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  • 1.
    Baltrenas, P.
    et al.
    Vilnius Technical University, Lithuania.
    Serbenta, K.
    Vilnius Technical University, Lithuania.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Characteristics of the Workforce and Activity Optimization in the Building Industries of Lithuania1996Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 41-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Bao, Shihan
    et al.
    Washington State Department of Labor and Industries, Olympia, WA.
    Winkel, Jørgen
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders at workplaces in the People's Republic of China2000Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 61, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents 2 musculoskeletal disorders questionnaire surveys in 10 different Chinese occupational groups. Data collected from 1,603 workers using a modified Nordic musculoskeletal disorders symptom questionnaire showed that the 12-month prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, particularly in the low back and shoulder-neck regions, was high at many Chinese workplaces. Significant differences existed between occupational groups. Assembly workers usually had higher neck-shoulder complaints compared to workers in most other occupations. However, the nature of assembly seemed also to influence the prevalence rate. Workers at a cassette recorder and a TV set assembly plant appeared to have more neck complaints compared with a group of thermos flask assemblers.

  • 3. Berglund, Leif
    et al.
    Johansson, Maria
    Nygren, Magnus
    Samuelson, Björn
    Stenberg, Magnus
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Människa och teknik.
    Occupational accidents in Swedish construction trades2019Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to anazlye accidents occurring in the Swedish construction industry focusing specifically on the situation in the individual trades. The article includes all occupational accidents with at least one day of absence from work that were reported to the Swedish Social Insurance Agency for the year of 2016. The results, focusing on accident cause, injured body parts, as well as accidents per weekday, month and age, show that although the trades share commonalities regarding occupational accidents a number of trade-specific problem areas stand out. With this in mind, conclusions are drawn regarding the situation in each respective trade and suggestions are made for future studies focusing on accidents in construction industry trades.

  • 4.
    Blomkvist, Anna-Christin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Hypersensitivity to electricity in the office: symptoms and improvement1997Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 3, nr 3-4, s. 129-140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nineteen persons "hypersensitive" to electricity and 20 nonafflicted persons were studied for 1 1/2 years. The most discernible hypersensitivity symptoms were pricking sensations and redness in the face, but these symptoms were present in only half of the afflicted. Other symptoms were similar to symptoms experienced during office work and this study does not support the idea that electrosensitivity is one single syndrome. The "hypersensitive" persons improved significantly, mainly on neuropsychiatric symptoms, but the skin problems sustained--as did the belief about their cause. The afflicted persons used less conventional medication than the group of the nonafflicted, which suggests a general tendency for attribution to environmental factors.

  • 5.
    Blomkvist, Anna-Christina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Computer usage with cold hands: an experiment with pointing devices2000Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 429-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Computers are used in the outdoors and in connection with cold store work. Cold hand and fingers limit data input, as studied here. Six input devices; trackballs, pens, and a mouse were tested by 19 participants in a Fitts' target acquisition task with 2 target sizes under 2 experimental conditions; warm and cold right hand. Measures were acquisition times, number of errors, participant's preferences, and observed handling of the devices. Effects of device, target size, and cold were significant. Learning and attempts to improve handgrip were confirmed. Large enough targets, a thick pen, and a mouse make computer work practicable in the cold. Direct visual feedback, as with pen on template with target images, shortened acquisition times by half a second.

