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  • 1.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ergonomics assessment of selected dust respirators: their use in the tropics1987In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 266-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The suitability and effectiveness of four different types of British made respirators were studied with respect to comfort, convenience and fit on wearers in Sri Lanka (a developing country). Objective and subjective assessments were made to evaluate the degree of discomfort and interferences to the use of senses. The study revealed that factors such as breathing resistance, work-rate and activity period affected the physiological responses. The weight of the respirator and the skin temperature had no direct relationship with the cardiovascular stress. Positive-pressure respirators that gave lower face temperatures than negative-pressure masks gave this type of respirator an additional advantage in hot environments. Respirators that restricted jaw movement affected the speech intelligibility of the wearer. Orinasal masks restricted vision more than the other types. The problem of fit was found negligible though head and face dimensions significantly differed between the British and the Sri Lankans. Subjective assessment correlated well with objective tests.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Production economics analysis of investment initiated to improve working environment2000In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the results of an evaluation of a new work place for ladle preparation at Swedish Steel in Luleå, Sweden. The company initiated a development project related to ladle service work, in order to come to grips with the difficult working environment and problems associated with absenteeism due to illness and occupational injuries. The evaluation was performed for the first three years after implementation of the project and it shows that the new work place considerably improved working conditions and increased both the quality and efficiency of production. The purpose of this article is also to discuss some methodological problems. The follow-up of the various changes in working environment and personnel statistics was fairly simple to carry out. But in terms of production effects, the company's in-house production follow-up system proved to be too unspecified and oversimplified. It was also difficult to decide which changes should count as effects of the new work place and to value these in monetary terms. The profitability calculation shows that an investment initiated to improve the working environment can yield good profitability.

  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Restoring the order: gender segregation as an obstacle to organisational development2002In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 549-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper raises questions about the links between gender and organisational changes. The empirical base for the discussion is a qualitative study of the effects of organisational changes in the pulp and paper industry, the electronics industry, the food industry and the laundry industry in Sweden during the mid-1990s. At the studied companies, restoration responses in the work organisations brought the organisation back into its original form and function. The study shows that gender exerts an influence both on the existing work organisation and in the organisational change. The modern organisation, with its focus on integration and decentralisation, challenges the gender order, which is a strong system, built on segregation and hierarchy. The conclusion from the study is that gender segregating and stereotypic gender-coding of workplaces and work tasks were strong restoring mechanisms and obstacles to strategic organisational changes.

  • 4.
    Bao, Shihan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Winkel, Jørgen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ergonomic effects of a management-based rationalization in assembly work: A case study1996In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 89-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to unsatisfactory productivity, a large company in the Swedish manufacturing industry decided to rationalize their assembly system. The intended rationalization comprised several changes with deliberate ergonomic implications. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the rationalization on the physical work load of the operators. The work load was assessed before and after the changes using expert observations, company records and direct technical measurements. The results indicate that the intervention led to only minor changes in muscle load, body postures and movement patterns. Several of the planned initiatives were never implemented, e.g. teaching the workers multiple skills and designing work stations at which a major part of the assembly sequence could be performed. This was mainly due to a policy revision caused by changes in the market situation. In spite of the company's original intentions, the revised production system contained only minor ergonomic improvements. Thus, the realization of the ergonomic potential in a rationalization seems to depend on management culture, as well as factors outside the company.

  • 5.
    Bao, Shihan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ergonomics in the developing world: The promises and problems of ergonomics application in the Peoples Republic of China1989In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 287-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergonomics or human factors, as an applied science concerning the design of interfaces between man, machine and the working environment, has shown its great capacities and potentials for improving working conditions and efficiency during its applications in most industrially developed countries (IC). As a means of improving the economy, industrialisation has been initiated in many industrially developing countries (DC). Knowledge and technology available in ICs have been transferred to DCs in order to increase the process of industrialisation. Ergonomics as a western discipline has also been transferred to many DCs during the technology transfer process. As an example of the transfer and development of ergonomics in industrially developing countries, this paper examines the development of ergonomics and its various areas of application in the People's Republic of China. After reviewing the current ergonomics situation and its applications in China from various points of view - i e, from organisation, research, education and industrial application - promises and problems associatd with the development of this new area of science are discussed.

