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  • 1.
    Bremberg, Sven
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Gärling, Anita
    Hörnquist, Jan Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sellström, Eva
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Risk of childhood injury: predictors of mothers' perceptions2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 188-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: Safety education often targets parental risk perception. Predictors of risk perception, however, are not well known, thus limiting the feasibility of effective safety education. Accordingly, in this study, a range of predictors of maternal risk perception were examined. Methods: A random sample of 870 mothers in northern Sweden was included in the study. Three different questionnaires, with scenarios of a burn injury, a bicycle injury in the home environment, and a bicycle injury in traffic, were completed by the subjects. Multiple linear regression models tested the possible influence of causal attributions, normative beliefs, and sociodemographic and behaviour-related variables on mothers' risk perception. Results: Only 14-23% of the variance in mothers' risk perception could be explained by the multivariate models. Causal attribution to the child was found to be the most important predictor of maternal risk perception. Conclusion: Present theoretical models give few clues about how to design educational models that might influence risk perception. To make safety education more effective, other modifiable factors that influence parental safety behaviour, such as subjective norms and self-efficacy, might be better targets.

  • 2.
    Jensen, Jane
    et al.
    Umeå University, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Olsson, Lillemor Lundin
    Umeå University, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå university.
    Falls among frail older people in residential care2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 54-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: A prospective study was carried out to investigate the incidence, circumstances, and injuries from falls among frail older people living in three different types of Swedish residential care settings. METHODS: The settings were senior citizens' apartments, an old people's home, and a group dwelling for people with dementia. The falls were registered during the three-year study period on a semi-structured fall report, and injurious falls were categorized according to severity. RESULTS: In total 428 falls occurred among 121 residents. The incidence rate of falls at the group dwelling was twice the rates of the old people's home and senior citizens' apartments (4282 compared with 1709 and 2114 falls per 1000 person-years respectively). Some 27% of the falls occurred during the night (2100h to 0600h) and 28% were related to a visit to the lavatory. The presence of acute disease at the time of a fall was diagnosed in 23% of the falls. Some type of injury occurred in 118 falls (28%) and 36 of these (8%) led to moderate or serious injuries. In total 48 fractures were diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: In a preventive programme for falls and injuries in residential care settings, areas of particular interest should include falls after mealtimes and falls at night, conditions of acute diseases, rising up from sitting, walking, and activities in progress, especially visits to the lavatory.

  • 3.
    Karlqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Health-promoting educational interventions: A one-year follow-up study2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 32-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the effects of health-promoting educational interventions among employees in a municipality in Sweden. Methods: A randomized controlled educational intervention study was performed with 340 employees. Supervisors and workplace champions took part in two separate educational programmes with focus on health promotion. Intervention groups were teams of supervisors, teams of workplace champions and a mixed group (supervisors and workplace champions). The control group did not take part in any of the activities. Evaluations with physical fitness tests and a self-administrated questionnaire were performed twice. Focus group discussions were held. Results: All groups raised their physical fitness level from baseline to follow-up. Females in the supervisor group had increased their mean maximal oxygen uptake from 32.0 mlO2/kg*min to 34.9 mlO2/kg*min which was more than the others. Supervisors had reached increased knowledge within the area ‘organizational factors’ and behavioural changes had been obtained within the area ‘life-style’. Workplace champions working together with their supervisors had an easier and more motivated situation than workplace champions working by themselves. Conclusions: Coaching supervisors as well as the mixed group seemed to improve the intervention of health promotion most and should be continued.

  • 4.
    Romé, Åsa
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Lund University.
    Persson, Ulf
    Swedish Institute for Health Economics (IHE).
    Ekdahl, Charlotte
    Department of Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Lund University.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Physical activity on prescription (PAP): costs and consequences of a randomized, controlled trial in primary health care2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 216-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse costs and consequences of changing physical activity behaviour due to the "Physical Activity on Prescription" (PAP) programme. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial with a four-month intervention, with comparison between intervention and control group. Intervention. The PAP programme, with exercise twice a week, education, and motivational counselling. SUBJECTS: 525 sedentary individuals, 20-80 years (intervention group n = 268, control group n = 257), with lifestyle-related health problems. A total of 245 returned for the four-month assessment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Programme costs based on intention-to-treat estimations, direct and indirect costs of inactivity, and physical activity behaviour analysed with IPAQ (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), self-reported physical activity, and measures of functional capacity. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat programme costs for the four-month programme period was SEK (Swedish Kronor) 6475 (euro [Euro] 684) for the intervention group and SEK 3038 (euro 321) for the control group. Of this, healthcare providers' costs were 24% in the intervention group, and 31% in the control group. The physical activity behaviour was significantly improved in both groups, but no differences were found between the groups. Implications. The largest share of the PAP programme costs was the participants' costs. Significant improvements were shown in physical activity behaviour in both groups, but no differences were found between the intervention and control groups. Due to many non-completers, the potential for improvements of the motivating assignment with sedentary individuals in primary healthcare is obvious. Long-term follow-up can determine the sustainability of the results, and can be used in a future cost-effectiveness analysis.

  • 5.
    Romé, Åsa
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Lund University.
    Persson, Ulf
    Swedish Institute for Health Economics (IHE).
    Ekdahl, Charlotte
    Department of Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Lund University.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Willingness to pay for health improvements of physical activity on prescription2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 151-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To estimate the willingness to pay for health improvements among participants in the programme ‘‘Physical Activity on Prescription''. The objective was also to examine predictors such as income, education level, health status, activity level and BMI, differences for long- and short-term health effects of physical activity and differences between a high- and low-intensity activity group. Methods: Willingness to pay (WTP) data were collected alongside a randomized, controlled trial in Sweden 2007, and 128 sedentary individuals, 20-80 years old (intervention/high-intensity group n = 71, control/low-intensity group n = 57), with lifestyle-related health problems answered open-ended questions in this contingent valuation study. Results: The highest mean WTP (59/SEK 552) was stated for an immediate health improvement, but no significant differences compared with long-term health improvements. The high-intensity group showed higher WTP-values for all health improvements, but without significant differences compared with a low-intensity group. Regression analyses show strong associations between a higher level of education and the WTP for improved well-being and improved health, and also between income and the WTP for improved well-being. There are significant correlations between the WTP and the variables BMI, income and education level, as expected from economic theories. Conclusions: The willingness to pay for the health improvements of exercise is influenced by a higher education level, income and BMI. The highest WTP for a health outcome of physical activity is for an immediate health improvement. The results of this randomized controlled trial in primary health care may be of interest to decision makers when evaluating different approaches to promoting physical activity among people who are sedentary.

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