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  • 1.
    Elenius, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    A place in the memory of nation: minority policy towards the Finnish speakers in Sweden and Norway2002Ingår i: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 103-123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is devoted to an analysis of language policy towards the Finnish-speaking minorities in Sweden and Norway from the end of the nineteenth century until ca. 1940. After the 1880s, the language policy in both countries turned into a nationalistic phase. The common underlying doctrine was to transmit the majority language and culture to the minorities, in order to make them melt into an imagined homogeneous national culture. The minority policy was relatively similar in character in the two countries up to the end of the First World War. After that time it started to diverge. While Norway continued with an assimilative policy without compromises, Sweden adopted a somewhat modified policy. This altered policy in Sweden was partly due to the long continuity and minority status of the Sami and Torne Valley people in the Swedish nation state, but also to elements of modernization and international political change.

  • 2.
    Elenius, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The dissolution of ancient Kvenland and the transformation of the Kvens as an ethnic group of people. On changing ethnic categorizations in communicative and collective memories2019Ingår i: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 117-148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to trace how the ethnonym Kven and the interrelated imagination of Kvenland changed over time in Nordic political discourse from the Viking Age to the mid-eighteenth century. In the negotiations over fixed borders between Sweden, Denmark and Russia, recognition of ethnic groups played an important political role in legitimating the territorial claims of the states. It brought the history of ethnic groups to the table and in the process made visible ethnonyms and names for provinces used previously. The continuity of the ethnonyms is investigated as a chronological chain of communicative and collective memory. The ethnonym and the territory of Kvenland were used by the Norwegians to maintain an ethnic boundary with the Finnish speakers in the upper Bothnian area. The names Kven and Kvenland were never used in Sweden. The investigation shows that the Kvens constituted a group of Finnish speaking people existing in continuity from the Viking Age. Their core territory was situated in the upper Gulf of Bothnia area. When this was integrated into the Swedish kingdom the inhabitants were designated Finns by the Swedes. The Finnish speakers in Tornedalen, thus, kept their linguistic and cultural continuity but lost their western Scandinavian ethnonym Kven.

  • 3.
    Elenius, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Were the “Kainulaiset” in the Kalix River valley Finnish or Swedish-speakers?: A reinterpretation of ethnonyms in Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia area from the Viking Age and onwards2018Ingår i: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, nr 2, s. 1-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Norwegian ethnonym Kven and the Finnish ethnonym Kainulainen occurred at latest in the first millennium AD. A tacit truth held today is that the ethnonyms represent the same ancient Finnish-speaking group, only named differently by Norwegians and Finns. The aim of the article is to find out whether the ethnonyms have been used to designate different groups of people. The Finnish-speakers in the nearby Tornedalen has called the lower part of the Kalix River in northernmost Sweden the Kainuu River and the upper part Kaalas River after the original Sámi name of the river. According to theories on ethnicity they called the lower part the Kainuu River [Fin. Kainuunväylä] because they wanted to mark out the Swedish speakers of different ethnicity, who they called Kainulaiset. The latter mainly settled the lower part of the river in the Middle Ages and Finnish-speakers the upper part. The article reveals that the Sámi variety Gainolâš was used by the Sámi for depicting dominant majority populations of different ethnicity, especially Scandinavians, but sometimes also Finns. It also argues that Finnish settlers in southern Finland and the northernmost Gulf of Bothnia used Kainulainen for depicting Swedish settlers when the two language groups first encountered.

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