  • 6.
    Chaikumarn, Montakarn
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Differences in dentists' working postures when adopting proprioceptive derivation vs. conventional concept2005Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 441-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    New technologies and changes in dental care, including the proprioceptive derivation (Pd) concept, aimed at providing dentists with greater comfort and better health, were introduced in Thailand. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in dentists' working postures when adopting different work concepts: Pd and the conventional concept. The results showed differences in dentists' sitting posture, clock-related working positions, and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) scores. This implied that Pd helped dentists to discover new ways of positioning themselves, and working comfortably and effectively, which made it possible for them to adopt better working posture and have lower RULA scores. In conclusion, the Pd concept had a positive effect on dentists' working posture.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Chaikumarn, Montakarn
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Working conditions and dentists' attitude towards proprioceptive derivation2004Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 137-146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Proprioceptive derivation (Pd), a new method of organising a dentist workstation as well as a working procedure, was introduced to Thailand. The aim of this study was to assess the working conditions and the attitude to Pd among experienced users. Questionnaires were distributed among 12 dentists. The results showed that all dentists chose to work in a sitting posture and mostly worked without breaks between patients. They spent less time on dental examination and crown and bridge therapy tasks. Solving problems in patients with physical limitations resulted in a low stress level. Seven dentists (58.3%) always used Pd and liked it. Five dentists (41.7%) sometimes used Pd, with 3 of them liking it. Only 2 dentists, who sometimes used Pd, did not like it because it could not cover all dental tasks and treatment, and it was difficult and complex.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Choobineh, Alireza
    et al.
    School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.
    Lahmi, Mohammadali
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical.
    Hosseini, Mostafa
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Jazani, Reza Khani
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical.
    Workstation design in carpet hand-weaving operation: Guidelines for prevention of musculoskeletal disorders2004Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 411-424Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Carpet weavers suffer from musculoskeletal problems mainly attributed to poor working postures. Their posture is mostly constrained by the design of workstations. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of 2 design parameters (weaving height and seat type) on postural variables and subjective experience, and to develop guidelines for workstation adjustments. At an experimental workstation, 30 professional weavers worked in 9 different conditions. Working posture and weavers' perceptions were measured. It was shown that head, neck and shoulder postures were influenced by weaving height. Both design parameters influenced trunk and elbows postures. The determinant factor for weavers' perception on the neck, shoulders and elbows was found to be weaving height, and on the back and knees it was seat type. Based on the results, the following guidelines were developed: (a) weaving height should be adjusted to 20 cm above elbow height; (b) a 10º forward-sloping high seat is to be used at weaving workstations.

  • 9.
    Choobineh, Alireza
    et al.
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research.
    Lahmi, Mohammadali
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Jazani, Reza Khani
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research.
    Hosseini, Mostafa
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research.
    Musculoskeletal symptoms as related to ergonomic factors in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry and general guidelines for workstation design2004Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 157-168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Carpet weaving is a high risk occupation for developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The objectives of the present study, which was carried out in the Iranian hand-woven carpet industry, were determination of the prevalence of MSD symptoms, identification of major factors associated with MSD symptoms and development of guidelines for workstation design. 1,439 randomly selected weavers participated in this study. A questionnaire was used to collect data on MSD symptoms. The results revealed that the prevalence rates for symptoms in different body regions were high as compared to the general Iranian population (for neck, back and large joints, both p < .0001). The results of multivariate analyses showed that major ergonomic factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms were loom type, working posture, daily working time and seat type. Based on the results, some general guidelines for designing weaving workstations were developed. A prototype test showed that the new workstation was acceptable for subject tests and that it improved working posture.

  • 10.
    Choobineh, Alireza
    et al.
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Lahmi, Mohammadali
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research.
    Major health risk factors in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry2004Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 65-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the role and importance of small-scale industries together with the issue of occupational health problems and their causes in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry as a typical informal small-scale industry in an industrially developing country. The objective of this paper is to review health risk factors and related occupational health and ergonomic problems in the carpet industry. Since the overwhelming majority of weavers' health problems originate from ergonomic risk factors, it is concluded that any improvement program in this industry should focus on ergonomic aspects. To assess ergonomic conditions in weaving workshops, a checklist has been developed and an ergonomics index indicating the ergonomic conditions of the workshop has been proposed. To test and verify the checklist, 50 weaving workshops were visited and their ergonomic conditions were assessed. Based on the results some modifications were made and the checklist was shown to be an effective tool.

  • 11.
    Derlicka, Marta
    et al.
    Central Institute for Labour Protection, Warsaw, Department of Ergonomics.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Working conditions in small private enterprises in Poland2000Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 6, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study deals with working conditions in small private enterprises in Poland. Data come from 50 small enterprises from the Warsaw area. Information about the evaluation of working conditions and the existence of programmes for their improvement was gathered with the help of questionnaires addressed to employees and employers. The results constitute a "photograph" of the Polish reality at the beginning of its transition from planned to market economy. The study revealed a lack of programmes for the improvement of working conditions in a significant number of the enterprises studied as well as little interest in occupational safety on the part of employers (owners). The study also revealed that all decisions--including those about the improvement of working conditions--were made by employers. Hence, the need for the widest possible dissemination of knowledge on occupational safety and the protection of human in the working environment with particular stress put on employers. Employers who are knowledgeable in this field and who are aware of its importance can significantly influence the improvement of working conditions in small enterprises.

