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  • 1.
    Jacobson, Inger
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Injuries among swedish female elite football players: a prospective population study2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 84-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Injury occurrence in all 12 female elite senior football teams in premiere league was registered during 1 year. Of 269 players, 129 (48%) sustained 237 injuries. The total injury incidence was 4.6/1000 h of football. The injury incidence during practice was 2.7 and during the game time was 13.9/1000 h. The highest injury incidence during practice was to the knee (0.8/1000 h) and thigh (0.5/1000 h), and during game time was to the knee (4.4/1000 h) and head (2.2/1000 h). In total, the location for the highest injury incidence was the knee with 1.5 injuries/1000 h of football. The majority of injuries (82%) were localized to the lower extremities. Sixty-six injuries (28%) were re-occurring injuries (re-injuries). The incidence of traumatic injuries was 3.3/1000 h of football and for overuse injuries 1.3/1000 h. Overuse injuries occurred mainly during the preseason and at the beginning of the spring season. Thirty-nine percent of the injuries were slight or minor causing absence from practice or game time of less than 1 week, 39% were moderate (absence 7-28 days) and 22% were major (absence more than 28 days). The major injuries occurred often owing to trauma and were mainly to the knee.

  • 2. Lexell, Jan
    et al.
    Downham, David
    Department of Rehabilitation, Lund University Hospital, Sweden.
    Larsson, Y
    Department of Rehabilitation, Lund University Hospital, Sweden.
    Bruhn, E
    Department of Rehabilitation, Lund University Hospital, Sweden.
    Morsing, B
    Department of Rehabilitation, Lund University Hospital, Sweden.
    Heavy-resistance training in older Scandinavian men and women: short- and long-term effects on arm and leg muscles.1995In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 329-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The short- and long-term effects of heavy-resistance training (85% of one-repetition maximum (RM)) on elbow flexion and knee extension dynamic and isokinetic strength and on morphology in the biceps brachii and vastus lateralis muscles were evaluated during 1 year in 35 Scandinavian men and women, aged 70-77 years, 12 of whom formed a control group. After the first 11 weeks of training (n = 23; 3 times/week) elbow flexion and knee extension dynamic strength (1 RM) had increased [mean +/- SD] 49% +/- 16 and 163% +/- 75, respectively, with no significant difference between men and women. For the following 27 weeks, strength was maintained with one training session per week (n = 12) but dropped without training (n = 11). After the final 11 weeks of training (n = 11; 3 times/week), strength had further increased 32% +/- 16 in both the arm and the leg. Isokinetic strength measurements (Cybex II; 30 degrees/s) revealed similar but smaller gains than for dynamic strength. Muscle biopsies (n = 20) taken at the start and after the first 11 weeks of training showed a significant increase in the area of both type 1 and type 2 fibers in the biceps brachii muscle and a positive significant correlation between the percentage increase in the proportional area of type 2 fibers in the vastus lateralis muscle and the percentage increase in knee extension dynamic muscle strength. In conclusion, older Scandinavian men and women have a high capacity both to improve and to maintain muscle strength, some of which is mediated through an adaptation in the muscle fiber type population.

  • 3. Lexell, Jan
    et al.
    Miller, Michael
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Holmbäck, Anna-Maria
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Downham, David
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Voluntary activation and central activation failure in the knee extensors in young women and men2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 274-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quadriceps muscle weakness is common after knee injuries. This weakness is caused, in part, by reduced voluntary activation (VA) because of central activation failure (CAF). Superimposed electrical stimulation techniques are used to assess VA and to detect CAF. The aim of this study was to assess VA during knee extension in young healthy women and men, and to evaluate subjective discomfort from the electrical stimulation. The quadriceps muscle in six young healthy women (mean age 22 years) and six young healthy men (mean age 29 years) was stimulated during maximal voluntary contractions using a 100 Hz pulse train. Data were collected from two test sessions separated by 6-8 days and each session comprised of two trials. A visual analog scale for pain (VAS-pain) was used to evaluate subjective discomfort. Overall, young healthy, moderately active men and women did have the ability to fully activate their knee extensors isometrically, but they did not achieve full activation on every trial. In those trials where a CAF was detected, the degree was small (mean less than 2%), and did not vary between the two test sessions. Subjective discomfort was generally moderate and tolerable (mean VAS-pain score 35 mm). These results will assist the clinical assessment of muscle weakness following a knee injury and facilitate the design and evaluation of appropriate rehabilitation interventions.

  • 4. Lexell, Jan
    et al.
    Porter, Michelle M
    Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Western Ontario, London.
    Vandervoort, AA
    Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Western Ontario, London.
    Aging of human muscle: structure, function and adaptability1995In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 129-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing age, human skeletal muscles gradually decrease in volume, mainly due to a reduced number of motor units and muscle fibers, and a reduced size of type 2 fibers. As a result, progressive weakening and impaired mobility occur. High-resistance strength training is beneficial, even in the very old, and could possibly reverse some of the detrimental effects of age-related weakness. The importance of exercise for older people affords an excellent opportunity for the medicine community as a major source of information and promotion of physical activity for this rapidly growing segment of the population. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the effects of aging on the human neuromuscular system, describe some of the major underlying mechanisms of the aging atrophy and focus on the importance of strength training to improve muscle function in older people.

  • 5.
    Tengman, E.
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section for Physiotherapy, Umeå University.
    Olofsson, L. Brax
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section for Physiotherapy, Umeå University.
    Nilsson, K.G.
    Department of Orthopaedics, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå University.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Lundgren, L.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Häger, C.K.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section for Physiotherapy, Umeå University.
    Anterior cruciate ligament injury after more than 20 years: I. Physical activity level and knee function2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, no 6, p. e491-e500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about physical activity level and knee function including jump capacity and fear of movement/reinjury more than 20 years after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Seventy persons with unilateral ACL injury participated (23 ± 2 years post-injury): 33 treated with physiotherapy in combination with surgical reconstruction (ACLR), and 37 treated with physiotherapy alone (ACLPT). These were compared with 33 age- and gender-matched controls. Assessment included knee-specific and general physical activity level [Tegner activity scale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)], knee function [Lysholm score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)], jump capacity (one-leg hop, vertical jump, side hops), and fear of movement/reinjury [Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK)]. Outcomes were related to degree of osteoarthritis (OA). ACL-injured had lower Lysholm, KOOS, and Tegner scores than controls (P < 0.001), while IPAQ score was similar. ACL-injured demonstrated inferior jump capacity in injured compared with noninjured leg (6–25%, P < 0.001–P = 0.010 in the different jumps), while noninjured leg had equal jump capacity as controls. ACL groups scored 33 ± 7 and 32 ± 7 of 68 on TSK. Lower scores on Lysholm and KOOS symptom were seen for persons with moderate-to-high OA than for no-or-low OA, while there were no differences for physical activity and jump capacity. Regardless of treatment, there are still negative knee-related effects of ACL injury more than 20 years later.

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