  • 6. Bergquist, Karin
    et al.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    A method for dynamic measurement of the resistance to dry heat exchange by footwear1997In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 28, no 5-6, p. 383-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five different types of cold protective footwear have been tested with regard to their resistance to dry heat loss (i.e. the insulation) with a new electrically heated foot model. The model is able to simulate ‘walking' movements in order to provide a more realistic simulation of wear conditions. Thermal insulation of shoes with and without a steel toe cap was the same. The insulating properties during simulated walking movements were 10-25% lower compared with static conditions. For two of the shoe models a significantly lower insulation value for the sole area was obtained when adding a weight of 30 kg. A significant difference could also be found between the insulation values of two different sizes of one of the models. Measurements with the standard method (EN 344) correlated well with the local insulation value of the sole part of the thermal foot. Correlation with the insulation value for the whole shoe was much less, variation was bigger and ranking in terms of cold protection differed between methods. The electrically heated foot model appears to provide a reproducible, accurate and more realistic method for measuring the insulation properties of shoes than EN 344.

  • 7.
    Blomkvist, Anna-Christina
    et al.
    University of Lulea, Department of Human Work Science.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Computer use in cold environments2000In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 239-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses computer work in cold environments with the two-fold aim to explore conditions for such work, and to add knowledge about the use of fingers at data entry in the cold. Five workplaces were visited and work contents and use of computers are briefly described. Effects of work in the cold were in line with those mentioned in the literature, and manual lifting of heavy goods the most impairing activity. Subjects contended with strenuous working postures--holding the computers in their hands or arms--and with cold fingers. Individual fingering for data input was noted. Forefinger or a pen were used, and a pen is recommendable for input, either as a touch pen or, simply to press the keys. A supportive rack could be recommended for portable workstations.

  • 8. Broström, Robert
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS).
    Correlation between safety assessments in the driver-car interaction design process2011In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 575-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the functional revolution in modern cars, evaluation methods to be used in all phases of driver-car interaction design have gained importance. It is crucial for car manufacturers to discover and solve safety issues early in the interaction design process. A current problem is thus to find a correlation between the formative methods that are used during development and the summative methods that are used when the product has reached the customer. This paper investigates the correlation between efficiency metrics from summative and formative evaluations, where the results of two studies on sound and navigation system tasks are compared. The first, an analysis of the J.D. Power and Associates APEAL survey, consists of answers given by about two thousand customers. The second, an expert evaluation study, was done by six evaluators who assessed the layouts by task completion time, TLX and Nielsen heuristics. The results show a high degree of correlation between the studies in terms of task efficiency, i.e. between customer ratings and task completion time, and customer ratings and TLX. However, no correlation was observed between Nielsen heuristics and customer ratings, task completion time or TLX. The results of the studies introduce a possibility to develop a usability evaluation framework that includes both formative and summative approaches, as the results show a high degree of consistency between the different methodologies. Hence, combining a quantitative approach with the expert evaluation method, such as task completion time, should be more useful for driver-car interaction design.

  • 9.
    Dahlberg, Raymond
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Karlqvist, Lena
    Bildt, Carina
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Nykvist, Karin
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Do work technique and musculoskeletal symptoms differ between men and women performing the same type of work tasks?2004In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 521-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Musculoskeletal disorders are more common among women than among men. When comparing the difference between men and women in the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, methodological problems arise as men and women seldom perform the same type of activities, neither at work nor at home.The main objective of this cross-sectional case study was to compare work technique and self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms between men and women performing the same type of work tasks within a metal industry. Other factors, such as leisure activities, were also taken into consideration. Three data collection methods were used; questionnaire, interviews and systematic observations. The results from the observations revealed that women worked more frequently and during longer times with their hands above shoulder height than men. Working with hands above shoulder height is considered a risk factor for neck and shoulder disorders according to previous studies. Workplace design factors were probably a reason for differences in working technique between men and women. A higher proportion of women than men reported shoulder symptoms. Women spent more time on household activities than men, which indicates a higher total workload in paid and unpaid work.