  • 12.
    Geng, Qiuqing
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Chen, F.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    National Institute for Working Life.
    The Effect of Protective Gloves on Manual Dexterity in the Cold Environments1997Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 3, nr 1-2, s. 15-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a study on the effect of different protective gloves (which are commercially available and commonly used in the cold) on manual dexterity in cold environments. The experiments compared statistically four different types of gloves and two different types of gloving (outer or double) at +19 degrees C and -10 degrees C. Performance was determined both objectively and subjectively using two manual dexterity tasks: bolt-nut and pick-up tasks. The response measured was the time of performing each task. Statistical analysis showed that all independent factors such as glove type, participant, object size, and temperature had significant effects on the hand cooling reaction. A significant difference in the performance between the gloves was found in the bolt-nut task. It was also found that outer-inner combination gloving may be an approach to use for precision tasks.

  • 13. Giedraityte, Lina
    et al.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Gavhed, Desiree
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Validation of methods for determination of metabolic rate in the Edholm scale and ISO 89962001Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 135-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to validate the Edholm scale (Edholm, 1966) and the ISO 8996 standard (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 1990) by comparing the metabolic rates estimated for both methods with the actual measured metabolic rate (MMeas) in 6 manual material handling tasks simulated under laboratory conditions. The metabolic rate was calculated from oxygen consumption VO2 (19 participants) according to Standard No. ISO 8996 (ISO, 1990). Additionally, the participants estimated perceived exertion using the Borg scale. The metabolic rates derived from the Edholm scale (MEdh) overestimated 5 of 6 activities by 34-50% (alpha = .05). The metabolic rates derived from ISO 8996 (MISO) overestimated all activities by 7-38% (alpha = .05).

  • 14.
    Helali, Faramarz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Using ergonomic checkpoints to support the participatory ergonomic intervention in an industrially developing country (IDC): a case study2009Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 325-337Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve ergonomics awareness in 3 subsidiary companies, an intervention team was formed. The aims of this study were to implement basic ergonomics through a participatory ergonomics intervention process that can support a continuous learning process and lead to an improvement in health and safety as well as in the work systems in the organization. The findings of this study (i.e., method, continuous learning and integration) were key to making the participatory ergonomics intervention successful. Furthermore, 4 issues of the ergonomics checkpoints (i.e., work schedules, work tasks, healthy work organization and learning) for assessing the work system were found suitable for both changing work schedules and for improving the work system. This paper describes the result of this project and also the experiences gained and the conclusions reached from using the International Labour Office's ergonomics checkpoints in the industries of industrially developing countries.

  • 15.
    Helali, Faramarz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Participatory ergonomics intervention in an industrially developing country: a case study2008Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 159-176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In industrially developing countries, a few ergonomists have directed great efforts towards developing ergonomics awareness among managers and workers in organizations. There is little research on the degree of their success, though. Furthermore, access of organizations to ergonomics knowledge is usually very difficult, especially in industrially developing countries. Thus, building ergonomics awareness is certainly the first phase of the process. Three companies from one industry (44 people: 14 females and 30 males) participated in a project aimed at improving their work system. At the beginning, we needed to create a common goal and ensure participation with appropriate ergonomics tools. The findings of this study were the key issue for the ergonomics intervention (i.e., a shared vision, awakened need of change and learning). Further, to build ergonomics awareness and develop a continuous learning process in the company, it was necessary to use more ergonomics tools through workers' participation in different workplaces

  • 16.
    Johansson, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Work environment and production development in Swedish manufacturing industry2010Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 375-386Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish manufacturing industry has previous held a leading position regarding the development of attractive industrial work environments, but increasing market competition has changed the possibilities to maintain the position. The purpose of this literature study is therefore to describe and analyze how Swedish manufacturing industry manages work environment and production development in the new millennium. The description and analysis is based on recently reported Swedish research and development. The gathered picture of how production systems generally are developed i Sweden strongly contrasts against the idealized theoretical and legal view of how production systems should be developed. Even if some of the researchers and authorities ambitions and demands may seem unrealistically high today, there still is a very large potential for improving the processes and tools for designing production systems and work environment.

