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  • 1. Andren, Henrik
    et al.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Stenberg, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Malinovskiy, Dmitry
    Baxter, Douglas
    Sources of mass bias and isotope ratio variation in multi-collector ICP-MS: optimization of instrumental parameters based on experimental observations2004In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 19, no 9, p. 1217-1224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, several contributing factors to the observed mass bias in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have been identified. Analyses of the isotopic compositions of B deposited on sampler and skimmer cones demonstrate enrichment of [1][0]B on the former and [1][1]B on the latter. Grounding the capacitive discharge system to enhance sensitivity also magnified the level of [1][1]B enrichment on the skimmer cone more than four-fold. This supersonic expansion of the ion beam behind the sampler is confirmed to be an important source of mass bias. Isotopic analyses of the Fe, Zn and Ti leached from used extraction lenses yielded a linear relationship between the levels of lighter isotope depletion and mass ratio. Although consistent with the space-charge effect, the fact that isotopically-heavy deposits were found demonstrates that the ion beam diverges into a relatively wide solid angle in the field-free region behind the skimmer. This severely impairs transmission of, in particular, the lighter isotopes. For a wide range of elements (Li, B, Fe, Ni, Cu, Sb, Ce, Hf and Re), the magnitude of the mass bias was found to be affected by the sample gas flow rate, as well as the distance between the sampler and the end of the torch, i.e., the sampling depth, employed in the Neptune multi-collector ICP-MS instrument. Mathematical analysis of the profiles of intensity variations as a function of these instrumental parameters revealed that the response peaks closer to the torch for the heavier isotopes of all studied elements. Owing to this spatial non-coincidence, tuning for maximum intensity on either isotope will result in sampling from a region where even slight plasma instabilities will be translated into substantial variations in mass bias. Therefore, in-plasma processes also contribute to the degree and temporal stability of mass bias. In light of these findings, recommendations for optimizing multi-collector ICP-MS with respect to obtaining the highest possible precision are presented.

  • 2.
    Appelblad, Petra
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Baxter, Douglas
    Model for calculating dead time and mass discrimination correction factors from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry calibration curves2000In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 557-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model allowing simultaneous determination of the detector dead time and the mass discrimination factor in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), as well as the corresponding uncertainties, is presented and compared for three representative isotope systems, namely magnesium, indium and thallium. The advantages of using the model presented are firstly that both the detector dead time and the mass discrimination factor can be obtained simultaneously and secondly that the sampling time can be spent entirely on the isotopes of interest.

  • 3.
    Appelblad, Petra
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Baxter, Douglas
    The use of Pt guard electrode in inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry: advantages and limitations2000In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 359-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance characteristics of inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) were studied with a Pt guard electrode (GE) inserted between the torch and load coil. The importance of the optimisation procedure and the matrix effects caused by a seawater matrix were assessed for 20 elements. Oxide and doubly charged ion formation was also investigated. Use of the GE allows a significant increase in ion transmission, by a factor of three to 20, thus resulting in improved instrumental detection limits. The improvement in sensitivity is mass dependent, with the highest gain observed for lower mass elements. Since, for the majority of analytical applications, actual detection limits depend upon blank levels rather on instrumental sensitivity, the most important factor for the determination of elements at ultra-trace levels is the degree of contamination of reagents and containers used. At the same time, significantly greater oxide formation is observed when operating the GE grounded rather than in the floating mode. For example, the BaO+/Ba+ ratio is ten to twelve times higher in the grounded mode. This calls for compromised instrumental parameters and the potential for severe spectral interferences from oxide species, which are often unresolved, even in high-resolution mode. Furthermore, non-spectral interferences from the seawater matrix appear to be more pronounced with the grounded GE, yielding a recovery of Ni of 55% compared with 93% in the floating GE mode. Hence all possible advantages and limitations of the use of the GE should be carefully considered prior to the analysis of real samples.

  • 4. Baxter, Douglas
    et al.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Engström, Emma
    Malinovskiy, Dmitry
    Revised exponential model for mass bias correction using an internal standard for isotope abundance ratio measurements by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry2006In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 427-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An internal standard (IS) can be used to account for moderate, matrix-related shifts in mass bias using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry through the empirical, linear relationship between measured isotope abundance ratios for different elements in ln-ln space. Unfortunately, erroneous mass bias corrected isotope abundance ratios may be returned by the model, requiring artificial adjustment of the true isotope abundance ratio of the IS. Although inadequate correction for peak tailing has been convincingly used to explain this problem, our analysis of the literature describing the development of the mass bias correction model using an IS reveals the presence of a source of systematic error. The origin of this error is purely mathematical and is eliminated in the revised model presented, in which mass bias corrected isotope abundance ratios are independent of the isotopic composition of the IS. An expression for computing the total combined uncertainty in the corrected ratio, incorporating contributions from the linear model, the isotopic reference material, and measurements of analyte element and IS in the sample, is also derived.

