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  • 1.
    Abeysekera, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Masters program in ergonomics at Luleå University of Technology, Sweden2000In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 569-570Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Abeysekera, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The 10th Anniversary Ergonomics Conference, 29-30 October, 1999 Luleå University of Technology, Sweden2000In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 571-572Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ergonomics and technology transfer1990In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 181-184Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Abeysekera, John D.A.
    et al.
    Tekniska högskolan i Luleå, CEDC.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Body size variability between people in developed and developing countries and its impact on the use of imported goods1989In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 139-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Industrially Developing Countries (IDC) today, to a great extent, depend on Industrialized Countries (IC) for the supply of most industrial goods. An attempt has been made to ascertain the degree of design incompatibility experienced by users of these imported goods due to differences in the body sizes of people in producer and user countries. A comparative study of variations in body sizes is made from data available in literature and from anthropometric surveys. The results reveal differences in almost every part of the human body. The need for reliable anthropometric data in respect of IDC is stressed. Urgent measures are required to introduce changes in equipment, particularly for the benefit of users in IDC.

  • 5. Abeysekera, John D.A.
    et al.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ergonomics of technology transfer1987In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 265-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is beyond doubt that high technology has elevated the standards of living of mankind. The modern technology created and developed to a great extent by Western or developed societies is now in great demand in Eastern and developing societies who are trying to leap-frog towards advancement. But unfortunately, in the transfer of technology, both the giver and the receiver seem to make many mistakes. A technology transferred without considering the ethnic variables in the societies and differences in the climates, has found to cause problems to the acquirer. Due to the basic human factor differences such as sizes of people, physical environment, physical capacities and organizational and cultural differences, a technology which is unadapted has found to be inappropriate, harmful, hazardous and unsuccessful. In the areas of health, working conditions, production and finance, undesirable effects have resulted through haphazard technology transfer, For a successful transfer, it is therefore stressed that technology has to be adapted or modified taking into consideration the technological, anthropological and socio-economic factors of the acquiring population

  • 6.
    Abeysekera, John
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Gao, Chuansi
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The identification of factors in the systematic evaluation of slip prevention on icy surfaces2001In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 303-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Slips and falls on icy roads often result in fractures or sprains and is a major problem in Nordic countries. Walking trials by 25 subjects wearing four types of winter shoes on five different icy walking surfaces provided subjective and objective measures of tendency to slip and number of slips, respectively. Since friction is a major determinant of a slip, the influence of material spread on icy surfaces, the surface temperatures and the shoe soling characteristics versus the Coefficient of Friction (COF) of the shoes were measured. Sand and gravel on icy roads had positive effects on improving COF. The study revealed that the aetiology of slips and falls is multi-faceted and attempts to solve the problem must adopt a systems approach. Perception of risk, aging, training, experience and postural balance are other factors to be considered in preventing slips and falls. Future research should concentrate on the degree of impact of each factor to the aetiology of slips and falls, which can help to decide priority action in preventing slips and falls.

  • 7.
    Abeysekera, John
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Piamonte, Dominic Paul T
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Welcoming the millennium from a decade of growth and development in ergonomics education and promotion2001In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 365-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bao, Shihan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Winkel, Jørgen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Interactive effect of ergonomics and production engineering on shoulder-neck exposure: a case study of assembly work in China and Sweden1997In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 75-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergonomic improvements of work station design have been widely embraced as a measure for reduction of physical work load (mechanical exposure) and prevention or control of occupational shoulder-neck disorders. However, other elements of work rationalization, more in the hands of production engineers, may also influence the mechanical exposure. The present study concerns shoulder-neck exposure in a Chinese and a Swedish assembly line workplace. Interactive effects of ergonomic work station design, and production engineering (in terms of assembly line balancing and sensitivity of assembly line layout to production irregularities) on shoulder-neck exposure have been studied. It was shown that the Swedish workplace has a better ergonomic work station design, reflected in more favorable work postures during assembly operations. At the same time, the Swedish assembly line is better balanced and less sensitive to production irregularities, which probably reduces the total duration of idle time during assembly compared with the Chinese line. On the Swedish assembly line, arm movements are more frequent, and trapezius and infraspinatus muscle activation is more repetitive. Muscle activation levels are similar on the two lines. However, a larger proportion of low level muscle activities were found on the Chinese line compared with the Swedish line. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that the mechanical exposure of the assembly workers is a result of counteracting effects of improved ergonomic design of work stations and more effective production engineering.