  • 10.
    Davidsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Context adaptable driver information: Or, what do whom need and want when?2014In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 994-1002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with a first step towards context adaptive functionality of a Driver Information System.Driving a car is a complex task for which the driver needs appropriate information to fulfil his or her goals. New technologies enable adaptability to driver state, task, personality etcetera and also to the context.The aim of this study was therefore to investigate what information people perceive that they need and want from the car in different contexts and to what extent there is consensus about the function. A new methodology was developed, and 33 private car drivers were interviewed and asked to rate a number of possible abstract functions in a car in different contexts.It was shown that people need and want different types of information in different contexts. It was furthermore indicated that there is sometimes a difference in drivers' opinions about what should be presented by the car and that there is varying consensus over different functions in different contexts. The rating result was illustrated by an easily perceived Context Function Matrix. The results may be used in the design of a context adaptive driver information system.

  • 11.
    Fransson-Hall, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karolinska Hospital and Institute, Departments of Epidemiology/IMM, Occupational Health, Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine,.
    Gloria, Robert
    Karolinska Hospital and Institute, Departments of Epidemiology/IMM, Occupational Health, Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine,.
    Kilbom, Åsa
    Karolinska Hospital and Institute, Departments of Epidemiology/IMM, Occupational Health, Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine,.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Divisions of Applied Work Physiology.
    Karlqvist, Lena
    Wiktorin, Christina
    Karolinska Hospital and Institute, Departments of Epidemiology/IMM, Occupational Health, Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine,.
    A portable ergonomic observation method (PEO) for computerized on-line recording of postures and manual handling1995In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 93-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new portable ergonomic observation method (PEO) is presented. It is applicable to most professions and work tasks and requires only moderate human resources for data collection and analysis. Observations are made in real time directly at the workplace using a portable personal or hand-held computer, and data are accessible for immediate analysis and presentation. Duration and number of events are calculated for postures at four body regions (arms, neck, trunk and knee) as well as for manual handling. An evaluation of the PEO method, assessing some important aspects of internal validity as well as intra- and inter-observer reliability, was carried out using video recordings. It showed acceptable validity for some types of physical exposure, and high intra- and inter-observer reliability. Practical experiences from using the PEO method in a field study and further improvements of the method are discussed.

  • 12.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Assessment of anti-slip devices from healthy individuals in different ages walking on slippery surfaces2006In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 177-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest for effective preventive strategies for slips and falls is growing. Much remains to be done, however, to prevent slips and falls in the traffic environment. Using an appropriate anti-slip device may reduce the risk of slips and falls on different surfaces outdoors during winter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the best anti-slip devices of different designs in the Swedish market on a larger group of healthy individuals in different ages on five different slippery surfaces as a way to develop a standard method to test anti-slip devices. Three different designs of anti-slip devices: heel device, foot-blade device and whole-foot device were evaluated on ice surfaces uncovered or covered with gravel, sand, salt or snow. The evaluations were done according to subject's perceived walking safety and balance, videorecordings of walking postures and movements, time to take on and off each anti-slip device, advantages/disadvantages with each anti-slip device and a list of priorities for own use according to three criteria: safety, balance and appearance. The heel device was perceived to be the most safe on all five surfaces, followed by the toe device and the whole-foot device. The heel device was also perceived to be the one with the best walking balance on uncovered ice and on snow covered ice. There were some significant differences due to gender and age. Most subjects walked with a normal muscle function in the hip and knee when walking with or without an anti-slip device on all surfaces. The heel device was perceived as the most rapid one to take on and the toe device as the most rapid one to take off. All three devices were perceived as having a good foothold. The heel device was perceived to fit the shoe and to be stable at heel-strike. The toe device was easily portable and stable on uncovered ice. The whole-foot device was comfortable to walk with and safe on snow covered ice. The heel device had the highest priority according to walking safety, walking balance and choice for own use