  • 5. Baxter, Douglas
    et al.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    ALS Scandinavia AB.
    Engström, Emma
    ALS Scandinavia AB.
    Isotope abundance ratio measurements by inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry2012In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 1355-1381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This tutorial reviews fundamental aspects of isotope abundance ratio measurement by inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). After a synopsis of the scope of isotope abundance ratio measurement and a summary introduction to the factors affecting precision and accuracy, attention is turned to noise sources. Detailed theory behind Poisson or counting statistics and plasma flicker noise components is given, since much of the observed imprecision can be attributed to these sources. Using single collector instruments, ion beams from different isotopes are sampled in rapid sequence, and so ratioing of the signals will be subject to fluctuations derived from intensity variations, i.e., flicker noise. It is demonstrated that flicker noise can, under specified circumstances, become the limiting factor for the attainable precision. Furthermore, the practice of partitioning dwell times, ostensibly to optimize precision based on isotopic abundances and assumed Poisson statistics, is shown to be flawed and actually requires accounting for flicker noise. In addition to random uncertainty, various offset factors may contribute to systematic error in measured isotope abundance ratios. Two of these, namely mass scale shift and spectral interferences are ameliorated using ICP-SFMS. The former is eliminated when operating under conditions providing flat-topped peaks, such that the minor drift in mass calibration typical of the technique becomes inconsequential and the intensity remains the same. Isotope abundance ratio measurements are subject to three further important offset factors. First is abundance sensitivity, which quantifies the extent of peak tailing to neighboring masses and can present a considerable source of offset. Second is mass bias, resulting from the fact that all sector field devices exhibit increasing sensitivity with ion mass, and various empirical methods used to correct for this effect are compared and contrasted. Third is detector dead time, which affects mass spectrometers equipped with ion counting systems. Although a well-understood phenomenon, all current methods for determining the dead time on the basis of experimentally measured isotope abundance ratios are likely to yield biased estimates. Finally, the capabilities of ICP-SFMS for the determination of isotope abundance ratios are placed in perspective by making a brief comparison with other techniques.

  • 6.
    Björn, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Baxter, Douglas
    Fresh, Wolfgang
    Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Calibration errors due to variations in peak characteristics in the measurement of transient signals by inductively coupled plasma-scanning mass spectrometry2002In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 17, no 12, p. 1582-1588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of variations in peak characteristics on the fidelity of transient signal measurement by inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) was investigated. Specifically, the question as to whether the multi-element capabilities or the accuracy in determined analyte amounts were deteriorated compared to what has been reported previously when not considering peak variations was addressed. The peak characteristics considered were the time of the signal maximum (tpeak), the standard deviation of the assumed Gaussian input function generated by the sample introduction system (σG), and the time constant for signal decay (τ). Investigations of simulated exponentially-modified Gaussian peaks revealed that, for variations of peak characteristics within reasonable ranges, measurement noise and variations in tpeak, σG and τ all contributed to calibration uncertainty. Electrothermal vaporisation (ETV) and flow injection (FI) systems were used to experimentally generate transient signals of varying peak characteristics. Removing data points from the raw signals simulated the monitoring of up to 100 mass-to-charge ratios, allowing calibration data and analyte amounts to be determined from the processed signals. To obtain calibration graph slopes with relative standard deviations below 1% for the ETV-ICP-QMS system, it was found necessary to acquire 7-24 data points per peak for 50-5 ms dwell times. On this basis, the maximum number of mass-to-charge ratios that could be monitored in a typical ETV-ICP-QMS analysis was 4-10 using dwell times of 50-5 ms. With the FI-ICP-QMS system, variations in the peak characteristics between calibration standards and samples meant that, to obtain less than 3% error in determined analyte amounts, at least 7 or 10 points per peak were required for external and internal standardisation, respectively. It was found that variations in peak characteristics contributed more than measurement noise to the error in determined analyte amounts. In recent studies it has been reported that 3-4 data points per peak are sufficient to accurately monitor a transient if peak variations are not considered, which, for typical ETV signals, would allow the monitoring of 20 mass-to-charge ratios during a single measurement cycle. Thus the results obtained here show that the multi-element capability of ICP-QMS when monitoring transient signals can be severely compromised by such variations