  • 17.
    Khan, M. Shafiquzzaman
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Örjan
    Sundbäck, Ulrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Subjective annoyance response to diesel engine sound during idling conditions1996Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 16-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjective annoyance response to diesel engine sound during idling conditions was evaluated by 80 participants. Eight different sound spectra were presented to the participants at a constant level of 80 dB(A) in a paired comparison procedure. Stereo recorded sound stimuli were played back through a pair of loudspeakers in an anechoic room. Four objective parameters of loudness, sharpness, impulsiveness, and roughness were found to be the determining factors that cause subjective annoyance. An annoyance prediction model for the test stimuli of an idling diesel engine was developed on the basis of these factors. The objective parameters and their interactions have a significant effect on the annoyance prediction model. The spectral distribution indicated by test participants to be pleasant can be used as a basis for appropriate modification of engine sound. A single microphone measurement in free field conditions can be used to estimate objective parameters for defining the cause of annoyance.

  • 18.
    Kuklane, Kalev
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Afanasieva, Rallema
    Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Institute of Labour Medicine, Moscow.
    Burmistrova, Olga
    Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Institute of Labour Medicine, Moscow.
    Bessanova, Nina
    Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Institute of Labour Medicine, Moscow.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Determination of heat loss from the feet and insulation of the footwear1999Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 465-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compared the methods of determining the footwear insulation on human participants and the thermal foot model. Another purpose was to find the minimal number of measurement points on the human foot that is needed for insulation calculation. Bare foot was tested at 3 ambient temperatures on 6 participants. Three types of footwear were tested on 2 participants. The mean insulation for a bare foot obtained on the participant and model were similar. The insulation of warm footwear measured by the 2 methods was also similar. For thin footwear the insulation values from the participants were higher than those from the thermal model. The differences could be related to undefined physiological factors. Two points on foot can be enough to measure the insulation of footwear on human participants (r =.98). However, due to the big individual differences of humans, and good repeatability and simplicity of the thermal foot method, the latter should be preferred for testing.

  • 19.
    Kuklane, Kalev
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gao, Chuansi
    Lund University.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    Lund University.
    Giedraityte, Lina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Bröde, Peter
    Candas, Victor
    Hartog, Emiel den
    Meinander, Harriet
    Richards, Mark
    Havenith, George
    Calculation of clothing insulation by serial and parallel methods: effects on clothing choice by IREQ and thermal responses in the cold2007Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 103-116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold protective clothing was studied in 2 European Union projects. The objectives were (a) to examine different insulation calculation methods as measured on a manikin (serial or parallel), for the prediction of cold stress (IREQ); (b) to consider the effects of cold protective clothing on metabolic rate; (c) to evaluate the movement and wind correction of clothing insulation values. Tests were carried out on 8 subjects. The results showed the possibility of incorporating the effect of increases in metabolic rate values due to thick cold protective clothing into the IREQ model. Using the higher thermal insulation value from the serial method in the IREQ prediction, would lead to unacceptable cooling of the users. Thus, only the parallel insulation calculation method in EN 342:2004 should be used. The wind and motion correction equation (No. 2) gave realistic values for total resultant insulation; dynamic testing according to EN 342:2004 may be omitted.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Kuklane, Kalev
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Geng, Quiqing
    National Institue for Working Life.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    National Institue for Working Life.
    Effect of footwear insulation on thermal responses in the cold1998Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 137-152Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of footwear insulation on foot skin temperature in the cold at low activity was investigated. Simultaneously, the thermal and pain sensations, and the influence of steel toe cap were studied. Eight participants were exposed for 85 min to 3 environmental temperatures (+3, -12, and -25 degrees C) wearing 5 different boots. Insulation of footwear was determined with a thermal foot model. The study showed the importance of insulation for keeping feet warm. Other factors, such as wetness and vasomotor response, however, modified the thermal response. The most affected parts were toes and heels. Cold and pain sensations were connected with considerably lower temperatures in these local points. No significant differences were observed between boots with and without steel

  • 21.
    Kuklane, Kalev
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Effect of sweating on insulation of footwear1998Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 123-136Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to find out the influence of sweating on footwear insulation with a thermal foot model. Simultaneously, the influence of applied weight (35 kg), sock, and steel toe cap were studied. Water to 3 sweat glands was supplied with a pump at the rate of 10 g/hr in total. Four models of boots with steel toe caps were tested. The same models were manufactured also without steel toe. Sweating reduced footwear insulation 19-25% (30-37% in toes). During static conditions, only a minimal amount of sweat evaporated from boots. Weight affected sole insulation: Reduction depended on compressibility of sole material. The influence of steel toe varied with insulation. The method of thermal foot model appears to be a practical tool for footwear evaluation.

