great importance for producing competitive offers, either for Swedish or German clients.– The Swedish market-driven policy has not been as successful as the German regulation policy in decreasing the energy consumption of new buildings.– Building standards and regulations regarding energy performance affects how professionals are educated and the way energy requirements and demands are managed throughout the building process.In conclusion, the client's demand will govern the development of energy efficient buildings. Therefore, in order to use market-driven policies, the desired parameters must be of concern for the customer to influence the majority of building projects to be more energy efficient than is specified in national standards and regulations.

  • 33.
    Sundqvist, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    What causes the disparity of electricity externality estimates?2004In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 32, no 15, p. 1753-1766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an econometric meta-analysis of the disparity of results among a large sample of electricity externality studies. Most importantly, the analysis shows that parts of the disparity can be attributed to methodological differences; the abatement cost and top-down damage cost approaches tend to produce higher external cost estimates, ceteris paribus, than does the bottom-up damage cost approach. There are also systematical differences in magnitudes among fuels; as expected some of the fuels (i.e., coal and oil) have more adverse impacts than do the renewables (i.e., hydro, wind and solar). Furthermore, the studies that have addressed the full fuel cycle tend to produce higher externality estimates. However, the analysis carried out here is not sufficient to explain all of the variability in externality estimates. Thus, overall the results suggest that the possibility of making general policy decisions based on the studies carried out so far may be limited, implying that existing externality studies may have to be improved in order to become more useful for policy makers.

  • 34.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pioneering industry/municipal district heating collaboration in Sweden in the 1970s2018In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 112, p. 328-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to reach increased understanding of the potential obstacles and opportunities for industry/energy-company collaborations. This is achieved through exploring a pioneering collaboration regarding waste heat from a steelworks to a local district heating system in northern Sweden that was established in the 1970s. With a historical qualitative approach and focus on the long-term and dynamic explanatory factors behind the collaboration, the article complements previous studies typically focusing on barriers/drivers at the end of the process from idea to actual waste heat supplies (e.g., the allocation of costs among parties). From a long-term perspective, concerns over the actual waste heat supplies were found to be protracted and more critical. Hence, although the collaboration from start rested on firm beliefs of sufficient supplies, concerns over actual supplies remained critical throughout the 11-year long process. The article suggests that: a) market fluctuations and the industrial company's continuous strive for profit maximization tend to be underestimated in previous literature on obstacles to waste heat supplies; and b) targeted government subsidies could be an essential policy tool for promoting future waste heat collaborations, in turn resting on a mix of societal rationales (e.g., energy security, climate mitigation, regional development, etc.).

  • 35.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Harmonization of renewable electricity feed-in laws2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 946-953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This comment aims at critically analyzing some of the economic efficiency issues that are raised in the paper by Muñoz et al. [2007. Harmonization of renewable electricity feed-in laws in the European Union. Energy Policy 35, 3104-3114] on the harmonization of feed-in law schemes for renewable electricity in the European Union. We comment on the choice between green certificate systems and feed-in laws, but pay particular attention to the implementation and design of a harmonized feed-in law scheme. In the comment we argue first that the approach suggested by Muñoz et al. tends to downplay many of the practical difficulties in assessing the real costs facing investors in renewable electricity, not the least since the presence of regulatory uncertainty about the marginal costs of renewable electricity may be essential for the choice between different support systems. Concerning the benefit side of renewable electricity promotion, the Muñoz et al. (2007) paper builds on an interpretation of the EU Renewables Directive that provides plenty of room for national priorities and that therefore essentially implies that harmonized support premiums per se are of little value. We argue instead that a harmonized system should primarily address the international spillover effects from renewable electricity promotion, not the least those related to improved security of supply in Europe. There exists then a strong case for disregarding the specific national benefits of renewable electricity production in the design of harmonized support systems, and for instead considering international-perhaps at the start bilateral-policy support coordination based on entirely uniform support levels.

  • 36.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The effect of deregulation on US fossil fuel substitution in the generation of electricity: a comment on Dahl and Ko1999In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 495-499Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The political economy of international green certificate markets2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 2051-2062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the political economy of establishing bilateral trade in green certificate markets as one step towards harmonization of European green electricity support systems. We outline some of the economic principles of an integrated bilateral green certificates market, and then discuss a number of issues that are deemed to be critical for the effectiveness, stability and legitimacy of such a market. By drawing on some of the lessons of the fairly recent intentions to integrate a future green certificate market in Norway with the existing Swedish one, we highlight, exemplify and discuss some critical policy implementation and design issues. These include, for instance, the system's connection to climate policy targets, the role of other support schemes and the definition of what green electricity technologies should be included. Furthermore, the establishment of an international market presumes that the benefits of renewable power (e.g., its impacts on the environment, diversification of the power mix, self-sufficiency, etc.) are approached and valued from an international perspective rather than from a national one, thus implying lesser emphasis on, for instance, employment and regional development impacts. A bilateral green certificate system thus faces a number of important policy challenges, but at the same time it could provide important institutional learning effects that can be useful for future attempts aiming at achieving greater policy integration in the European renewable energy sector.