  • 7.
    Engström, Emma
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Stenberg, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Baxter, Douglas
    Malinovskiy, Dmitry
    Irma, Mäkinen
    Finnish Environment Institute.
    Pönni, Seppo
    Pirkanmaa Regional Environment Centre.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Effects of sample preparation and calibration strategy on accuracy and precision in the multi-elemental analysis of soil by sector field ICP-MS2004In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 19, p. 858-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil samples were prepared for multi-element analysis using HNO3 leaching or pseudo-total digestion with HNO3, HCl and HF in a microwave oven, both methods requiring 70 min heating time. Two calibration approaches for the soil characterization were also compared: external calibration, combined with internal standardization, and isotope dilution (ID) after appropriate spiking of the soils with a stable isotope mixture prior to sample preparation. Analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). Accurate total elemental concentrations were only obtained for Cd and P using both sample preparation methods in two certified reference materials, NIST SRM 2709 and CCRMP SO-2, as well as comparable values for a Finnish inter-laboratory soil. The pseudo-total digestion method also provided accurate results for As, Be, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V and Zn. For Cu in SO-2 and Cr in both certified reference materials, incomplete recoveries were always obtained. In the case of Cr, this is due to difficulties associated with the complete solubilization of refractory minerals.For a given final dilution factor, external calibration provides better limits of detection (LODs) than ID. As both methods of quantification yield results of essentially equivalent accuracy and precision, external calibration is to be preferred as a greater number of elements are amenable to analysis in a shorter measurement time. On the other hand, ID can be combined with matrix separation (NH3 precipitation was used here), allowing lower dilution factors to be used without deleterious effects on the instrumental performance. In particular, improved LODs could be obtained for Cd, Cu and Hg, primarily as a result of being able to introduce ten-fold more concentrated solutions from which the bulk of the matrix had been removed. For Cu and Ni, matrix separation almost eliminated Ti, and thus the formation of spectrally interfering TiO+ was completely suppressed. Potentially, the combination of ID and matrix separation would allow these elements to be determined without resorting to medium resolution measurement mode, again improving the LODs for the determination by ID-ICP-SFMS.

  • 8. Heghe, Lana Van
    et al.
    Engström, Emma
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    ALS Scandinavia AB.
    Isotopic analysis of the metabolically relevant transition metals Cu, Fe and Zn in human blood from vegetarians and omnivores using multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry2012In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 27, p. 1327-1334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) was used for the isotopic analysis of Cu, Fe and Zn, isolated from human whole blood. For chromatographic isolation of these elements, the method first described by Maréchal, Telouk and Albarède (Chem. Geol., 1999, 156, 251–273) and relying on the use of AG MP-1 strong anion exchange resin was further tailored and subsequently validated. It was shown that all three target elements could be obtained in pure form and with quantitative recovery from Seronorm whole blood reference material. MC-ICP-MS isotope ratio measurement conditions were optimized so as to avoid the influence of spectral overlap and the capabilities of several methods to correct for instrumental mass discrimination were compared. The method developed was then applied to a set of whole blood samples from supposedly healthy volunteers (reference population). For Fe, the by now well-known difference in isotopic composition between blood from male and female individuals was confirmed. The isotopic composition of Zn in whole blood was assessed to be governed by the diet as a significant difference could be established between blood from vegetarians and from omnivores, respectively. For the isotopic composition of Cu, interpretation of the results is more challenging, as neither gender, nor diet seems to have a significant influence, but the combined influence of both factors may show an effect.