  • 22.
    Kuklane, Kalev
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Afanasieva, Rallema
    Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Institute of Labour Medicine, Moscow.
    A comparison of two methods of determining thermal properties of footwear1999Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 477-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present European Standard for footwear testing (Standard No. EN 344:1992; European Committee for Standardization [CEN], 1992) classifies footwear thermally by a temperature drop inside the footwear during 30 min at defined conditions. Today, other methods for footwear thermal testing are also available. The aim of this study was to compare EN 344:1992 with a thermal foot method. Six boots were tested according to both methods. Additional tests with modified standard tests were also carried out. The methods ranked the footwear in a similar way. However, the test according to standard EN 344:1992 is a pass-or-fail test, whereas data that is gained from the thermal foot method gives more information and allows further use in research and product development. A change of the present standard method is suggested.

  • 23. Kumar, Rupesh
    et al.
    Chaikumarn, Montakarn
    Lundberg, Jan
    Participatory ergonomics and an evaluation of a low-cost improvement effect on cleaners' working posture2005Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 203-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleaning is a highly physically demanding job with a high frequency of awkward postures and working environments as contributing risk factors. Participatory ergonomics is a method in which end-users take an active role in identifying risk factors and solutions. The aim of this study was to apply the participatory ergonomics method to identify cleaning problems and to evaluate the effect of a low-cost improvement on cleaners' working postures in an office environment. The results show that the cleaning problem was identified, and the low-cost ergonomics solution suggested by the cleaners was implemented. Thus an improved working environment reduced the number of awkward cleaning postures and the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS) action category for floor mopping decreased. It can be concluded that working in an improved environment can lead to better working postures which, in turn, leads to the cleaners' better health and better cleaning results.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Kumar, Rupesh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Kumar, Shrawan
    University of Edmonton.
    A comparison of muscular activities involved in the use of two different types of computer mouse2008Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 305-311Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two types of computer input devices, a conventional mouse and a roller bar one, were studied in terms of muscular activitiy in m. trapezius dexter, m. deltoideus anterior dexter and m. extensor digitorum dexter, and comfort rating. Fifteen university students and employees participated in this study. The order of the devices was random. While a task was performed, electromyography (EMG) data were recorded for each test. Muscular activity was found to be significantly lower for the roller bar mouse than for the conventional one. Comfort rating indicated there was a significant difference in moving a cursor with the conventional mouse compared to the roller bar one. It is concluded that a roller bar mouse allowed the subjects to work closer to the body compared to the conventional one, thus the former can be recommended as a general means of reducing upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders.

  • 25.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Toxicity of medical glove materials: a pilot study2005Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 131-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cytotoxicity of 14 glove materials representing 4 natural rubber latex, 6 synthetic rubber and 4 synthetic polymeric materials was evaluated using dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium (MTT), agar overlay and filter diffusion tests. Cell responses after contact with extracts of glove materials and contact with glove materials were assessed. One synthetic rubber glove (nitrile rubber) and 2 synthetic polymeric gloves (polyvinyl chloride)were non-toxic in all 3 tests, while 5 synthetic rubbers exhibited varying degrees of cytotoxicity, depending on the test. A severe cytotoxic response to both extracts of natural rubber latex materials and contact with natural rubber latex was verified in the 3 tests, indicating a need for consideration when selecting gloves, or other products, used in close skin contact.