  • 9.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering/Working Environment, Lund Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Carl R.
    Lund University, Department of Psychology/Work Science Division.
    Eriksson, J.
    Lund University, Division of Working Environment, Depatment of Industrial Engineering, Lund Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, G.I.
    Lund University, Department of Psychology/Work Science Division.
    Klercker, Jonas af
    Lund Institute of Technology, School of Architecture.
    Akselsson, K. Roland
    Lund University, Division of Working Environment, Depatment of Industrial Engineering, Lund Institute of Technology.
    Computer-aided planning of production, working and residential environments1996In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 59-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses a computer-aided planning methodology and its applicability for planning of industrial production and working environments as well as for planning of residential and working environments for the differently abled. The methodology has been developed and evaluated in six case studies in mechanical industries and in six case studies related to adaptations for the differently abled.The results from the case studies indicate that computer-supported modelling and visualisation may serve as a common and efficient language facilitating communication about multifaceted environmental planning issues. The methodology is a cost-effective way of demonstrating layout ideas and testing dynamic activities like manufacturing and transportation. Corporate groups comprising people involved in, or affected by, development work seem to be a fruitful approach for cooperation, one which enhances learning and creativity. Such groups may be a proper forum for the dissemination of information, exchange of opinions, utilisation of both expert and lay experiences, and for public testing of current reality or future plans in such a way that mutual understanding between different professional categories is increased, hence promoting internal commitment.Relevance to industryThe success of design projects depends both on their quality from a technical and economic point of view, and on the quality of their implementation and use. This paper discusses a computer-aided planning technique and its applicability and quality in both these respects. The technique is developed for planning of industrial working environments and for planning of residential and working environments for the differently abled.

  • 10. Bergquist, Karin
    et al.
    Abeysekera, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Quality function deployment (QFD) - A means for developing usable products1996In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 269-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to develop usable products, human needs and requirements have to be taken into consideration. By employing the QFD (Quality Function Deployment) method the human needs are systematically matched with the product characteristics, which can help to improve the product quality. In this paper the use of QFD in the area of ergonomics is discussed and a case study is presented, The QFD method was used in the case study to translate the needs of safety shoe users in the cold climate into product characteristics. The QFD analysis of the safety shoes revealed that the characteristics of the steel toecap were receiving the highest overall weighting, which means that improving the design of the steel toecap would lead to higher customer satisfaction. Relevance to industryThe importance of developing products that meet the customer or human needs is a priority area in the product development process. With knowledge in ergonomics it is possible to reveal information of the human needs and requirements. However, in the product development process it also is important to match the human needs with the product characteristics, which can be achieved by using the QFD method. The knowledge of ergonomics and the use of the QFD method are therefore useful tools in designing high quality products.

  • 11.
    Burström, Lage
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mechanical impedance of the human hand-arm system1989In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 235-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary The mechanical impedance of the hand and arm was studied on ten healthy subjects during exposure to sinusoidal vibration within the frequency range of 2 to 1000 Hz. A special handle for the measurements was constructed. The influence of vibration direction, handle grip, grip force, vibration level, hand-arm posture and sex as well as anthropometric data were studied. The results show that the impedance of the hand-arm mainly depends on the frequency and direction of the vibration stimuli. Higher vibration levels, as well as more firm hand-grips, resulted in higher impedance. Furthermore, the outcome shows that experiments conducted with different hand-arm postures had an active influence on the mechanical impedance. Moreover, the subjects' sex and constitution of the hand and arm affected the impedance to a large extent.

