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  • 1.
    Elankovan, P.
    et al.
    Michigan State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Technique for obtaining Raman spectra of contact nuclei In Situ1986In: Applied Spectroscopy, ISSN 0003-7028, E-ISSN 1943-3530, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 712-714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary nucleation, the formation of new crystals due to the prior presence of other growing crystals, is the primary source of new particles in most industrial crystallizers. Of the various types of secondary nucleation possible, contact nucleation, wherein a disturbance of a growing crystal surface results in nuclei, is thought to be the most prevalent.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Ursula
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Frost, Ray L.
    Queensland University of Technology.
    Forsling, Willis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Kloprogge, Theo
    Queensland University of Technology.
    Raman spectroscopy of the kaolinite hydroxyls at 77 K1998In: Applied Spectroscopy, ISSN 0003-7028, E-ISSN 1943-3530, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 1277-1282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Raman spectroscopy of two types of kaolinites has been obtained at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) with the use of a Raman microprobe and a thermal stage. The Raman spectrum is characterized by the combination of the frequencies of the inner hydroxyl and the inner surface hydroxyl groups. The inner hydroxyl frequency is reduced, and the outer hydroxyl frequencies move to higher frequencies upon cooling to 77 K. The inner hydroxyl frequency shifts from 3620 cm-1 at 298 K to 3615 cm-1 at 77 K. The two in-phase inner surface hydroxyl frequencies move from 3684 and 3689 cm-1 at 298 K to 3690 and 3699 cm-1 at 77 K. The two out-of-phase vibrations shift from 3650 and 3668 cm-1 to 3656 and 3675 cm-1. The bandwidth of the inner hydroxyl frequency decreases from 3.7 to 2.1 cm-1 at 77 K. The bandwidth of the inner surface hydroxyl frequency (upsilon 1) increases upon cooling from 17.4 to 19.2 cm-1. It is proposed that the increased resolution at low temperature enabled an additional inner surface hydroxyl frequency to be observed.

  • 3.
    McMahon, Paula M.
    et al.
    Iowa State University.
    Cerreta, Michael K.
    Iowa State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Larson, Maurice A.
    Iowa State University.
    A constant-temperature Raman cell for the study of supersaturated aqueous solutions1986In: Applied Spectroscopy, ISSN 0003-7028, E-ISSN 1943-3530, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 282-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order that the phenomena of crystal nucleation and growth from solution can be fully understood, the current knowledge of supersaturated solution structure must be extended. Previous studies on Raman spectroscopy of aqueous metal nitrate solutions indicated the presence of solvated ions, solvent separated ion pairs, contact ion pairs, and ion agglomerates as a function of concentration. Unfortunately, the concentration range of these studies did not include supersaturated solutions. It is the purpose of this work to describe an experimental technique which allows the study of supersaturated solutions.

  • 4.
    Ramser, Kerstin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Malinina, Evgenya
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Candefjord, Stefan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Resonance microRaman investigations of the rat medial preoptic nucleus- effects of a low iron diet on the neuroglobin content2012In: Applied Spectroscopy, ISSN 0003-7028, E-ISSN 1943-3530, Vol. 66, no 12, p. 1454-1460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) of the anterior hypothalamus by resonance Raman spectroscopy (514.5 nm) to determine if it is possible to enhance the Raman scattering of hemoproteins in fresh brain tissue slices. The resonance effect was compared with near-infrared Raman spectra. Two groups of male Sprague Dawley rats were studied, one control group on a normal diet and one group on a low-iron diet to evoke iron deficiency. Each group consisted of four rats, 38-41 days old. The diets lasted for 11, 12, and 15 days. The MPN regions of brain tissue slices were analyzed by monitoring raw and pre-processed mean data, by cluster analysis, and by deriving difference spectra from pre-processed mean spectra. Cluster analysis of the resonance Raman spectra could identify different hemoprotein groups, namely, hemoglobin (Hb) and neuroglobin (Ngb). Spectra from randomly distributed spots revealed high Hb content, whereas Ngb was evenly distributed in the MPN. The different spectra showed a decrease of the Ngb and lipid content for the animals on the low-iron diet. The Ngb decrease was approximately 20%. The data show that resonance Raman spectroscopy is well suited to study hemoproteins in fresh brain tissue.

  • 5.
    Száraz, Ildikó
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Forsling, Willis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Interaction between a capacitor electrolyte and γ-aluminum oxide studied by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy2003In: Applied Spectroscopy, ISSN 0003-7028, E-ISSN 1943-3530, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 622-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction between ?-aluminum oxide and an ethylene glycol (EG) based capacitor electrolyte was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. It was found that only a few ingredients of the electrolyte react with the oxide (azelaic acid, poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), and phosphoric acid); the others act as pH or conductivity buffers (boric acid, ammonia, and water). The adsorption of azelaic acid and PVP from the electrolyte was studied as a function of temperature, pH, and time, and the result was compared to the adsorption from model solutions of simpler composition. The influence of other components such as phosphoric acid both in the electrolyte and on the aluminum oxide was also investigated, as was the presence of water. At low pH and high temperature (T = 105 °C) the acid formed an ester with EG and this product adsorbed on the oxide surface. The PVP was attached to the adsorbed azelaic acid by hydrophobic interaction, which is pH independent. Ester formation was found to be catalyzed by other electrolyte ingredients like boric acid. At high pH, surface adsorption of azelaic acid occurs through a deprotonated species, which is mainly coordinated through outer-sphere complexation. At high temperature or after a long equilibration time, the surface of the alumina changed, resulting in less adsorption of the organic substances, independent of pH. This change is due to a selective adsorption of phosphate species from the electrolyte, which block active surface sites.

  • 6.
    Yedur, Sanjay K
    et al.
    Michigan State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Use of fluorescence spectroscopy in concentration and supersaturation measurements in citric acid solutions1996In: Applied Spectroscopy, ISSN 0003-7028, E-ISSN 1943-3530, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 866-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurement of supersaturation is of critical importance in the operation and control of crystallizers. In this work, we report a novel spectroscopic technique to achieve the measurement of concentration and supersaturation in crystallizing solutions. In order to develop a sensor for this measurement, citric acid is chosen as the model solute, and the analytical technique involves fluorescence spectroscopy. Citric acid is a common food-grade compound with a wide range of applications that is exclusively produced by crystallization. The fluorescent properties of a probe, 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonate (pyranine), are used to provide concentration measurements in aqueous citric acid solutions, thereby providing for supersaturation estimation. The change in the relative emission peak intensities of the probe in different solute concentrations gives an excellent calibration curve for concentration measurements. It is also shown that, although pyranine responds to both its solvent microenvironment and the pH of the solution, it is still possible to measure concentration and supersaturation by using this fluorescence technique.

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