  • 9. Malinovskiy, Dmitry
    et al.
    Stenberg, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Andren, Henrik
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Baxter, Douglas
    Performance of high resolution MC-ICP-MS for Fe isotope ratio measurements in sedimentary geological materials2003In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 687-695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High resolution MC-ICP-MS is used for the precise measurement of variations in the isotopic composition of Fe in ferromanganese concretions and sediments relative to IRMM-014 standard. The sensitivity for 56Fe in high resolution mode was 3 V per mg lm1 Fe, a figure that is comparable to those from other MC-ICP-MS instruments operated at low resolution. Incorporation of a guard electrode and the efficient ion transmission capabilities of the Neptune MC-ICP-MS instrument are responsible for the high sensitivity. It was observed that the use of HCl resulted in the formation of ClOH+, causing interference with 54Fe in particular. This acid has been preferred in some cases over HNO3 to minimize formation of ArN+, the major interferent for 54Fe. Using the high resolution mode of the Neptune, the nature of spectral interferences is unimportant as all are completely resolved and will not affect the accuracy of the determined Fe isotope ratios. As the instrument also provides flat-topped peaks, high resolution operation does not necessarily result in impaired precision, providing that higher concentrations are used to compensate for the loss in sensitivity compared with the low resolution mode. In the present work, external reproducibilities of 56Fe/54Fe and 57Fe/54Fe isotope ratios were better than 50 ppm (one standard deviation) at a concentration of 5 mg lm1. The level of instrumental mass discrimination observed for raw ratios drifted by as much as 0.09% per mass unit over a measurement session, but could be corrected on-line by simultaneous monitoring of the 62Ni/60Ni isotope ratio. Variations in the Fe concentrations or the acid strength of measurement solutions were found to affect the apparent mass discrimination. Increasing the Fe concentration caused a relative decrease in the raw 56Fe/54Fe and 57Fe/54Fe isotope ratios, thus ruling out the space charge effect as the explanation for this phenomenon. Instead, it is suggested that the larger dry aerosol particles formed at higher Fe concentrations are not completely vaporized until later in the plasma, thus reducing the relative rate of diffusional losses of lighter 54Fe from the central channel. However, application of on-line correction using Ni could adequately account for this effect. From the results for a variety of sedimentary geological materials, analysis of three-isotope data revealed that equilibrium fractionation of Fe occurred during deposition. To be able to distinguish between equilibrium and kinetic fractionation processes, it is imperative to collect accurate and precise data for the 56Fe/54Fe and 57Fe/54Fe isotope ratios. These requirements are readily fulfilled by applying high resolution MC-ICP-MS and on-line correction for instrumental mass discrimination using Ni.

  • 10.
    Nygren, Ulrika
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ramebäck, Henrik
    FOI, Umeå.
    Baxter, Douglas
    Nilsson, Calle
    ALS Analytica AB, Luleå.
    Lanthanide phosphate interferences in actinide determination using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry2005In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 529-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The determination of actinides at low levels using ICP-MS can be interfered by polyatomic ions appearing at the same nominal mass-to-charge ratio. In this work, interferences initially found when analysing plutonium in soil and sediment samples were identified as lanthanide phosphates and the formation of these species examined. It was found that high sample gas flow rates and low rf powers enhanced the formation of lanthanide phosphates. All lanthanides studied (La, Ce, Pr and Nd) formed phosphates, albeit to various extents and of slightly different compositions. Furthermore, the lanthanide phosphate formation was verified by introducing the source of phosphorus, hydroxyethylidene diphosphonic acid (HEDPA), in an [1][8]O enriched water solution. This experiment also revealed that the HEDPA is essentially completely dissociated in the plasma and that the interfering species are most likely formed during ion extraction.

  • 11.
    Nygren, Ulrika
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of NBC Analysis.
    Baxter, Douglas
    Separation of plutonium from soil and sediment prior to determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry2003In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 1426-1434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work was to develop an optimised sample-preparation procedure for the determination of Pu in soil/sediment with ICP-MS. To start with, several different procedures were screened for their ability to separate plutonium and remove uranium. After the screening, two methods were applied on one soil (IAEA Soil6) and two sediment reference materials (IAEA300 and IAEA 135). These methods were based on separation of Pu using TEVA and a combination of UTEVA and TRU resins, followed by elution of Pu with 0.1% hydroxylethylidene diphosphonic acid (HEDPA). A comparison was also made between sample preparation based on acid-leaching and complete digestion using lithium borate fusion. The highest yield of Pu (80%) was found with the procedure consisting of fusion followed by TEVA, while the decontamination from U showed large variations (RSD varying from 16-52%) with all procedures. No difference in the recovery of Pu was found between the two sample preparation techniques. The results of the quantitative determination in low resolution of 239Pu and 240Pu from the UTEVA + TRU-separation were significantly higher than those obtained by the TEVA procedure. An analysis in higher mass resolution displayed interfering peaks in the mass-region of Pu, and lanthanide-containing polyatomic ions were found to be a likely cause for these interferences. The procedure based on lithium borate fusion and separation using the TEVA-resin avoided such interferences and was therefore tested for repeatability over time on IAEA300. The stability of the method was good (RSD = 2.49% (n = 8)), with the exception of one value being significantly higher than the others. This result was confirmed by analysis in higher mass-resolution, which indicates an inhomogeneous distribution of Pu in the reference material, despite a sample intake of about 1 g

  • 12.
    Olofsson, Rickard S
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Axelsson, Mikael D.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Performance characteristics of a tandem spray chamber arrangement in double focusing sector field ICP-MS2000In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 727-729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A tandem cyclone-Scott type spray chamber configuration combined with infrared heating and a low-flow Micromist nebulizer was evaluated for the use in a ICP-SFMS sample introduction system. The system provides about a 3-fold sensitivity gain and lower oxide formation compared to the standard introduction system, although matrix-induced signal suppression is more pronounced, especially for elements with high ionization potential. The technique was evaluated by accurate analysis of riverine water reference material SLRS-3 with generally good agreement with certified and literature values. Long-term precision at a 20rµgrlm1 concentration level was 0.7% RSD in low resolution and 1.6% RSD in medium resolution. Precision in the range 0.03-0.09% RSD for lead isotope ratios at 1rµgrlm1 was obtained.