  • 13. Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Lindström, Kari
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Vantaa.
    Dallner, Margareta
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Towards a learning organization: the introduction of a client-centered team-based organization in administrative surveying work2003In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 97-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within administrative surveying work in Sweden, a transition to a client-centered team-based organization was made during 1998. The aim of this study was to describe the employees' perceptions and expectations of job and organizational practices when working as a generalist in a client-centered team-based organization; job and organizational practices and well-being and effectiveness measures were examined when introducing a team-based organization. Interventions such as courses in how to cope with the role of a generalist, how to increase service to clients, education in technology, law and economics, as well as computer information support, were ongoing at the time of the study. The Team Work Profile and QPS Nordic questionnaires were used. All the surveyors in five regions in Sweden participated, in total 640 surveyors. The transition to a client-centered team-based organization was expected to improve job control and job content but at the same time lead to impairments in job climate and group cohesion. Distress was associated with negative future expectations of the organization. High job control and group cohesion were the central contributors towards growth in personal competence and social effectiveness of teamwork. Both internal and external client-related activities of team and organization were in focus during the transition

  • 14.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Assessment selection in human-automation interaction studies: The Failure-GAM2E and review of assessment methods for highly automated driving2018In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 66, p. 182-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly automated driving will change driver's behavioural patterns. Traditional methods used for assessing manual driving will only be applicable for the parts of human-automation interaction where the driver intervenes such as in hand-over and take-over situations. Therefore, driver behaviour assessment will need to adapt to the new driving scenarios. This paper aims at simplifying the process of selecting appropriate assessment methods. Thirty-five papers were reviewed to examine potential and relevant methods. The review showed that many studies still relies on traditional driving assessment methods. A new method, the Failure-GAM2E model, with purpose to aid assessment selection when planning a study, is proposed and exemplified in the paper. Failure-GAM2E includes a systematic step-by-step procedure defining the situation, failures (Failure), goals (G), actions (A), subjective methods (M), objective methods (M) and equipment (E). The use of Failure-GAM2E in a study example resulted in a well-reasoned assessment plan, a new way of measuring trust through feet movements and a proposed Optimal Risk Management Model. Failure-GAM2E and the Optimal Risk Management Model are believed to support the planning process for research studies in the field of human-automation interaction.

  • 15.
    Hansson, Lars
    et al.
    Lund University, Department of Design Sciences, Ergonomics.
    Sperling, Lena
    Lund University, Department of Design Sciences, Industrial Design.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Ipsen, Staffan
    Lund University, Department of Health Sciences, Divison of Physiotherapy.
    Vergara, Cindy Olivares
    Lund University, Department of Health Sciences, Divison of Physiotherapy.
    Swedish anthropometrics for product and workplace design2009In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 797-806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes the anthropometrics of the Swedish workforce, aged 18-65, and compares the measurements with data collected four decades earlier. This anthropometric information is based on measurements of a total of 367 subjects, 105 males and 262 females. Of the 367 subjects, 268 responded to advertisements (Study A) and 99 were randomly selected from a community register (Study B). Subjects were scanned in four positions. Manual measuring equipment was used for hands, feet, head and stature. As differences between significant measurements in Studies A and B were negligible, the data were merged. Anthropometric descriptive statistics of women and men are presented for 43 body dimensions. Participants represent the Swedish population fairly well when compared with national statistics of stature and weight. Comparing new anthropometric data with old shows that the breadth, depth, height, and length measurements of Swedes as well as weight have increased and that Swedish anthropometric homogeneity has decreased. The results indicate that there is a need to update ergonomic recommendations and adjust products and workplaces to the new information.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Bo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Johansson, Jan
    Work environment functions in small enterprises in Sweden1992In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 91-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, a governmental commission has formed new strategies concerning the work environment with the aims of reducing employee absenteeism and re-employing those individuals who have already left employment as a result of bad working conditions. The main features in this new approach are: strengthening of the legislation; a responsibility for work injury costs; and a distinct rehabilitation responsibility. In this paper the authors discuss how these proposals suited the constraints and facilities of small enterprises, employing less than 50 persons. The results are based on interviews carried out with company directors, safety representatives and labour inspectors. The interviews revealed that the company directors had a negative attitude towards both the strengthening of legislation and responsibility for work injury costs. It was also revealed that the small companies lack both knowledge of how a good environment can be created and the state of their own work environment. It seems that the small companies cannot handle work environment questions in a systematic way without comprehensive education and training or without seeking expert assistance outside the company.