  • 12.
    Burström, Lage
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sörensson, Anna
    The influence of shock-type vibrations on the absorption of mechanical energy in the hand and arm1999In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 585-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been a discussion as to whether shock-type vibration from hand tools has stronger effects on the hand-arm system in comparison with non-impulsive vibration. The purpose of the investigation is to compare the influence of these two types of vibration on the absorption of mechanical energy in the human hand and on the grip and feed forces applied by the subjects.The energy absorption has been measured by use of a specially designed laboratory handle. The grip and feed forces applied by the subject to the handle were measured simultaneously. In the study two different frequency weighted acceleration levels were used.The outcome showed that the vibration exposure levels made a significant contribution to the vibration absorption as well as to the strength of the grip and feed forces. Moreover, it was found that the hand forces decrease while the absorption of energy increases during the experiment. Furthermore, the influence of shock-type exposure gave a significantly higher hand forces and absorption of energy compared with the non-impulsive exposure. It was, therefore, concluded that the vibration response characteristics of the hand and arm differ, depending upon whether the exposure is of shock or non-impulsive type.Relevance to industryThe paper discusses the dynamic response of the hand and arm during exposure to shock and non-impulsive vibration. Whenever possible, a tool that requires low grip and feed forces should be used as well as tools that not generate shock-type excitation. This can be helpful in choosing the proper tool for the job.

  • 13.
    Fernström, Elisabeth A.C.
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Technology and Work Science, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Åborg, Carl M.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Alterations in shoulder muscle activity due to changes in data entry organisation1999In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 231-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how changed work organisation and different work tasks influence shoulder muscular load and to quantify the magnitude, duration and frequency of rest periods from shoulder muscular load during a working day. Shoulder muscular load was measured in 22 females working at their data entry workplaces, during a whole working day. The activity from both trapezius muscles was measured with EMG before (1991) and after (1992) a reorganisation programme intended to redistribute repetitive work and provide new work tasks.The change in work organisation did not change the magnitude of muscular load or the duration and frequency of rest periods, but decreased musculoskeletal problems. The subjects' increased desk work involved greater muscular load than the data entry did, but also allowed more movement. The changes in work tasks seemed to be important, although small. In repetitive work, organisational changes aimed at reducing musculoskeletal disorders should focus on providing employees with tasks that afford variation in muscular load. Relevance to industry. The paper discusses the need of physical work task variation in repetitive work in order to minimise the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. It seems more important to vary the tasks than to minimise the shoulder muscular load. Copyright

  • 14.
    Gao, Chuansi
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Abeysekera, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Hirvonen, Mikko
    Department of Physics, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.
    Aschan, Carita
    Department of Physics, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.
    The effect of footwear sole abrasion on the coefficient of friction on melting and hard ice2003In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 323-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Footwear sole wear by natural use or artificial abrasion either increases or decreases slip resistance on floors with and without lubricant. The objectives of this paper were to study the effect of footwear sole abrasive wear on slip resistance on ice with respect to temperature, and to compare the slip resistance of abraded soles on melting and hard ice with that on lubricated steel plate. The kinetic coefficient of friction (COF) of nine pairs of footwear were measured with the stationary step simulator developed at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, before and after the new footwear soles were artificially abraded. Two-way factorial ANOVA showed that the abrasion of nine pairs of footwear had no significant effect on COF on melting ice (Mean COF with abrasion=0.056, std=0.0158, COF without abrasion=0.055, std=0.0205, P=0.805). On hard ice, however, the COF of abraded soles measured (mean COF=0.244) was significantly higher than without abrasion (mean COF=0.180,p<0.001), and than abraded soles on lubricated steel (mean=0.137,p<0.001). There is statistical significance between the three types of surfaces (P<0.001). On hard ice, regardless of abrasion, curling footwear with crepe rubber soling showed significantly higher COF (mean=0.343 after abrasion, 0.261 before abrasion) than other types (P<0.001). The results indicate that artificially abraded footwear is more slip resistant than new one for use on hard ice. The abrasion requirement could be specified if developing a new standard to measure COF on ice in the future. Of the footwear measured, the curling footwear with crepe rubber soling performed best in terms of slip resistance property. Therefore, Crepe rubber soling is highly recommended for use on hard ice. Melting ice is much more slippery, in which sole abrasion does not improve slip resistance. Thus, additional measures should be taken to reduce slip and fall risk. Relevance to industrySlipping and falling accidents are common on surfaces covered with snow, ice, melting snow, melting ice or the mixed in winter for outdoor workers and pedestrians. Understanding of the friction at the interface can help footwear industry design slip resistant products, to help outdoor workers choose appropriate protective equipment, and to provide safe work practice for industries involving outdoor work.