  • 13.
    Pallavicini, Nicola
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies.
    Engström, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Baxter, Douglas
    ALS Scandinavia AB.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    A high-throughput method for the determination of Os concentrations and isotope ratio measurements in small-size biological samples2013In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1591-1599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical method allowing multi-element characterization by external calibration, osmium (Os) concentration determination by isotope dilution (ID) and 187Os/188Os isotope abundance ratio measurement from a single sample preparation was developed. The method consists of microwave-assisted, closed-vessel acid digestion of small (0.01-0.4 g dry weight) biological samples spiked with Os solution enriched in a 190Os isotope followed by concentration and Os isotope ratio measurements using double-focusing, sector field inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) operated with methane addition to the plasma and solution nebulization (SN) sample introduction. For samples with Os content below 500 pg, complementary analysis using gas-phase introduction (GPI) on the remaining sample digests was performed. The use of disposable plastic lab ware for sample digestion and analysis by SN ICP-SFMS circumvents Os carry-over effects and improves the sample throughput and cost-efficiency of the method. For a 0.1 g dried sample, Os method limits of detection (MLODs) of 2 pg g -1 and 0.2 pg g-1 were obtained using SN or GPI, respectively. Long-term reproducibility of 187Os/188Os isotope abundance ratio measurements using the GPI approach was better than 1.5% RSD for our in-house control sample (moose kidney) with an Os concentration of approximately 5 pg g-1. Os data for several commercially available reference materials of biological or plant origin (not certified for Os) are presented. The method was used in the large scale bio-monitoring of free-living bank voles from an area affected by anthropogenic Os emissions.

  • 14.
    Pallavicini, Nicola
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Engström, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Baxter, Douglas C.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    Cadmium isotope ratio measurements in environmental matrices by MC-ICP-MS2014In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 1570-1584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various stages of an analytical method for high-precision cadmium (Cd) isotope ratio measurements by MC-ICP-MS (sample preparation, matrix separation, instrumental analysis and data evaluation) were critically evaluated and optimized for the processing of carbon-rich environmental samples. Overall reproducibility of the method was assessed by replicate preparation and Cd isotope ratio measurements in various environmental matrices (soil, sediment, Fe-Mn nodules, sludge, kidney, liver, leaves) and was found to be better than 0.1‰ (2σ for δ114Cd/110Cd) for the majority of samples. Cd isotope ratio data for several commercially-available reference materials are presented and compared with previously published results where available. The method was used in a pilot study focusing on the assessment of factors affecting Cd isotope composition in tree leaves. A summary of results obtained for a large number (n > 80) of birch (Betula pubescenes) leaves collected from different locations in Sweden and through the entire growing season is presented and potential reasons for observed variability in Cd isotope composition are discussed. Seasonal dynamics of element concentrations and isotope compositions in leaves were also compared for Os, Pb, Zn and Cd.

  • 15.
    Pontér, Simon
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, ACES, Stockholm University.
    Pallavicini, Nicola
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Engström, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Baxter, Douglas
    ALS Scandinavia AB.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Chromium isotope ratio measurements in environmental matrices by MC-ICP-MS2016In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 1464-1471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical procedure consisting of high pressure/temperature acid digestion using an UltraCLAVE system and a one pass, single column matrix separation using DOWEX AG 1X8 anion exchange resin was applied to the determination of Cr concentrations and δ53Cr in chromites, soils, and biological matrices (epiphytic lichens and mosses) using a combination of ICP-SFMS and MC-ICP-MS. The overall reproducibility of the method was assessed by replicate preparation and Cr isotope ratio measurements performed by different operators in multiple analytical sessions over a few months and was found to be 0.11‰ (2σ). The accuracy was evaluated using commercially available reference materials for which measured data were compared with certified values (for Cr concentrations) and previously published results (for isotope data). The results demonstrate a uniform Cr isotope composition in soil depth profiles sampled in different urban environments. A strong negative correlation between δ53Cr and Cr concentrations in lichens and mosses indicates that airborne Cr from local anthropogenic source(s) is depleted in heavy isotopes.