  • 17. Johansson, Bo
    et al.
    Rask, Kjell
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Stenberg, Magnus
    Piece rates and their effects on health and safety: a literature review2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 607-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to carry out a broad survey and analysis of relevant research articles about "piece rate" wages and their effects on health and safety, which were published internationally until the fall of 2008. The aim was to summarize and describe the state of the art of the research in this field and if possible draw conclusions from the accumulated research results. A total of 75 research articles were examined extensively and 31 of these were found relevant and had sufficient quality to serve the purpose of this study. The findings of these relevant articles are summarized and analyzed in the survey. Since the late 1980s, there has been a change of research focus regarding previous termpiece rates and their effects on health and safety.next term More recent research shows a clear interest for previous termhealth,next term musculoskeletal injuries, physical workload, pains and occupational injuries. The previous interest in risk behavior, security and accidents is still there, but no longer dominates the research scene.Although research is still sparse and fragmented, much of the accumulated knowledge about the previous termeffects of piece ratenext term work tells us that previous termpiece ratesnext term in many situations have a negative previous termeffect on health and safety.next term The fact that 27 of the 31 studied articles found negative previous termeffects of piece ratesnext term on different aspects of previous termhealth and safetynext term does not prove causality, but together they give very strong support for the hypothesis that in most situations previous termpiece ratesnext term have negative previous termeffects on health and safety.next termIn order to achieve better knowledge about the previous termeffects of piece ratesnext term in branches where previous termpiece ratesnext term are regarded problematic, further research is needed and such research has to be designed to meet the specific questions that are to be answered.

  • 18.
    Johansson, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    The good work: a Swedish trade union vision in the shadow of lean production2009In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 775-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Good Work" (Det goda arbetet) was established as a highly praised and established concept in the Swedish working life debate in the middle of the 1980s. In this paper, we are going to discuss the concept in relation to the massive introduction of lean production in Swedish industry. The aim of this paper is to restore the theory of the good work into the industrial society of today. We will search for a model for ‘good work' in balance between the demands from production and good conditions for a learning environment.The theoretical base for this paper will be found in both organisational research and research on production technology systems. We identify three strong trends in Swedish industrial companies giving both pitfalls and possibilities for the good work; the learning focus as a way to increase productivity and improve working conditions; Lean Production in most cases imply narrow short-cyclic work tasks; and the global market that reduces national discretion. As a result, we formulate a new set of criteria for "the good work".

