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  • 1.
    Biasca, Nicola
    et al.
    Spital Oberengadin, Orthopaedic Clinic.
    Agosti, Reto
    Headache Center Hirslanden, Zurich.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Battaglia, Hugo
    SUVA, Luzern.
    Gerber, Christian
    University of Zürich, Department of Orthopedics.
    Procedures after minor traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in ice hockey to prevent neurological sequelae2001In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 367-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Biasca, Nicola
    et al.
    Spital Oberengadin, Orthopaedic Surgery and Trauma Surgery.
    Wirth, Stephan
    Spital Oberengadin, Orthopaedic Clinic.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    The avoidability of head and neck injuries in ice hockey: an historical review2002In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 410-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of minor traumatic brain injury (mTBI), cerebral concussions, is increasing and cannot be eliminated by any kind of equipment. Prevention strategies, such as the introduction of "checking from behind" rules have become effective in decreasing the number of severe spinal injuries. A new "head checking" rule should reduce mTBI in the same way in the following years. Mouthguards should be mandatory as an effective device for the prevention of dental and orofacial injuries, as well as reducing the incidence and severity of mTBI. A new internet database system, the International Sports Injury System (ISIS) should improve epidemiological analysis of head, face, and spinal injuries worldwide.ISIS should provide an internationally compatible system for continuous monitoring of risk factors, protective effects of equipment, and protective effects of equipment and effects of changes in rules through the years.

  • 3.
    Derman, Wayne
    et al.
    Institute of Sport and Exercise Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University; International Olympic Committee (IOC) Research Centre.
    Runciman, Phoebe
    Institute of Sport and Exercise Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University; International Olympic Committee (IOC) Research Centre.
    Schwellnus, Martin
    International Olympic Committee (IOC) Research Centre; Sport, Exercise Medicine and Lifestyle Institute (SEMLI) and Section Sports Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria.
    Jordaan, Esme
    Biostatistics Unit, Medical Research Council, Parow.
    Blauwet, Cheri
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston.
    Webborn, Nick
    Centre for Sport and Exercise Science and Medicine (SESAME), University of Brighton, Eastbourne.
    Lexell, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab. Department of Health Sciences, Lund University; Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation Medicine, Skåne University Hospital.
    Van de Vliet, Peter
    Medical and Scientific Department, International Paralympic Committee, Bonn.
    Tuakli-Wosornu, Yetsa
    Yale School of Public Health, Department of Chronic Disease and Epidemiology, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale University, Connecticut.
    Kissick, James
    Carleton University Sport Medicine Clinic, Department of Family Medicine, Ottawa.
    Stomphorst, Jaap
    Department of Sport Medicine, Isala Klinieken, Zwolle.
    High precompetition injury rate dominates the injury profile at the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games: a prospective cohort study of 51 198 athlete days2018In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 24-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     OBJECTIVES:

    To describe the incidence of injury in the precompetition and competition periods of the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games.

    METHODS:

    A total of 3657 athletes from 78 countries, representing 83.4% of all athletes at the Games, were monitored on the web-based injury and illness surveillance system over 51 198 athlete days during the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games. Injury data were obtained daily from teams with their own medical support.

    RESULTS:

    A total of 510 injuries were reported during the 14-day Games period, with an injury incidence rate (IR) of 10.0 injuries per 1000 athlete days (12.1% of all athletes surveyed). The highest IRs were reported for football 5-a-side (22.5), judo (15.5) and football 7-a-side (15.3) compared with other sports (p<0.05). Precompetition injuries were significantly higher than in the competition period (risk ratio: 1.40, p<0.05), and acute traumatic injuries were the most common injuries at the Games (IR of 5.5). The shoulder was the most common anatomical area affected by injury (IR of 1.8).

    CONCLUSION:

    The data from this study indicate that (1) IRs were lower than those reported for the London 2012 Summer Paralympic Games, (2) the sports of football 5-a-side, judo and football 7-a-side were independent risk factors for injury, (3) precompetition injuries had a higher IR than competition period injuries, (4) injuries to the shoulder were the most common. These results would allow for comparative data to be collected at future editions of the Games and can be used to inform injury prevention programmes.