  • 38.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Climate policy and the social cost of power generation: impacts of the Swedish national emissions target2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 11, p. 4154-4158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the design of climate policy in a small open economy may affect the internalization of carbon-related external costs and ultimately the social choice between different power generation technologies. Empirically we focus on the Swedish case and analyze three climate policy regimes, out of which two represent different national goal formulations and thus compliance strategies. The results show that the social choice between power generation technologies in Sweden will be significantly influenced by the choice of climate policy regime. Most notably, if Sweden would abandon its present national target for carbon dioxide emissions and instead make full use of the country's participation in international emissions trading, natural gas-fired power would replace onshore wind power as the power generation source with the lowest social cost.

  • 39.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Offshore wind power policy and planning in Sweden2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 518-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to analyze the role of policy support schemes and planning systems for inducing offshore wind power development in Sweden. Specifically, it highlights the different types of economic, political and planning-related conditions that face offshore wind power investors in Sweden, and provides brief comparisons to the corresponding investment conditions in Denmark, Norway and the UK. The analysis shows that in Sweden existing policy incentives are generally too weak to promote a significant development of offshore wind power, and the paper provides a discussion about a number of political and economic aspects on the choice between different support schemes for offshore wind in the country. Swedish permitting and planning procedures, though, appear favorable to such a development, not the least in comparison to the corresponding processes in the other major offshore wind countries in Europe (e.g., the UK). On a general level the paper illustrates that the success and failure stories of national offshore wind policies and institutions cannot be easily transferred across country borders, and the analysis shows that both the political and the legal frameworks governing the investment situation for offshore wind farms in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK differ significantly.

  • 40.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Market opening and third party access in district heating networks2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 742-752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the possible effects of introducing TPA in district heating networks by identifying and scrutinizing a number of possible scenarios for increased competition. The analysis builds on a theoretical discussion of economic efficiency in district heating operations, and the possible impacts on consumer prices of a market opening. An important conclusion is that regulated TPA may have small positive effects on competition, and at the same time it can have a negative impact on the possibility to run the integrated district heating operations in a cost-effective manner. This conclusion stems in part from the observation that most district heating networks are local in scope. Moreover, district heating operations are highly interdependent in, for instance, that the level of the return temperature of the water will affect the efficiency of combined heat and power plants. For these reasons, the introduction of the so-called single-buyer model or, perhaps even more preferable, an extended and more transparent producer market could represent more efficient market designs. Moreover, in networks with clear natural monopoly characteristics an ex ante price regulation must be considered.

  • 41.
    Westholm, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala.
    The Nordic welfare model providing energy transition?: A political geography approach to the EU RES directive2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 50, p. 328-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Renewable Energy Strategy (RES) Directive requires that each member state obtain 20% of its energy supply from renewable sources by 2020. If fully implemented, this implies major changes in institutions, infrastructure, land use, and natural resource flows. This study applies a political geography perspective to explore the transition to renewable energy use in the heating and cooling segment of the Swedish energy system, 1980–2010. The Nordic welfare model, which developed mainly after the Second World War, required relatively uniform, standardized local and regional authorities functioning as implementation agents for national politics. Since 1980, the welfare orientation has gradually been complemented by competition politics promoting technological change, innovation, and entrepreneurship. This combination of welfare state organization and competition politics provided the dynamics necessary for energy transition, which occurred in a semi-public sphere of actors at various geographical scales. However, our analysis, suggest that this was partly an unintended policy outcome, since it was based on a welfare model with no significant energy aims. Our case study suggests that state organization plays a significant role, and that the EU RES Directive implementation will be uneven across Europe, reflecting various welfare models with different institutional pre-requisites for energy transition.

  • 42.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Defining geographic coal markets using price data and shipments data2005In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 33, no 17, p. 2216-2230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the importance of coal in world energy supply an analysis of the relevant geographic market is essential for consumers, producers, as well as for competition policy. The purpose of this paper is to define the relevant economic market for steam and coking coal, and to test the hypothesis of single world markets for these coal products. Methodologically the paper relies on two different tests for defining markets, using both shipments data and price data. The results from both methods point in the same direction. In the case of coking coal the results indicate that the market is essentially global in scope, and also that the market has become more integrated over time. The results for steam coal show that the market is more regional in scope, and there exist no clear tendencies of increased integration over time. One policy implication of the finding that the steam coal market is more regional in scope, and thus that the market boundary is smaller than if the market would have been international, is that a merger and acquisition in this market likely would have been of a more concern for antitrust authorities than the same activity on the coking coal market.

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