  • 26. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Ruyter, I. Eystein
    Scandinavian Institute of Dental Materials, (NIOM), Haslum.
    Permeability of medical gloves to mono- and dimethacrylate monomers in dental restorative materials2002Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 497-509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental personnel manually handle methacrylate-based restorative materials, which can cause skin irritation and allergies. The protection given by different types of medical gloves is not well known. Breakthrough time (BTT, min) was used as a measure of protection according to a European standard, using 2 test mixtures consisting of respectively 3 and 5 monomers. Fourteen gloves representing natural rubber latex, synthetic rubber, and synthetic polymeric material were tested. The BTT ranged from some minutes to more than 2 hrs for the 4 monomers with a molecular mass less than 300. The longest protection was recorded for Nitra Touch (nitrile rubber), Tactylon (synthetic rubber), and Metin (PVC).

  • 27. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Ruyter, I. Eystein
    Scandinavian Institute of Dental Materials, (NIOM), Haslum.
    Resistance of medical gloves to permeation by methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethylene glocol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA)2003Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 289-299Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gloves afford hand protection by minimizing skin contact. The effectiveness of medical gloves to protect against permeation of the monomers, methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA), was assessed focusing on permeation rates and degradation of glove materials caused by monomer contact. Fifteen different brands of gloves were tested using a European Standard procedure. Surface images of glove materials before and after exposure to the monomer mixture were obtained using a scanning electron microscope. The standard is not applicable as the only method for estimating the safety of gloves, but it is useful as guideline together with the cumulative permeation of acrylic monomers. Monomer contact on the outside resulted in substantial swelling of most glove materials, and structure changes of the inside surface.

  • 28.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Amalgam in Dentistry. A Health Hazard for Dental Personnel?1997Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 3, nr 3-4, s. 151-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a cross sectional study done in 1993 among dental personnel in Norrbotten, self-reported prevalence of muscular pain, headache, tremor, insomnia, irritation, impaired memory, and depression, as well as information regarding different mercury exposures were collected. Mercury exposures were determined as "number of amalgam fillings in teeth", "years in practice", "insufficient ventilation at work", "total number of amalgam removed, produced and polished per day", and "working in dental clinics." As controls, physicians and nurses from the same geographical area were selected. The correlation between symptoms and different mercury exposures was calculated using logistic regression. The results suggested a higher prevalence of muscular fatigue and tremor for female dental personnel compared to controls. Controls reported a lower prevalence of symptoms with increasing number of amalgam fillings in teeth. There was no correlation between the number of amalgam fillings handled per day and symptoms for dental personnel. Male dental personnel associated muscular fatigue, headache, impaired memory, and depression with increased handling of amalgam in the clinic, whereas the female dental personnel associate the same symptoms with the number of amalgam fillings in teeth. The strongest correlation was found between symptoms and insufficient ventilation at dental clinics for dental personnel.

  • 29.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Evaluating the Potential Occupational Hazard of Handling Dental Polymer Products Using the HET-CAM Technique1999Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 43-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The irritation potencies of 8 dental polymer products, used as dental restorative materials, adhesives, or temporary constructions, were tested using the HET-CAM (hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane) technique. Liquid and powder components, and extracts of cured and freshly mixed non-cured materials of 5 glass ionomers, 1 bonding, 1 composite, and 1 cold-cured acrylate were examined. Results showed that the liquid component of all products had a strong irritation capacity but powder suspensions and extracts from cured, and freshly mixed non-cured materials had no effect on the CAM. Thus, dental personnel who handle liquid and powder manually are exposed to components with a high irritation potential, in contrast to patients who are exposed to the cured and mixed non-cured materials, with low irritation potential. This illustrates the importance of safe handling procedures and practices for dental personnel who handle non-cured polymers manually.

  • 30.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    The Correlation Between Symptoms, Frequent Use of Dental Polymers, and Evaluation of Health Risk1998Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 411-421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental personnel are at risk as they manually handle polymer products containing monomers and additives that cause irritation and induce allergy. Gloves and face masks can be easily penetrated by monomers. A total of 587 dental personnel and a referent group (585) in the 2 most northern regions of Sweden were included in a questionnaire study (response rate 76%). Questions were asked regarding symptoms of atopy, asthma, conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, hand dermatitis, and hay fever/rhinitis. The dental personnel were asked to give the name of polymer products used in their practice and the frequency of use. They were also asked to risk evaluate 5 different types of polymer materials on a scale from 1 to 5. Analysis was done to find if the occurrence of a symptom was associated with a high risk evaluation of a polymer material, or with frequent use of a certain polymer product. Significantly more dentists reported symptoms of atopic dermatitis and conjunctivitis compared to referents and chair assistants. Results show that dental personnel with symptoms risk evaluated most materials significantly higher than dental personnel without symptoms. Further, the occurrence of some symptoms was associated with frequent use of 8 polymer products.