  • 15. Gellerstedt, Sten
    Mechanised cleaning of young forest: The strain on the operator1997In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 137-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to map out how the operator limits the productivity in mechanised spacing and cleaning of young stands of trees. The work elements in this forestry machine work are analysed simultaneously with the measuring of the operator's workload. Proposals for technical developments are given. The design of the study follows a model which secures control of important occurring factors.Operating a forestry cleaning and spacing machine is probably the most intensive forestry machine work. The low heart rate variability indicates a high mental workload. The intense operation of the crane causes few pauses (EMG-gaps) in the trapezius muscle. Managing the machine occupies the operator's attention while biological assessments of the stand are needed. Neck and shoulder complaints are still a major problem.To keep mechanised cleaning profitable, machine, crane and cleaning head must be easier to handle. A partly robotized crane and cleaning head and better sight can help the operator to perform faster and more reliable cleaning. A self-levelling cab with a pivoting ability will give the operator a more relaxed working environment. In the future perhaps a cleaning and spacing robot might be a choice.

  • 16.
    Geng, Qiuqing
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Change in contact temperature of finger touching on cold surfaces2001In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 387-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with human fingers touching cold surfaces of four materials (aluminium, steel, nylon and wood) at different surface temperatures (-20°C, -15°C, -10°C, -4°C, 0°C and 2°C). Contact finger skin-surface interface temperature and subjective responses on thermal and pain sensations were determined during touching. Type of material and their surface temperature clearly affected the contact cooling of the finger. Individual variation in finger contact cooling was significant. Contact temperature limits for human fingers touching cold surfaces are suggested according to the experimental results. In addition, time to reach a critical temperature (7°C, 5°C or 0°C) when contacting a cold metallic surface is discussed.

  • 17.
    Hammarskjöld, Eva
    et al.
    Kinesiology Research Group, Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, and Anatomy, Karolinska Institute.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Karin
    Kinesiology Research Group, Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, and Anatomy, Karolinska Institute.
    Ekholm, Jan
    Kinesiology Research Group, Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, and Anatomy, Karolinska Institute.
    Samuelsson, Björn
    Effect of short-time vibration exposure on work movements with carpenters' hand tools1991In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 125-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of ac ute vibration exposure on manual performance. Ten experienced healthy carpenters performed three standardized common tasks (nailing, sawing, screwing). EMG activity was recorded from six arm-shoulder muscles/muscle group using surface electrodes, and the performances were video-filmed. The subjects also reted their exertions. After ten minutes of standardized vibration exposure (50 Hz, 20 m/s2) the tasks were repeated. The number of work movements and the time taken for each task were recorded. In addition the quality of the work performed after the first and second trials was compared. Changes in muscle activity were mainly increased activity in trapezius. The most active muscles, with EMG mean values exceeding 10% EMGmax, were trapezius (mean values 9-21% EMGmax, infraspinatus (mean 6-18% EMGmax) and flexor digitorum (mean 15-21% EMGmax). Only rating perceived exertion while nailing was higher after vibration. Vibration exposure seemed to be very individually perceived. Short-time exposure did not seem to influence the performance of well-known tasks.

  • 18. Karlqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Bernmark, Eva
    Department of Occupational Health, Karolinska Hospital.
    Ekenvall, Lena
    Department of Occupational Health, Karolinska Hospital.
    Hagberg, Mats
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Isaksson, Anita
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Rostö, Tommy
    Department of Occupational Health, Karolinska Hospital.
    Computer mouse and track-ball operation: Similarities and differences in posture, muscular load and perceived exertion1999In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 157-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Posture (optoelectronic 3D motion analysis system), muscular load (EMG), perceived exertion (rating scales), preference and productivity were investigated in 20 healthy VDU-operators (10 male and 10 female) during text editing with two different data input devices, a mouse and a track-ball. Work with the track-ball entailed lower shoulder elevation and less neck/shoulder muscle activity than work with the mouse. Arm support reduced muscle activity in the neck/shoulder region irrespective of input device used. A table height lower than 3 cm above elbow height allowed arm and shoulder support without undue shoulder elevation. Work with the track-ball entailed more wrist extension than work with the mouse. Perceived exertion ratings were lower for the shoulder and higher for the hand with track-ball than with mouse operation. Thus, biomechanical demands differ between different input devices. The women elevated and rotated their right shoulder outwards more than the men during work with both input devices. The overall EMG results showed a higher activity among the women than among the men in two of the examined muscles. This may relate to anthropometric differences which also influence biomechanical load moments. Another reason could be the observed differences in working techniques between the men and the women.