  • 19. Karlqvist, Lena
    A process for the development, specification and evaluation of VDU work tables1999In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 423-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development, specification and evaluation of a work table, suitable for VDU work with a mouse, was carried out in collaboration with furniture manufacturers, employees and an employer in a Research and Development Company. Ten VDU-operators expressed their ideas for improvements at their present workstations and the company and the researchers made a preliminary version of workstation specification to the furniture manufacturers. The three different furniture manufacturers set up four test stations with prototype tables, which were evaluated by 39 subjects using comfort ratings. The results of the comfort ratings and comments from the subjects were used when the final specification for new workstations was made. Three new work tables were evaluated in the ten selected operators' ordinary environment. Evaluations were made by technical recordings of physical load during work and by preference studies. The most important results from the evaluation can be summarized as follows: the work table should make it possible to support the arms, make it possible to vary between sitting and standing posture and prevent extreme outward rotation of the shoulder. Furthermore, the study showed that it is possible to improve the furniture manufacturers' knowledge and attitudes regarding how to minimize musculoskeletal disorders and to improve the study persons' working technique

  • 20. Karlqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Division of Applied Work Physiology.
    Wiktorin, Christina
    Karolinska Hospital and Institute, Department of Occupational Health.
    Direct measurements and systematic observations of physical workload among medical secretaries, furniture removers and male and female reference populations1994In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 319-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this investigation was to collect quantitative information about the occurrence of manual materials handling and working postures in working life. Direct technical recordings and systematic observations by trained ergonomists were used throughout a whole working day on 12 male furniture removers, 13 female medical secretaries, 27 males and 45 females randomly sampled from the working population in the Stockholm area. A quantitative job exposure profile was obtained by weighting together exposure data obtained by observation of tasks occurring during a normal working week. The results showed no major differences in physical exposures between the male and female reference populations. The medical secretaries spent less time than the female population kneeling/squatting and longer time than any other group with repetitive hand movements. Exposure data for task and job should be clearly distinguished

  • 21.
    Kemmlert, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lundholm, Lotta
    National Board of Occupational Safety and Health.
    Slips, trips and falls in different work groups: with reference to age and from a preventive perspective2001In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 149-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inter-record linkage between two Swedish databases on population and injury was effected to provide information on occupational slip, trip and fall (STF) accidents. The text descriptions in more than 1600 accident reports from occupational groups with high incidence rates of STF accidents were categorised by gender and age and the factors contributing to the accidents studied. Both older male and female workers had higher rates of reported STF accidents than younger workers, but it was established that within any one occupation the workplace hazards were common to all. Both for men and for women, the initial approach to the prevention of STF accidents should be to improve orderliness in the workplace.

  • 22.
    Liu, Xiaoxiong
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    Evaporative heat transfer characteristics of industrial safety helmets1995In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 135-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal discomfort is one of the major complaints from the wearers of industrial safety helmets. While studies have been reported on dry heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation) in safety helmets, the investigation of wet heat dissipating (evaporation) properties has not been found in the literature. To evaluate experimentally the evaporative heat transfer characteristics of industrial safety helmets, a method was developed to simulate sweating of a human head on a thermal head manikin, and to use this manikin to assess the wet heat transfer of five industrial safety helmets. A thermal head manikin was covered with a form-fitting cotton stocking to simulate 'skin'. The skin was wetted with distilled water to simulate 'sweating'. A form-fitting perforated polyethylene film was used to cover the wetted stocking to control the skin wettedness at two levels, 0.64 and 1.0. Experiments were conducted in a climatic chamber, under the following conditions: the ambient temperature = head manikin surface temperature = 34 +/- 0.5-degrees-C; ambient relative humidity 30% and 60%. Also, the effects of wind and a simulated solar heat load were investigated. The five helmets showed statistically significant difference in evaporative heat transfer under the experimental conditions. Skin wettedness, ambient humidity, wind and solar heat showed significant effects on evaporative heat transfer. These effects were different for the different helmets.

  • 23. Rydström, Annie
    et al.
    Broström, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    A comparison of two contemporary types of in-car multifunctional interfaces2012In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 507-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A driving simulator study was conducted to investigate the effects of carrying out a variety of tasks using two different types of contemporary in-car multifunctional interfaces: a touch screen interface and an interface manoeuvred by a rotary control. Participants drove on a curved rural road while performing tasks such as list scrolling, radio tuning, alphanumeric input and continuous adjustments. The results indicate that, in terms of task completion time and the number of glances made to the display, the optimal interface is dependent on the task being performed. The touch screen interface was better for alphanumeric input tasks and the interface manoeuvred by a rotary control was better for continuous adjustments and list scrolling. Alphanumeric input seems to be more demanding than other tasks, independent of the interface used. It was apparent in this simulator study that both interfaces affected the lateral control performance, but lateral control performance deteriorated to a greater extent when the touch screen interface was used, probably partially as a result of the lower display position.