  • 31. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Users' demands regarding dental safety glasses: combining a quantitative approach and grounded theory for the data analysis2001Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 49-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye infections are common among dentists and many are concerned, but few are using proper eye protection. To understand users' demands behind the low use of safety glasses, all dental teams in Sweden were asked which factors they found most important when choosing dental safety glasses, and rate the importance of 31 statements regarding ergonomic aspects of dental safety glasses in a questionnaire. Data were analysed using the Grounded Theory and a quantitative approach. Results showed that dentists ranked the visual aspects as most important and chair assistants the protective aspects. The highly visual demanding work performed by dentists requires safety glasses that are not yet available on the market, which might explain the low use.

  • 32.
    Motamedzade, Majid
    et al.
    Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Department of Occupational Health.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Kazemnejad, Anoushiravan
    Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Department of Biostatistics.
    Azar, Adel
    Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Department of Management.
    Karimi, Hossein
    Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Department of Physiotherapy.
    The impact of participatory ergonomics on working conditions, quality, and productivity2003Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 135-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A participatory ergonomics model was designed for improving working conditions, quality, and productivity in a medium-sized manufacturing enterprise by making use of a Supportive Expert Team (SET). In order to implement the model, a team-based structure consisting of a Steering Committee (SC) and 2 Action Groups (AGs) was designed and a 5-phase methodology followed. To validate the model, a similar factory was selected as control. Performance of the model was successful throughout the project. AGs under the supervision of the SC and the support of the SET designed and implemented several ergonomics solutions using local resources. Our findings showed that, in comparison with the control factory, application of such a model could be considered as a provider of a more humanized work environment as well as a more efficient and cost-effective approach

  • 33.
    Norman, Kerstin
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Toomingas, Allan
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Reliability of a questionnaire and an ergonomic checklist for assessing working conditions and health at call centres2006Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 53-68Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The purpose was to study the test-retest reliability and internal consistency of questions in a questionnaire concerning working conditions and health and the inter-rater reliability of observations and measurements according to an ergonomic checklist. Method. Fifty-seven operators participated in a retest questionnaire and 58 operators participated in an inter-observer test. Results. The questions had fair to good or higher reliability in 142 of the total of 312. Twenty-seven of the total of 44 variables in the ergonomic checklist were classified as having fair to good or higher reliability. Conclusions. About half of the questions had fair to good or higher reliability and can be recommended for further analyses. The majority of variables in the ergonomic checklist were classified as having fair to good or higher reliability. Low reliability does not necessarily indicate that the reliability of the test, per se, is low but may signify that the conditions measured vary over time or that the answers are aggregated in one part of the scale.

  • 34.
    Piamonte, D. Paul T.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The relevance of error analysis in graphical symbols evaluation1999Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 513-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In an increasing number of modern tools and devices, small graphical symbols appear simultaneously in sets as parts of the human-machine interfaces. The presence of each symbol can influence the other's recognizability and correct association to its intended referents. Thus, aside from correct associations, it is equally important to perform certain error analysis of the wrong answers, misses, confusions, and even lack of answers. This research aimed to show how such error analyses could be valuable in evaluating graphical symbols especially across potentially different user groups. The study tested 3 sets of icons representing 7 videophone functions. The methods involved parameters such as hits, confusions, missing values, and misses. The association tests showed similar hit rates of most symbols across the majority of the participant groups. However, exploring the error patterns helped detect differences in the graphical symbols' performances between participant groups, which otherwise seemed to have similar levels of recognition. These are very valuable not only in determining the symbols to be retained, replaced or re-designed, but also in formulating instructions and other aids in learning to use new products faster and more satisfactorily.