  • 19. Karlqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Department of Occupational Medicine, Gothenburg University.
    Hagman, Maud
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Toomingas, Allan
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Self-reported working conditions of VDU operators and associations with musculoskeletal symptoms: a cross-sectional study focussing on gender differences2002In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 30, no 4-5, p. 277-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to describe working conditions and the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among male and female VDU operators, and to assess associations between work-related physical and psychosocial exposures and neck and upper limb symptoms by gender. The study population comprised a variety of occupations from both private and public sectors. Data on physical and psychosocial exposures were collected by questionnaires, as were data on musculoskeletal symptoms. Univariate associations between exposures and symptoms affecting the neck and upper limbs were estimated by calculating the prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals. We also assessed the potential excess odds ratio attributable to interaction between gender and, one by one, exposure variable. Women (n=785) used the computer on average 3.9 h/day and men (n=498) 3.6. Variation of different work tasks was lower among females than among males. Nineteen per cent of the women and 12% of the men did >3 h of continued computer work without breaks (>10 min) at least twice a week. Twice as many women as men experienced high job strain (high demands and low decision latitude). A higher proportion of women than men reported symptoms 3 days the preceding month from the upper body, irrespective of body region. For many of the studied exposures the prevalence of symptoms in one or several body regions was increased with increasing exposure, indicating exposure-response relationships. Duration of computer work was associated with symptoms among both men and women. Only among men, duration of work with a non-keyboard computer input device was associated with symptoms. Only among women, job strain was associated with symptoms. Time pressure was associated with higher prevalence of symptoms among women. Among men, time pressure was associated with lower prevalence of symptoms. Thus, the associations differed between the genders. Women experienced higher prevalence of symptoms than men in all body regions and they were more often exposed to physical and psychosocial conditions that in previous studies have been considered harmful, than men.

  • 20.
    Kuklane, Kalev
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Gavhed, Désirée
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Fredriksson, Klas
    Swedish Institute of Agricultural Engineering.
    A field study in dairy farms: thermal condition of feet2001In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 367-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to find out the problems connected with feet during work in cold loose housing barns in wintertime. Thirteen dairy farms and 20 workers were studied. Skin temperatures and subjective responses were collected, and at the end of a work period the subjects filled in a questionnaire about the workday. The foot skin temperatures were measured on dorsal foot and second toe. Most of the workers used rubber boots. The ambient temperature outdoors varied from +5 to -11°C. Indoor temperatures could be the same as outdoors (cold barns and fodder storage) but also close to +30°C (milk room). The lowest mean foot and toe skin temperatures were 24.1±2.6°C and 16.0±1.4°C. The lowest measured values were 20.1°C and 12.8°C, respectively. The toe temperatures were on average 7.3°C colder than foot temperatures (mean 28.8°C). The low foot skin temperature was well related to cold sensation. Low toe temperatures fitted well with wetness sensation. On average the thermal sensation of feet over the work period was neutral. The lowest ratings were cold (-2). The combination of various environmental factors in farms complicates finding of perfect footwear for work. Recommendations on the choice of footwear and their care are given.