  • 4.
    Derman, Wayne
    et al.
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institute of Sport and Exercise Medicine, Stellenbosch University; International Olympic Committee (IOC) Research Centre.
    Schwellnus, Martin P.
    International Olympic Committee (IOC) Research Centre; Sport, Exercise Medicine and Lifestyle Institute (SEMLI) and Section Sports Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria.
    Jordaan, Esme
    Biostatistics Unit, Medical Research Council of South Africa, Cape Town; Statistics and Population Studies Department, University of the Western Cape.
    Runciman, Phoebe
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institute of Sport and Exercise Medicine, Stellenbosch University; International Olympic Committee (IOC) Research Centre.
    Blauwet, Cheri
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston.
    Webborn, Nick
    Centre for Sport and Exercise Science and Medicine (SESAME), University of Brighton, Eastbourne.
    Lexell, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab. Department of Health Sciences, Lund University; Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation Medicine, Skåne University Hospital.
    Van de Vliet, Peter
    Medical and Scientific Department, International Paralympic Committee, Bonn.
    Tuakli-Wosornu, Yetsa
    Yale School of Public Health, Department of Chronic Disease and Epidemiology, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale University, Connecticut.
    Kissick, James
    Carleton University Sport Medicine Clinic, Department of Family Medicine, Ottawa.
    Stomphorst, Jaap
    Department of Sport Medicine, Isala Klinieken, Zwolle.
    Sport, sex and age increase risk of illness at the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games: a prospective cohort study of 51 198 athlete days2018In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 17-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      OBJECTIVE:

    To describe the epidemiology of illness at the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games.

    METHODS:

    A total of 3657 athletes from 78 countries, representing 83.5% of all athletes at the Games, were monitored on the web-based injury and illness surveillance system (WEB-IISS) over 51 198 athlete days during the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games. Illness data were obtained daily from teams with their own medical support through the WEB-IISS electronic data capturing systems.

    RESULTS:

    The total number of illnesses was 511, with an illness incidence rate (IR) of 10.0 per 1000 athlete days (12.4%). The highest IRs were reported for wheelchair fencing (14.9), para swimming (12.6) and wheelchair basketball (12.5) (p<0.05). Female athletes and older athletes (35-75 years) were also at higher risk of illness (both p<0.01). Illnesses in the respiratory, skin and subcutaneous and digestive systems were the most common (IRs of 3.3, 1.8 and 1.3, respectively).

    CONCLUSION:

    (1) The rate of illness was lower than that reported for the London 2012 Summer Paralympic Games; (2) the sports with the highest risk were wheelchair fencing, para swimming and wheelchair basketball; (3) female and older athletes (35-75 years) were at increased risk of illness; and (4) the respiratory system, skin and subcutaneous system and digestive system were most affected by illness. These results allow for comparison at future Games.

  • 5.
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Ohlsson, A.
    Umeå University, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Sports Medicine.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Sojka, Peter
    Umeå University, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Serum concentrations of two biochemical markers of brain tissue damage S-100B and neurone specific enolase are increased in elite female soccer players after a competitive game2006In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 313-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: It is a matter of debate whether or not ordinary heading of the ball in soccer causes injury to brain tissue. OBJECTIVE: To analyse concentrations of the biochemical markers of brain tissue damage S-100B and neurone specific enolase (NSE) in serum of female elite soccer players in association with a competitive game. METHODS: Venous blood samples were obtained from 44 female soccer players before and after a competitive game for analysis. The number of headers and trauma events (falls, collisions, etc) was assessed from videotape recordings for each player. RESULTS: Concentrations of both brain damage markers were increased after the game (S-100B, 0.18 (0.11) v 0.11 (0.05) microg/l (p = 0.000); NSE, 10.14 (1.74) v 9.05 (1.59) microg/l (p = 0.001)). There was a significant correlation between changes in S-100B concentrations and both the number of headers (r = 0.430, p = 0.004) and the number of other trauma events (r = 0.517, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The concentrations of both S-100B and NSE were increased by game associated activities and events. The increases in S-100B concentration were significantly related to the number of headers and other trauma events, which indicates that both these factors may have contributed to these increases.