  • 24.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ergonomics in Vietnam1992In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 133-134Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Letter1992In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 69-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26. Synwoldt, U.
    et al.
    Gellerstedt, Sten
    Ergonomic initiatives for machine operators by the Swedish logging industry2003In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 149-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1994, the Swedish work Environment Authority (SWEA) considered to regulate the amount of working hours in a logging machine in order to force an increased use of job rotation. Occupational neck and shoulder disorders had been threatening machine operators' health ever since the late 1970s. Representatives of the logging industry argued that detailed regulations, would not solve the problem. SWEA agreed to shelve the matter for 2 years and industry promised to take necessary measures. In 1996. the Labour Inspectorate investigated the industry's ergonomic initiatives. They found that awareness, in combating health problems,, had increased. However, there was a gap between awareness and the ability to carry out improvements. In 1999. SWEA decided not to regulate working hours but strongly recommended the work teams, to use job rotation. A minor follow-up in the year 2000 found work teams with both high production and low, health risk. but also more specialised teams.

  • 27.
    Wangenheim, Michael
    et al.
    Research Foundation for Occupational Safety and Health in the Swedish Construction Industry.
    Samuelsson, Björn
    Automatic ergonomic work analysis1987In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 9-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce occupational-related diseases, injuries and impairments to the musculo-skeletal systems, an ergonomics analysis of the work process is necessary. The authors describe a project to develop an automatic ergonomic work analysis method using existing and developed models of work stress factors. It was designed to record the work accurately without disrupting activities, and describe the situation so that production engineers and designers can be supplied with basic information for ameliorative measures. The system determines such parameters as the position and movement of 14 parts of the body, and such measurements as force exerted, range of movement and static stress. A pilot study with a prototype of the system has been completed and tested with simple work sequences

  • 28. Westlander, Gunnela
    et al.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Johansson, Annika
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Evaluation of an ergonomics intervention programme in VDT workplaces1995In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 83-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on an intervention programme based on the concept of participatory ergonomics. The study was designed within the framework of a multidisciplinary project concerned with identifying the work conditions and problems necessary to improve the working life of VDT operators with routine data-entry and data-dialogue tasks. The intervention programme was evaluated in two follow-up studies. The evaluation criteria covered the proposals for improvement emerging from (1) the intervention programme's final joint decisions (of experts and employees) on measures needed, and (2) workers' views of the effectiveness of the progrmme itself. As the implementation period was marked by increasing turbulence caused by recession in many branches of the Swedish economy, attention was paid to the impact of the restructuring and rationalization effected by company management in the workplaces under study. To obtain a better understanding of the outcome of the intervention programme, the follow-up was extended systematically to explore the disturbing organizational factors operating during the implementation period. The results of the evaluation offer increased knowledge of organizational barriers to the implementation of ergonomics measures decided upon within the framework of intervention research.

  • 29.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    On the manual handling of wide-body carts used by cabin attendants in civil aircraft1983In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 162-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was made of manual handling of wide-body carts used in civil aircraft. Under laboratory conditions, 11 females adjusted their pushing and pulling forces on fixed carts to the maximum amount they perceived as acceptable with repeated exertions. Subsequently their ability to push and pull the carts was tested with maximum exertions.The initial forces required to just get a fully loaded cart in motiom were measured for different inclinations of the floor on which the cart stood. In a DC-9 aircraft, floor inclination and flying speed were measured while climbing to cruising altitude and during descent prior to landing. The maximum acceptable force for repetitive exertions was, on average, 68 N. The maximum force was, on average, 270 N. No significant differences were found between the pushing and pulling forces.The findings in the experiments caused the Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health to reduce its recommended limit for repetitive push and pull in this task from 200 N to 100 N. As a result the handling of wide-body carts in the DC-9 should be delayed until at least 14-15 minutes after take-off to fulfil the new recommendation. On short flights, for which the DC-9 is used, ihis is not possible without reducing the level of service. A follow-up project on the development of an improved cart is under way, incorporating changes suggested in this paper and elsewhere.

