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  • 1.
    Nilsson, Lino
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Modelling tool for predicting and simulating nitrogen concentrations in cold-climate mining ponds2018In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 380, p. 40-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A nitrogen model was developed with the aim to trace nitrogen cycling in a cold climate-mining pond at the Aitik copper mine in northern Sweden. The model contains 10 state variables and 19 nitrogen cycling reactions. The model also includes sediment and physical properties of the pond, such as evaporation, freezing and thawing. The model was written in Mathworks MATLAB and was calibrated and validated using environmental monitoring data for the clarification pond at the Aitik mine. The data used comprised monthly values of nitrogen speciation, phosphorous and water flow. The model accurately predicts ammonium (r2 = 0.84) and nitrate (r2 = 0.82) concentrations in a time series from February 2012–August 2014. The model did not accurately predict nitrate concentrations (r2 = 0.11), presumably due to high oxygen concentration in the pond water that prevented denitrification in the water column. The transport of organic material to the sediment was also limiting denitrification in the sediment. When allowing denitrification in the water column as well as increasing the rate of transport of organic material to the sediment the nitrate prediction capacity increased to a satisfactory level (r2 = 0.54). A sensitivity analysis for the system showed that the most sensitive reactions for the water column were oxic mineralisation as well as the nitrification rate.

  • 2.
    Wu, Jiechen
    et al.
    KTH, Industriell ekologi.
    Franzén, Daniel
    KTH, Industriell ekologi.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, Industriell ekologi.
    Nutrient flows following changes in source strengths, land use and climate in an urban catchment, Råcksta Träsk in Stockholm, Sweden2016In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 338, p. 69-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing nutrient flows to urban lakes is one of the main challenges to environmental sustainability in cities. Considering that future urban and climate changes may increase the challenge of handling future eutrophication, prediction of future nutrient loadings to aquatic environments in urban catchments has become increasingly important. Based on a new, innovative, structured Substance Flow Analysis (SFA) approach, where a source model was coupled to a Generalised Watershed Loading Functions (GWLF) model, this study investigated nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) delivery from sources to a water recipient for an urban catchment, using the case of Racksta Trask in Stockholm, Sweden, as an example. Potential effects from future changes in atmospheric deposition, vehicle volume and land use and from climate change (temperature and precipitation) were examined by comparing model scenarios in two periods (2000-2009 and 2050-2059). Model results suggested that climate change may have a greater impact on nitrogen loading to Racksta Trask lake than increasing vehicle volume and land use change. In addition, the results suggested that nitrogen loading to the lake may increase taking into account all changes examined, despite the expected decrease in background atmospheric deposition of nitrogen. In contrast, a marginal impact was found for phosphorus loading to the lake under all scenarios examined, resulting in only a slight increase in the combined scenario. From a nutrient pathways perspective, the results suggested that major pathways of nutrient loadings to the lake may not be much affected under most future scenarios examined, although groundwater was found to be a potentially sensitive pathway of nitrogen transport in the climate scenario. The model results provided important information for managers who need to plan for future nutrient handling in urban catchments, and the coupled SFA-GWLF model was suggested to be worthy of further testing at other sites and conditions.

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