  • 6.
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för Rehabiliteringsmedicin.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Sojka, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för Rehabiliteringsmedicin.
    Does heading in soccer have impact on brain tissue?: a field study using analysis of markers of brain tissue injury S-100B and NSE2004In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 655-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Concussion experience: swedish elite ice hockey league2001In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 376-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Concussion in swedish elite ice hockey: a 20 years experience2004In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 663-664Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Injury registration for concussion registration2004In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 663-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Tegner, Yelverton
    et al.
    Lorentzon, Ronny
    Umeå University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics.
    Concussion among Swedish elite ice hockey players1996In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 251-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of concussion in Swedish ice hockey and to establish a uniform grading and treatment model for concussions of different severity. METHODS: Frequency of concussion was investigated in two studies, one retrospective and one prospective. In the retrospective study, all Swedish elite ice hockey players (n = 265) were asked to answer a questionnaire on the number and treatment of previous concussions. Only concussions diagnosed by a doctor were recorded. The questionnaire was completed by 227 players (86%). In the prospective study, all injuries including concussions occurring during game and practice in the Swedish Elite League (n = 12 teams) were recorded during four years. The causes of injury, referees judgements, diagnosis, treatment, and time absent from ice hockey were registered on special cards. RESULTS: In the retrospective study, 51 out of 227 players (22%) in the Swedish Elite League reported at least one concussion. In the prospective study, 52 concussions were reported. The incidence of a concussion is at least one concussion every year/team or a yearly risk of about 5% for a player to sustain a concussion. Most concussions occurred during league play (81%). Body contact (checking or boarding) was the most common cause of concussions. The players were absent from full training and play on a mean of 6 d. CONCLUSIONS: As this injury is potentially dangerous it must be treated seriously according to a simple treatment model presented. In cases of repeated concussions during the same season, a longer period of time away from play is suggested. In players who have sustained several concussions over the years a thorough medical examination including EEG, CT/MRI, and neuropsychological tests should be performed. If any of these is pathological the player should be advised to give up ice hockey.

  • 11. Tegner, Yelverton
    et al.
    Lorentzon, Ronny
    Umeå University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics.
    Evaluation of knee braces in Swedish ice hockey players1991In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 159-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this retrospective investigation we have determined the rate and types of knee injuries among Swedish ice hockey players, and related these data to the use of knee braces. Thirty-seven of the originally selected 50 hockey teams (74%) of elite or first division calibre took part in the study, and 600 players answered a questionnaire. A total of 254 previous knee injuries sustained while playing hockey were reported by 243 players; tears of the medical collateral ligament (60%), meniscus (15%) or anterior cruciate ligament (12%) were the most commonly reported injuries. Prophylactic knee braces were worn by 138 (23%) of the players. Of these, 122 (88%) had earlier sustained a knee injury, and 16 had not. A total of 17 knee injuries had occurred while the players were wearing a brace. Six of these players had previously uninjured knees while 11 had repeat injury in a brace despite earlier successful rehabilitation or operation. The most common injury in braced knees was a tear of the medial collateral ligament. We conclude that the number of knee injuries is high among Swedish ice hockey players, and that the efficacy of functional knee braces to reduce knee injuries is questionable

  • 12. Tegner, Yelverton
    et al.
    Lorentzon, Ronny
    Umeå University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics.
    Ice hockey injuries: incidence, nature and causes1991In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 87-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this prospective study, we have investigated incidence of injuries of different severity, types of injury, and mechanisms of injury during ice hockey games. All twelve Swedish elite hockey teams were observed during the season 1988-1989 when a total number of 664 games were played. There was a total number of 285 injuries, of which the majority were minor (61%) and only 9% were classified as major. Seventy-four per cent of the injuries occurred during games and 26% during practice. The overall incidence of injury was 53.0 per 1000 player-game hours. Eighty-five per cent of injuries were caused by trauma and 15% by over-use. Injuries were most often localized to the head/face (39%) or the lower limb (32%). Most injuries resulted from stick contact or player contact including checking. A reduction of minor and moderate injuries should be possible by stricter enforcement of the hockey rules, and more widespread use of visors.

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