  • 21.
    Kuklane, Kalev
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Geng, Quiqing
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Thermal effects of steel toe caps in footgear1999In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 23, no 5-6, p. 431-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated cold weather safety footwear and the possible thermal effects of steel toe caps in footwear. Two models of boots were used. Both models were manufactured in two variants - with and without steel toe cap. The boot insulation was measured with an artificial, heated foot (AHF). One model was used in experiment with subjects (n=6). Cold exposure consisted of sitting for 60 min at -10°C. There were no differences between insulation levels of boots with and without steel cap for one boot model, but the differences were statistically significant for the second model showing slightly higher insulation values for the boot without steel cap. No significant differences due to insulation dissimilarities could be found from the measurements on subjects. Statistically significant differences were found for both models regarding the rate of change of heat loss from AHF when its location was changed from warm to cold and back to warm. The rise and decrease of heat loss from AHF depended on the rate of temperature change of the boots. The results showed that a faster change in heat loss from AHF occurred for boots without steel toe caps. Data from subjects seemed to confirm this by a somewhat faster, though not significant, rise in toe skin temperatures after cold exposure in boots without steel toe caps. The effect may be attributed to the higher mass and heat contents of the boots with steel toe cap.

  • 22. Kumar, Rupesh
    et al.
    Chaikumarn, Montakarn
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Kumar, Shrawan
    University of Alberta.
    Physiological, subjective and postural loads in passenger train wagon cleaning using a conventional and redesigned cleaning tool2005In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 35, no 10, p. 931-938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods: In this study, cleaning process was studied and analyzed with special reference to cleaning tools. A group of 13 professional cleaners participated in this study. While they performed their normal tasks, their oxygen consumption, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion and postural data were obtained. The perceived exertion during cleaning task using the "redesigned cleaning tool" was less than that of the "conventional cleaning tool". The oxygen consumption when cleaning with the redesigned tool (mean 0.841/m, SD +/- 0.17) was significantly less (p < 0.05) compared to the conventional cleaning tool (mean 0.941/m, SD +/- 0. 18). Heart rate was also found significantly lower using redesigned cleaning tool (mean 101 bpm, SD +/- 11. 10) compared to that of conventional cleaning tool (mean 105 bpm, SD +/- 12.59) (p < 0.05). Using redesigned cleaning tool the trunk postural load was also found significantly less than that of conventional cleaning tool (p < 0.05). It is concluded that redesigned cleaning tool allowed cleaners to maintain more upright posture when cleaning, which reduced biomechanical load. Relevance for Industry: There is need to develop ergonomic criteria or recommendation to enable manufacturers of cleaning equipment to specify and evaluate usability qualities when formulating user requirements for new cleaning tools.

  • 23.
    Kumar, Rupesh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Kumar, Shrawan
    University of Alberta.
    Musculoskeletal risk factors in cleaning occupation: a literature review2008In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 158-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to present a systematic review of the literature in the field to identify problems, recommended practices, unresolved issues and explore occupational needs related to cleaning problems. Selected for review were published and unpublished reports dealing with musculoskeletal disorders among cleaners. English language summaries of other language articles were also included. The factor mentioned most often is that cleaning is associated with high physical and psychosocial workloads. Recommended ergonomic interventions were summarized in a model to present a systematic overview, useful for research and practical applications. A few studies concern equipment design, working environments and factors affecting individual workers. A need to conduct research on cleaning tools/equipment, working environments and individual risk factors is apparent. Relevance to industry:Ergonomic strategies and methods are not widely practiced in the cleaning profession. If ergonomic principles can be integrated into existing cleaning industry tools, methods and work environments then efficiencies can be realized and the risk of occupational injuries will be reduced. The work efficiency and injury reduction will reduce employer-operating costs.

  • 24.
    Liu, Xiaoxiong
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Abeysekera, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Subjective evaluation of three helmets in cold laboratory and warm field conditions1999In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 223-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Helmets are widely used in industries as a primary protection means for workers. Helmets can provide efficient protection against occupational hazards to the head, they also cause thermal discomfort to the wearers at work. To develop a reliable heat transfer testing method for helmets any objective testing method must be validated with subjective testing of the same helmets. Subjective evaluation of helmet heat transfer properties was conducted in both cold and hot conditions using three commonly used and commercially available helmets. Twenty-five subjects participated in a laboratory investigation in a simulated cold environment( + 3 degrees C and 30% RH); forty-three steel-making workers participated in a held survey in the hot environment (31 degrees C and 32% RH). Subjects were either asked to conduct certain tasks (in the laboratory investigation) or performed their regular production duties (in the filed survey) while wearing a helmet; they were then asked to answer questions in a questionnaire at the end of the surveys. The results of the subjective assessment which were compared with the objective measurements taken on a sweating manikin head using the same helmets, were found consistent.