  • 16.
    Reynolds, Ben C.
    et al.
    IGMR, Erdwissenschaften, ETH Zürich.
    Aggarwal, Jugdeep
    Keck Isotope Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, University of California.
    Andre, Luc
    Department of Geology, Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Leuvensesteenweg.
    Baxter, Douglas
    Beucher, Charlotte
    Department of Ecology Evolution and Marine Biology, Marine Science Institute, University of California.
    Brzezinski, Mark A.
    Department of Ecology Evolution and Marine Biology, Marine Science Institute, University of California.
    Engström, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Georg, R. Bastian
    IGMR, Erdwissenschaften, ETH Zürich.
    Land, Magnus
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Laboratory for Isotope Geology, Stockholm University.
    Leng, Melanie J.
    NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham.
    Opfergelt, Sophie
    Department of Geology, Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Leuvensesteenweg.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sloane, Hilary J.
    NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham.
    Boorn, Sander H. J. M. van den
    Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University.
    Vroon, Pieter Z.
    Department of Petrology, FALW, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan.
    Cardinal, Damien
    Department of Geology, Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Leuvensesteenweg.
    An inter-laboratory comparison of Si isotope reference materials2007In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 561-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three Si isotope materials have been used for an inter-laboratory comparison exercise to ensure reproducibility between international laboratories investigating natural Si isotope variations using a variety of chemical preparation methods and mass spectrometric techniques. These proposed standard reference materials are (i) IRMM-018 (a SiO2 standard), (ii) Big-Batch (a fractionated SiO2 material prepared at the University of California Santa Barbara), and (iii) Diatomite (a natural diatomite sample originally deposited as marine biogenic opal). All analyses are compared with the international Si standard NBS28 (RM8546) and are in reasonable agreement (<+/- 0.22 parts per thousand. 1 sigma(SD) delta Si-30) given the different measurement techniques involved. These methods include both acid and alkaline dissolution/fusion, Si separation using cation exchange, selective co-precipitation, and gas-source versus plasma-ionization (high and low resolution) mass-spectrometric techniques. The average delta Si-30 for Diatomite, IRMM-018, and Big-Batch are + 1.26 parts per thousand, -1.65 parts per thousand and -10.48 parts per thousand, respectively, with corresponding delta Si-9 values of + 0.64 parts per thousand, -0.85 parts per thousand and -5.35 parts per thousand for the same standards, respectively. For the most fractionated standard (Big-Batch), results demonstrate a kinetic mass-dependent fractionation effect for atomic Si (i.e., delta Si-29 similar to 0.51 x delta Si-30). There is almost no statistical difference between the mean values obtained by each participating laboratory, with the notable exception of the IRMM-018 standard. This effect could be caused by heterogeneity or contamination of this standard. The results for the other two standards indicate that data sets produced using any of the methods employed in this study will have similar precision and differences are limited to 0.2 parts per thousand in mean delta Si-30 values for a given sample between laboratories, or differences of 0.13 parts per thousand. in mean delta Si-29 values.

  • 17.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Nordlund, Peter
    Analytica AB.
    Engström, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Baxter, Douglas
    Improved multi-elemental analyses by inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry through methane addition to the plasmat2005In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 1250-1255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the analytical performance of double focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) caused by addition of methane to the argon gas ICP were studied for approximately 100 isotopes of 70 elements. The parameters under consideration included instrumental background, analyte sensitivity, precision and formation of spectral interferences as functions of methane flow added to the sample gas. It was shown that for many analytes the capabilities of ICP-SFMS significantly improve by virtue of enhanced sensitivity and reduction of polyatomic interferences. In contrast to quadrupole-based ICP-MS, these gains in instrumental performance do not compromise multi-element capabilities given that the amount of methane is carefully optimized. The accuracy of the results for the determination of 50 elements in water samples was evaluated using the certified reference materials SLRS-4 and SLEW-2.