  • 30.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    An EMG-study of work methods and equipment in crane coupling as a basis for job redesign1988In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 178-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that physical strain is perceived as the main work environment problem for crane couplers. During one year, 70% of the crane couplers at two Swedish steelworks (n = 124) indicated complaints of the locomotor system. An experimental field study comprising seven healthy female crane couplers was therefore carried out to determine if crane coupling implies too high a physical strain for healthy individuals, and to suggest ergonomics solutions to such problems if they occur. The significance of using different methods and equipment for reducing physical strain was evaluated by vocational EMG (four shoulder/neck and arm muscles), heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion. The data suggest that crane coupling may have harmful effects on the shoulder/neck. The investigated changes in work methods and equipment reduced the peak loads. If the crane coupler also has to operate the crane by radio control, this implies a rationalisation as well as a reduction in strain

  • 31.
    Åborg, Carl
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Fernström, Elisabeth
    Statshälsan Research.
    Ericson, Mats O.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Work content and satisfaction before and after a reorganisation of data entry work1998In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 473-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyse the psychosocial and physical effects of a reorganisation of data entry work at a data processing unit with 153 employees. The reorganisation was planned to redistribute the repetitive work and improve health and satisfaction as well as efficiency. Methods used were questionnaires and, for a sub-group of 22 participants, interviews, diaries and video recordings. During the one-and-a-half-year study period the data processing unit was closed down and the employees transferred to units with more varied tasks. The reorganisation gave opportunities to improve working conditions. The results of this study show that important improvements were achieved. The majority of the 22 participants got less data entry work and the changes permitted a better work-load distribution. However, the work content after the reorganisation still did not provide satisfactory mental variation for most of the subjects, and the changes did not seem to affect health complaints.

  • 32.
    Öhrling, Therese
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Kumar, Rupesh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Assessment of the development and implementation of tools in contract cleaning2012In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 687-694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates and discusses problems with the implementation and use of ergonomic tools and techniques in the process of cleaning. Cleaning is an occupation with a high risk of developing work-related disorders. One high-strain task where recommended tools and techniques are difficult to apply is cleaning staircases. This study evaluated the muscular activity of cleaners while mopping staircases using two different mop handles and found that an easily adjustable mop handle can decrease a cleaner’s physical load. The results also show that the implementation and contextualization of the mop are of great importance for how a mop is used. A more holistic approach is needed to improve the benefits of good tools and techniques in cleaning work. More research is needed on how workplace organization can be improved to support the implementation of strategies to increase the health of professional cleaners.

  • 33.
    Östberg, Olof
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Horie, Y.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Feng, Y.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    On the merits of ancient Chinese eye acupressure practices1992In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 343-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chinese schoolchildren and adults with strenuous visual tasks routinely perform massage-and-pressure exercises on selected acupressure points around the eyes. This practice, taught by the Jing-Luo school of acupuncture for more than 4000 years, is claimed to prevent and cure myopia and other afflictions thought to result from visual close work. A four-week pilot experiment was carried out with the aim of designing a proper study on the possible short-term benefits of eye acupressure programmes. Questionnaire data revealed that the subjects did experience various eye/vision symptoms as a result of the 90 min experimental task. This could not be verified by the measurements of accommodation precision and critical flicker fusion, nor could any beneficial effects of acupressure be seen over the four experimental weeks.

1 - 33 of 33
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