  • 25.
    Newell, Theresa M.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Kumar, Shrawan
    University of Alberta.
    Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among orthodontists in Alberta2004In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 99-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergonomic problems have been noted among the hazards in the dental workplace. Many surveys have suggested that dental professionals may suffer from musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of the low back and neck as well as other MSDs. This survey aimed to look deeper into MSDs among orthodontists and provide a starting point to direct ergonomic intervention. The standardized Nordic questionnaire was mailed out to all registered orthodontists in Alberta, Canada. There was a 52.4% response rate from a sample of 61. Seventy-two percent of the respondents were male and 28% were female. The results showed low back trouble to be the most prevalent MSD (59%), followed by neck (56%), and shoulder trouble (47%). There was no significant differences in MSD prevalence between gender (p > 0.4), and no correlations existed between age, years of work, and number of hours of practice per week (p > 0.3). These results were consistent with other studies surveyed on dental professionals for the number and type of MSDs present. Further attention should be directed towards risk factors and ergonomic intervention.

  • 26.
    Piamonte, Dominic Paul T
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Abeysekera, John D. A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Linköpings universitet.
    Understanding small graphical symbols: a cross-cultural study2001In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 399-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphical symbols such as icons or pictograms as interfaces in modern technological devices have become quite common. Although generally designed in western countries, their use can be found worldwide from audio-visual appliances to computers and computer-related devices. A basic ergonomic principle is to involve the potential users in the design and evaluation stages especially when the user groups are quite diverse. This study was part of an international project on evaluating telecommunication symbols. One of the major objectives was to test different graphical symbols (of the videophone), designed, and tested in Western Europe using subject groups from Asia, Europe, and the United States. This paper would discuss the major portions of the tests involving US and Swedish subjects. Performance indices used were hits, certainties, confusions, and semantic differential ratings. They were useful in analysing how the symbols were recognised, confused, and perceived by different subject groups. They also helped detect differences between groups which otherwise seemed to have similar test results. The results showed differences in patterns of ratings, which may be culturally linked and could help determine aspects of symbol design and usage that may be more helpful in designing instructions, learning aids, etc. Awareness of such subject bias and their implications are important on how one interprets the test results.

  • 27. Piedrahita, Hugo
    et al.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Punnett, Laura
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Musculoskeletal symptoms in cold exposed and non-cold exposed workers2004In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 271-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cross-sectional epidemiologic study was carried out to explore the relationship between musculoskeletal symptoms and cold exposure in a large meat processing company in Colombia. All workers in the packing areas (n=162) were recruited: 50 workers from very cold areas (+2°C) and 112 workers from less severely exposed areas (range +8°C to +12°C). Thermal environmental conditions were measured in both areas. By Standardized Nordic Questionnaire, there was a high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among the more exposed workers, especially for low back, neck and shoulders. The prevalence ratios for neck and low back symptoms interfering with usual work were 11.2 (95% CI 1.3–93.4) and 4.5 (95% CI 1.6–12.4), respectively. Job features that could not be addressed in this study included work shift (day versus night), adequacy of thermal protective clothing, type of contract with the company and psychosocial conditions at work. The association between cold exposure and musculoskeletal problems is plausible but the mechanism is still obscure and there is a need for further research, both experimental and epidemiologic (preferably cohort studies).