  • 18.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    et al.
    ALS Scandinavia AB.
    Pallavicini, Nicola
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Engström, Emma
    ALS Scandinavia AB.
    Sörlin, Dieke
    ALS Scandinavia AB.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Baxter, Douglas C.
    ALS Scandinavia AB.
    Assessment of the natural variability of B, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Sr, Tl and Zn concentrations and isotopic compositions in leaves, needles and mushrooms using single sample digestion and two-column matrix separation2016In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 220-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical procedure allowing multi-elemental analyses and isotope ratio measurements of eight of these (B, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Sr, Tl and Zn) in matrices relevant for bio-monitoring using a single highpressure acid digestion was developed. Method blanks, separation efficiency of matrix elements, repeatability and reproducibility were evaluated using sets of preparation blanks, certified reference materials and duplicate samples prepared and analyzed over a period of several months. The method was used to assess the natural variability of concentrations and isotopic compositions in bio-indicators (tree leaves, needles and mushrooms, over 240 samples) collected mainly from a confined area in North-East Sweden. Ranges found from leaves and needles were compared with data obtained for limited numbers of samples collected in Spain, Italy, France, United Kingdom and Iceland.

  • 19.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Axelsson, Mikael D.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Malinovskiy, Dmitry
    Baxter, Douglas
    Analyte- and matrix-dependent elemental response variations in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: Part 1. The roles of plasma and ion sampling conditions2002In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 1223-1230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elemental response variations as a function of carrier gas flow rate in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were studied for a wide range of analytes. The effects of rf power, focus lens settings, thermodynamic properties of analytes and sample matrix were thoroughly examined. It was found that, with the experimental set-up used for this work, processes occurring in the ICP, rather than during ablation and transport, play the decisive role in determining the shapes of flow rate plots observed with LA. Responses for analytes of lower nominal masses and vaporization enthalpies peak at consistently higher flow rates (1.15 1 min-1) than other elements, independent of matrix. On the other hand, the magnitude of the maximum sensitivity is matrix dependent, even for these elements. Involatile elements display much broader maxima at considerably lower flow rates; the more refractory the matrix, the lower the optimum flow rate. This behaviour is consistent with the residence time in the ICP necessary to maximize the efficiency of analyte ion production. The existence of inter-elemental differences in the locations of zones of maximum ion densities formed in the ICP can thus be related to the times required for vaporization of any given analyte from the particles produced by LA. Such differences may be responsible for numerous fractionation effects mentioned in the LA literature. It is also demonstrated that the ion sampling process can affect the shapes of the flow rate plots, potentially shifting the apparent position of the optimum flow rate and confounding the interpretation of inter-element response differences

  • 20.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Axelsson, Mikael D.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Malinovskiy, Dmitry
    Baxter, Douglas
    Analyte- and matrix-dependent elemental response variations in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: Part 2. Implications for multi-element analyses2002In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 1231-1239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has the potential to directly determine the concentrations of some 80 elements in solid samples, the fact that most applications are limited to considerably smaller numbers of analytes is indicative of the inherent problems with calibration. These stem from elemental response variations, both between analytes in any given sample and between matrices for any given analyte. Although response variations are often attributed to differences in ablation or transport efficiencies, there have also been indications that some degree of elemental fractionation may occur in the ICP. The results of the present investigations demonstrate that the ICP is the predominant source of fractionation, and thus response variations are related to the thermodynamic properties of the elements and their host particles. By studying analyte response as a function of carrier gas flow rate (so called flow rate plots) in 16 matrices, patterns in the behaviour of the elements in LA-ICP-MS could be clearly discerned and used for classification. Three groups of elements displaying consistent behavioural patterns over all matrices were identified from these studies: Group A, comprising refractory elements with high oxide bond dissociation enthalpies; Group B, including the rare and heavier alkaline earth (Ca, Sr, Ba) elements; and Group C, consisting of volatile or low mass elements. As each group exhibits decidedly different optimum flow rates and flow rate plot shapes which, with the exception of the group C elements, also depend on the matrix, the utility of LA-ICP-MS for multi-element analyses is severely compromised. In fact, quantitative determination of a wide range of analytes demands that calibration factors be established for at least one element from each group, as well as for all elements that could not be satisfactorily classified. This classification may serve as a guide in the selection of suitable internal standards for LA-ICP-MS, at least for certain groups of analytes. Examples are also given showing how flow rate plots can be employed to predict the adequacy of selected internal standards or solid standard materials for calibration

  • 21.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ruth, Thomas
    Determination of trace metals in estuarine and sea-water reference materials by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry1997In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 12, no 10, p. 1181-1185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A rapid method for the determination of 15 trace metals in saline water samples by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) was tested. The method was validated by the analysis of estuarine (SLEW-2), coastal (CASS-2) and open ocean (NASS-4) water certified reference materials. No sample pre-treatment other than acidification and dilution was carried out. Results in good agreement with certified values (where available) were obtained for all metals except for Cd and Zn. Discrepancies for these elements are explained by an unresolved MoO interference (Cd) and insufficient internal standard correction (Zn). Present data indicate that HR-ICP-MS is applicable to the rapid and accurate multi-element determination, virtually free from spectral interferences, of trace metals at pg ml[^^ -1] levels in saline water.