  • 35.
    Piedrahita, Hugo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Costs of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in developing countries: Colombia case2006Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 379-386Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The real burden of occupational diseases, specifically work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), and its impact on workers' productivity is not known. The situation is critical in developing countries where only cases that cause workers' disability are recorded. In this study, the incidence of MSDs in Colombia was estimated by using the age and gender specific double incidence rate of repetitive strain injuries diseases in Finland for 2002. The results showed that the estimated number of MSDs recorded in Colombia during 2005 was 23,477 cases at the rate of 11.6 cases per 10,000 workers. The estimated total cost of these MSD cases relative to workers' productivity was US $171.7 million, representing around 0.2% of Colombia's Gross Domestic Product for 2005. The systematic appraisal of the incidence of MSDs and their associated cost on workers' productivity are necessary in developing countries to reduce the costly impact on productivity and to increase workers' well-being.

  • 36.
    Quansah, Reginald
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Harmful postures and musculoskeletal symptoms among fish trimmers of a fish processing factory in Ghana: a preliminary investigation2005Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 181-190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated musculoskeletal symptoms among fish trimmers (skinners and polishers) in a fish processing factory in Ghana. The methods used included administration of questionnaire, walk through observation, interview, task analysis and future workshop. All 50 female participants answered and submitted their questionnaires. Of the 11 operations performed by skinners only 1 was rated as low risk. Also of the 12 operations performed by polishers only 2 were rated as low risk. Neck side bending, neck flexion, prolonged standing, shoulder elevation, abducted arms, repetitious reaching forward and wrist deviation were observed in most operations. This corresponds with questionnaire results in which musculoskeletal symptoms were mostly prevalent in the neck, the shoulder, the low back, the wrist/hand and the knee regions. There was no significant correlation (p < .05) between musculoskeletal symptoms and age, working hours and length of service. Task redesign, workplace changes and worker training were suggested to improve the work.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Quansah, Reginald
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Harmful postures and musculoskeletal symptoms among sanitation workers of a fish processing factory in Ghana: a preliminary investigation2005Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 171-180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated musculoskeletal symptoms among sanitation workers of a fish-processing factory. The methods used included administration of a questionnaire, walk through observation, interview, task analysis and future workshop. All 27 male participants answered and submitted their questionnaires. Of the 11 operations identified, all except one was considered safe. Bent back, bent legs, and heavy manual handling were observed to impose intolerable health risk on participants. This corresponds with questionnaire results in which musculoskeletal symptoms were mostly prevalent in the neck, the shoulder, the low back, the wrists/hands and the upper back regions. Poor psychosocial complaints were also made on the job. There was no significant correlation (p < .05) between musculoskeletal symptoms and age, working hours and length of service. Neither was any significant correlation observed (p < .05) between psychosocial work factors and musculoskeletal symptoms. Recommendations such as task redesign to eliminate high-risk elements in operations, workplace changes and worker training were suggested

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38. Skoglind-Öhman, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Assessment of future workshop's usefulness as an ergonomics tool2004Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 119-128Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was carried out to assess Future Workshop (FW) regarding its usefulness as a participatory ergonomics method, using a descriptive evaluation design analysed by phenomenographical approach. The study was conducted among professional cleaners, health care personnel and miners, with a sample of 105 participating subjects in 8 different FWs. Multiple methods, giving a combination of both qualitative and quantitative data, were used for data collection. Good involvement of participants was observed during workshops. Evaluations immediately after FWs and 3 months later showed a strong relationship with high correlation, indicating that the perception of FW participants was very positive. Interviews revealed conformity between developed problem identification and proposed changes. Participants' own perceptions of FW's influence on creativity depict their belief of developed ideas and solutions in order to identify and solve workplace problems. FW is considered to be a useful ergonomics tool, and its qualities are related to structure and practical performance.

  • 39.
    Wijaya, A.R.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Jönsson, P.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Örjan
    The effect of seat design on vibration comfort2003Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 193-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A field study was done to evaluate different seat designs in the aspect of minimizing vibration transmission and reducing the level of discomfort experienced by drivers subjected to transient vibration. Two seat designs (sliding or fixed in the horizontal direction) were compared in an experiment based on variation of sitting posture, speed, and type of obstacle. The comparison was done by assessing discomfort and perceived motion and by vibration measurement. Ten professional drivers were used as participants. Maximum Transient Vibration Value and Vibration Dose Value were used in the evaluation. The results showed that a sliding seat is superior in attenuating vibration containing transient vibration in the horizontal direction. It was also perceived as giving less overall and low back discomfort compared to a fixed seat.

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