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  • 1.
    Elenius, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Multiculturalism, migration and minorities in Finland during the three centuries2017In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 137, no 4, p. 727-730Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Elenius, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nationella minoriteters symboliska nationsbyggande: Föreställningen om Kvänland och Sápmi som nya former av etnopolitik bland finskspråkiga och samiskspråkiga minoriteter2018In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 138, no 3, p. 480-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sápmi and Kvänland as new forms of ethno-policy among Sámi and Finnish speaking minorities

    In the article the creation of two transnational ethnic homelands, Sápmi and Kvenland in northern Scandinavia, is explored from the 1970s to present day. They are created as symbolic nations with their own nation flags, memorial days and anthems. In this respect they resemble other “nations without states” round the world. The aim is to analyse theories on transnational nation building in northern Fennoscandinavia out of these two cases. The investigation demonstrates how the use of history and myths has been used in a competition between Sámi and Finnish speakers about the right to be regarded as an indigenous people. These ethnic groups of people are now politically organised on both national and transnational level, and the Sámi also on global level.

    With the global strengthening of indigenous rights, Sámi-speaking groups introduced, in the 1970s, Sápmi as a transnational homeland for the Sámi people in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. After the official recognition of Sámi as an indigenous people, and the launching of Sámi parliaments in the Nordic countries in the 1990s, Finnish speaking minorities organised cross nation-borders in order to also be recognised as an indigenous people. They have deliberately used the Norwegian ethnonym Kven for depicting the united people of Finnish speakers cross nation borders in Sweden, Norway and Finland. Kven is the name of Finnish speaking migrants in northern Norway from at least the 17th century, but it was also used by the Norwegian Vikings in the 9th century for depicting an ancient people or ethnic group of people round the Gulf of Bothnia area.

    The relation between the concepts of state, nation, ethnicity and nationalism have been investigated in theories of ”nations without states”. The article demonstrates how ethnicity and nation are problematic notions to use when nations are created cross state borders. Since the nation-state has been the political form of modernity it has forced the minorities to use the nation as a model for meeting ethno-political demands. Ethno-policy has, in an increasing way, been carried out in a global and new democratic context with enlarged minority rights. It has made ethnic forms of organizing change. Ethnicity has more and more become means for putting forward political demands in ethnic form, being embedded in mediated forms. The interplay between ethnic, national and transnational identifications therefore differ from the earlier national identity and run parallel to each other.

  • 3.
    Elenius, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stereotyper i nationens tjänst: Rescension av: Ainur Elmgren, Den allrakäraste fienden: svenska stereotyper i finländsk press 1918-1939 (Lund: Sekel Bokförlag 2008).2010In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 2010, no 2, p. 330-337Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Elenius, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stereotyper i nationens tjänst: Rescension av: Ainur Elmgren, Den allrakäraste fienden: svenska stereotyper i finländsk press 1918-1939 (Lund: Sekel Bokförlag 2008). 332 s. (Summary in English: The most beloved enemy: Swedish stereotypes in Finnish press 1918-1939.)2010In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 130, no 2, p. 330-337Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Engren, Jimmy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The Golden Fleece of the Cape: Capitalist expansion and labour relations in the periphery of transnational wool production.1860-19502014In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 134, no 1, p. 78-84Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Nilsson, Fay Lundh
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Grönberg, Per-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    ”Inget för de lärde?” Diskussionerna om lokaliseringen av de tekniska elementarskolorna i Sverige i mitten av 1800-talet2019In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 139, no 2, p. 251-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By the middle of the 19th century, Swedish industrialization began to accelerate. At the same time there was, in many countries, a strong belief in the potential of technology. As with the growing interest in a Swedish railway network – with the objective of promoting economic development throughout of the country – interest in developing a technical education system can be seen as part of this optimism. The director of the Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Lars Johan Wallmark, was, however, worried about the lack of middlelevel technical education. In 1850, he therefore suggested the establishment of technical secondary schools, modelled after the German Gewerbeschulen. These schools would both provide local and regional crafts and industries with technically skilled labour and prepare such students for higher technical studies.

    Wallmark’s proposal led to the establishment of technical secondary schools in four cities during the 1850s: Malmö, Norrköping, Borås and Örebro. However, only the first two schools corresponded directly to Wallmark’s original proposal. In this study, we make use of Walter Christaller’s central place theory to investigate why the schools came to be established in these four cities. We ask the following questions: How did the decision-makers argue about population base and catchment area? What characterized the cities where technical secondary schools were established compared to cities that expressed interest but were not chosen as sites for schools? And who were the main stakeholders and agents in this selection process? Our study shows that Wallmark’s idea was to establish schools nation-wide rather than to apply a principle for locational selection. In reality, however, one of the most important factors behind the establishment of schools appears to have been an industrial principle. Based on this, cities that already had significant industrial activities, or functioned as the central point for an industrialized hinterland, were favoured. In contrast, arguments such as good access to certified teachers – found mainly in university and cathedral cities – seem to have been less significant. Another important factor was the placement of the schools in relation to potential students. A third factor was strong local industrialists and other prominent persons who were interested in technical progress and who also had well developed connections with representatives in Parliament.

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