  • 28.
    Sackey, Jocelyn
    et al.
    Department of Organization and Human Resource Management, University of Ghana Business School.
    Sanda, Mohammed-Aminu
    Influence of occupational stress on the mental health of Ghanaian professional women2009In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 876-887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managerial women experience a number of work-related stressors which roduce strain symptoms that function as predictors of their ill-health in organizations. This finding is made from a study that examined the existing relationships among job characteristics symptoms of stress, and the development of health outcomes (depression, anxiety and physical symptoms) among women in lower and middle management positions in some organizations in Ghana. The stratified and simple random sampling procedure was used to select the study participants which numbered 170 female managers. Data was collected using both questionnaires and interviews, and analyzed using the Occupational Stress Indicator, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and the Beck's Anxiety Inventory. It is concluded that since work-related stressors are predictors of women managers' ill-health in the work environment, organizations should be aware of the stressors in order to be able to guard against the deterioration of job performances of their women managers.Relevance to Industry: This study highlights the high prices organizations pay for the work-related stresses their women managers experience at the workplace, which impact negatively on their mental health, and by implication their productivity. Recommendations made can be used to enhance the managerial capacity and productivity of female managers at the workplace.

  • 29.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ergonomics: an emerging concept in industrially developing countries1989In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialization via technology transfer is seen as the main development strategy by many developing countries (DC). The assumption that importation of advanced technology on its own, without adapting it to the environmental, physical, mental and sociocultural needs of the workforce in the receipient country would bring technical changes for the benefit of the majority of people has proved to be unrealistic. The failure to appreciate the characteristics and preferences of human operators has often frustrated technical development, alienated the work force and achieved little to improve the living and working conditions of the local people. Ergonomics is a useful tool for evaluating the choise of technology and its implementation and can contribute to the safe and productive transfer of technology. However, the area is fairly new or even unknown in many DC. They need assistance to acquire and apply the knowledge to their own need and capacity. It must also be emphasized that the available body of knowledge (e.g. standards, recommendations, procedures, etc.) concerning working conditions, occupational health and safety, which has been developed largely in industrialized countries (IC), often cannot be applied directly to DC, because of significant differences which are existing in all aspects of the work system between IC and DC. Since many factors influencing the nature, extent and diversity of problems are specific to each DC (e.g. climate, people, method of work, facilities, infrastructures of technology, finance, etc.) it is necessary to incorporate research into industrial development programmes.

  • 30.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Meshkati, Najmedin
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Preface1989In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 87-89Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Trapenskas, Donatas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Örjan
    Localization performance of binaurally recorded sounds with and without training2001In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 405-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the problems associated with listening to binaurally recorded sound events is localization confusions. The main objective of this investigation was to find out whether a short training session prior to listening to binaural recordings through headphones would facilitate correct spatial perception of the sound field. Focus was on the localization of the sound stimuli in median plane. Sound signals were recorded with an artificial head in three different conditions namely, anechoic, highly reverberant and moderately reverberant. Fourteen subjects participated in the listening tests. All subjects were required to localize all virtual sound stimuli under two different conditions. The first condition had a short training session binaurally recorded in the same environments as preceeding sound stimuli, and only sound stimuli recorded in the same environment were presented. The second condition did not have a training session, and sound stimuli recorded in different environments were presented. Results showed that a short training session prior to listening to binaurally recorded sounds through headphones was useful as it facilitated localization performance. The biggest effect was in reduced amount of sounds perceived inside the head. It was most pronounced for sound stimuli recorded in anechoic environment.

  • 32.
    Wos, Henryk
    et al.
    Research Foundation for Occupational Safety and Health in the Swedish Construction Industry.
    Wangenheim, Michael
    Research Foundation for Occupational Safety and Health in the Swedish Construction Industry.
    Borg, Gunnar
    Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm.
    Samuelsson, Björn
    Perceptual rating of local vibration: A psychophysical study of hand-arm vibration of short duration (Part I)1988In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 143-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to try to determine a stimulus-response relationship for sinusoidal hand-vibrations rated on Borg's scale. A frequency range of 30-200 Hz, covering commonly used hand-held tools, was studied.The need for perceptual measurements is great, inter alia, in connection with ergonomic analyses of real work situations. The possibility of using sophisticated measuring equipment at the work place is sharply limited. Consequently, the self-rating method may constitute a practical means of assessing the complex vibrational intensities. The subjective perceptual rating takes account of other individual factors that are difficult to measure objectively, e.g. work technique and occupational experience.The study shows that self-rating based on Borg's scale can be used to assess vibrational intensity. The perception of increases in the amplitude of vibrations at a certain frequency is progressive. We find a significant rating pattern with a power function that expresses the stimulus-response relationship.

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