  • 22.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ruth, Thomas
    Klockare, Dennis
    Non-spectral interferences caused by a saline water matrix in quadrupole and high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry1998In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 159-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-spectral interferences caused by a sea-water matrix diluted 5-fold on the analyte signals of 24 trace elements in ICP-MS were studied in relation to instrumental parameters. Both quadrupole (ICP-QMS) and double focusing-sector (ICP-SMS) ICP-MS were studied. The parameters were torch injector diameter, sampling depth (i.e., distance from the load coil to the sampler orifice) and rf power. A distinction was made between absolute matrix effects, expressed as integrated signal recovery over a range of nebulizer flow rates (NFR), and matrix effects monitored at a fixed NFR. For the elements studied, it was found that the degree of non-spectral interference depends on both ionization potential (IP) and atomic mass. Generally, the greater the IP and atomic mass of the analyte, the lower the recovery in the presence of the matrix. It appears that, by using optimum plasma settings in ICP-SMS, analyte signal changes may be kept to a moderate level during prolonged introduction of a sea-water matrix. The accuracy of the analytical results can be further improved by using a systematically selected set of internal standard elements

  • 23.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ödman, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Olofsson, Rickard
    Axelsson, Mikael D.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Determination of 60 elements in whole blood by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry2000In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 937-944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is described for the determination of 60 elements in whole blood, using a double-focusing ICP-MS instrument. Microwave-assisted digestion in low-volume PFA vessels resulted in 10-fold sample dilution. External calibration with matrix-matched standards was used for quantification. Different factors affecting detection limits are discussed. The performance of the method for the determination of environmentally relevant concentrations was evaluated using a whole blood reference material and intercomparison samples. Owing to high instrumental detection power and low preparation blanks, 57 elements could be detected in the bovine whole blood reference material (IAEA A-13). Trace element leaching from commercially available blood sampling tubes made of glass was shown to be a serious contamination factor. Concentrations obtained for three calf blood samples taken under `metal-free' conditions are presented.

  • 24.
    Sjögren, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Appelblad, Petra K.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Tovedal, Annika
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Ramnebäck, Henrik
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Isotope amount ratio measurements by ICP-MS: Aspects of software induced measurement bias and non-linearity2005In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 320-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of a post-acquisition software induced bias on the measurement of the 235U/238U isotope amount ratio in the reference material IRMM-184 was studied. The total uranium concentration ranged from 7 to 2500 pg g-1 [80 (235U) to 3 500 000 (238U) counts per second], thus covering the entire pulse counting range of the ICP-MS instrument. The bias for the measured ratio increases with decreasing count rate, and it is mostly governed by the count rate of the 235U isotope. Blocking the data into large subgroups is one way of reducing the effects of the bias; however, a decreased number of blocks is accompanied by an increased scattering of the standard uncertainty. Using a more laborious, manual data evaluation procedure of a less processed raw measurement signal not only solves the problem, it also increases the linear measurement range by at least ten times. At the lowest concentration, 7 pg g-1 total uranium concentration, the combined uncertainty of the observed ratio was less than 5% (k = 2).

  • 25.
    Stenberg, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Malinovskiy, Dmitry
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andren, Henrik
    Ponter, Christer
    Analytica AB.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Baxter, Douglas
    Separation of Fe from whole blood matrix for precise isotopic ratio measurements by MC-ICP-MS: a comparison of different approaches2003In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 23-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anion-exchange and precipitation procedures for Fe separation from unspiked human whole blood after microwave digestion and ashing decomposition techniques were thoroughly evaluated in terms of Fe recoveries, decreases in matrix element concentrations and elimination of interfering species for subsequent Fe isotope ratio measurements by multi-collector ICP-MS. During isotope ratio measurements involving 54Fe, 56Fe and 57Fe, on-line mass discrimination correction using Ni isotopes was applied, significantly reducing uncertainties both within and between Fe sample runs. Despite Fe recoveries below 100% for all separation procedures studied, no artificial isotope fractionation was detected. The degree of Fe fractionation in a commercially available, whole blood sample (Trace Elements in Whole Blood, Level 1, Sero AS), expressed as 56i (m2.83 - 0.06‰) and 57i (m4.23 - 0.08‰) values relative to IRMM-014 Fe isotopic reference material, agrees well with previously published data. Of the tested separation procedures, precipitation using NH3 was found to be the most rapid and cost-effective method, yielding high Fe recovery and low levels of concomitant elements.

1 - 25 of 25
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