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  • 1. Pugh, R.J.
    Experimental techniques for studying the structure of foams and froths2005In: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0001-8686, E-ISSN 1873-3727, Vol. 114-115, p. 239-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several techniques are described in this review to study the structure and the stability of froths and foams. Image analysis proved useful for detecting structure changes in 2-D foams and has enabled the drainage process and the gradients in bubble size distribution to be determined. However, studies on 3-D foams require more complex techniques such as Mutiple-Light Scattering Methods, Microphones and Optical Tomography. Under dynamic foaming conditions, the Foam Scan Column enables the water content of foams to be determined by conductivity analysis. It is clear that the same factors, which play a role in foam stability (film thickness, elasticity, etc.) also have a decisive influence on the stability of isolated froth or foam films. Therefore, the experimental thin film balance (developed by the Bulgarian Researchers) to study thinning of microfilms formed by a concave liquid drop suspended in a short vertical capillary tube has proved useful. Direct measurement of the thickness of the aqueous microfilm is determined by a micro-reflectance method and can give fundamental information on drainage and thin film stability. It is also important to consider the influence of the mineral particles on the stability of the froth and it have been shown that particles of well defined size and hydrophobicity can be introduced into the thin film enabling stabilization/destabilization mechanisms to be proposed. It has also been shown that the dynamic and static stability can be increased by a reduction in particle size and an increase in particle concentration

  • 2.
    Sharma, P.K.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Rao, K. Hanumantha
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Analysis of different approaches for evaluation of surface energy of microbial cells by contact angle goniometry2002In: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0001-8686, E-ISSN 1873-3727, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 341-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial adhesion on solid substrate is important in various fields of science. Mineral–microbe interactions alter the surface chemistry of the minerals and the adhesion of the bacterial cells to mineral surface is a prerequisite in several biobeneficiation processes. Apart from the surface charge and hydrophobic or hydrophilic character of the bacterial cells, the surface energy is a very important parameter influencing their adhesion on solid surfaces. There were many thermodynamic approaches in the literature to evaluate the cells surface energy. Although contact angle measurements with different liquids with known surface tension forms the basis in the calculation of the value of surface energy of solids, the results are different depending on the approach followed. In the present study, the surface energy of 140 bacterial and seven yeast cell surfaces has been studied following Fowkes, Equation of state, Geometric mean and Lifshitz–van der Waals acid–base (LW–AB) approaches. Two independent issues were addressed separately in our analysis. At first, the surface energy and the different components of the surface energy for microbial cells surface are examined. Secondly, the different approaches are evaluated for their internal consistency, similarities and dissimilarities. The Lifshitz–van der Waals component of surface energy for most of the microbial cells is realised to be approximately 40 mJ/m2±10%. Equation of state and Geometric mean approaches do not possess any internal consistency and yield different results. The internal consistency of the LW–AB approach could be checked only by varying the apolar liquid and it evaluates coherent surface energy parameters by doing so. The electron-donor surface energy component remains exactly the same with the change of apolar liquid. This parameter could differentiate between the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cells. Gram-negative bacterial cells having higher electron-donor parameter had lower nitrogen, oxygen and phosphorous content on their cell surfaces. Among the four approaches, LW–AB was found to give the most consistent results. This approach provides more detailed information about the microbial cell surface and the electron–donor parameter differentiates different type of cell surfaces.

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