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  • 1.
    Aalipour, Mojgan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Human Factors Approach for Maintenance Improvement2015Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research work is to explore and describe human factors affectingmaintenance execution. To achieve the purpose of this study, the influencing factors have been identified using a literature survey. They have been categorized into four main groups namely organizational, workplace, job and individual factors. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is employed on data questionnaires to rank the priority of the factors. The interrelationships between these factors have been recognized by theInterpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) model. In the present case studies, MICMAC1analysis technique is also implemented for identifying the driving, dependent, linkage and autonomous factors. The data was collected through a questionnaire survey involving the participation of 16 and 25 maintenance staff and 10 mining experts in Swedish and Iranian mines, respectively. Within the study, it has been identified that the temperature, work layout, tools design and tools availability are the most important factors in both mines related to these categories. However, the significant factors in the organizational and individual categories are different in the selected mines. The effect of workplace factors on the maintainability of mining equipment is discussed and thereafter a methodology for maintainability management in the design and operation phases is developed. In the thirdcase study HEART2 is applied to estimate the probability of human error occurring duringmaintenance execution in an Iranian cable company. This research supports maintenance management to gain knowledge of human factors that affect maintenance execution. Further, this understanding could be useful in the development of strategies to improve the execution of maintenance.Keywords: Human Factors, Maintenance Management, Human Reliability, HumanPerformance, AHP, ISM, MICMAC, HEART

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  • 2.
    Aalipour, Mojgan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Ayele, Yonas Zewdu
    Department of Engineering and Safety, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø.
    Barabadi, Abbas
    Tromsø University, Department of Engineering and Safety, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø.
    Human reliability assessment (HRA) in maintenance of production process: a case study2016Ingår i: International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, ISSN 0975-6809, E-ISSN 0976-4348, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 229-238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human reliability makes a considerable contribution to the maintenance performance, safety, and cost-efficiency of any production process. To improve human reliability, the causes of human errors should be identified and the probability of human errors should be quantified. Analysis of human error is very case-specific; the context of the field should be taken into account. The aim of this study is to identify the causes of human errors and improve human reliability in maintenance activities in the cable manufacturing industry. The central thrust of this paper is to employ the three most common HRA techniques—human error assessment and reduction technique, standardized plant analysis risk-human reliability, and Bayesian network—for estimating human error probabilities and then to check the consistency of the results obtained. The case study results demonstrated that the main causes of human error during maintenance activities are time pressure, lack of experience, and poor procedure. Moreover, the probabilities of human error, obtained by employing the three techniques, are similar and consistent

  • 3.
    Aalipour, Mojgan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Barabadi, Abbas
    Tromsø University, University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway.
    Work place factors effect on maintainability in challenging operating conditions2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM): Singapore, 6-9 Dec. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 767-771, artikel-id 7385751Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Some industries such as mining industry create complex and challenging work place for maintenance crews. For example in an underground mine, for some machines, heavy maintenance tasks must be performed on site in a limited workspace in a harsh environment, including dust and improper illumination. Such operating conditions can increase the health, safety, and environment (HSE) risk, reduce the availability of the machines and increase the life cycle cost of equipment. A review of current mining equipment design and maintenance procedure confirms that considerable reduction in HSE risk, as well as substantial cost savings, can be achieved by considering human factors. This study discusses the effect of workplace factors on the maintainability of mining equipment. It presents the results from questionnaires on the effect of work place factors on maintainability performance given to maintenance staff at two mines, one in northern Sweden and the other in Iran.

  • 4.
    Aalipour, Mojgan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Singh, Sarbjeet
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Identification of Factors affecting Human performance in Mining Maintenance tasks2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop and congress on eMaintenance: June 17-18 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenance, Trends in technologies & methodologies, challenges, possibilites and applications / [ed] Uday Kumar; Ramin Karim; Aditya Parida; Philip Tretten, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2014, s. 71-76Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the factors affecting humanperformance in maintenance task in mining sector. Theobjective is identify various factors and to classify them asdriving (strong driving power and weak dependence) anddependent factors (weak driving power and strongdependence). The factors were identified through literaturesurvey and are ranked using mean score of data questionnaire.The reliability of measures is pretested by applyingCronbach’s alpha coefficient to responses to a questionnairegiven to maintenance personnel. The interrelationshipsbetween human factors have been recognized by interpretivestructural modeling (ISM). Further, these factors have beenclassified using matrice d'impacts croises-multiplicationappliqué à un classement (MICMAC) analysing. This casestudy will figure out the factors affecting human performancefor deriving maintenance management insights to improveproductivity in the mining sector. Further, this understandingmay be helpful in framing the policies and strategies formining industry. Temperature, lighting, documentation,communication and fitness are driving factors. Moreover,Work layout, tools availability, complex tasks, time pressure,safety, boss decisions, training, fatigue and motivation havestrong driving power as well as high dependencies and itcomes under the category of linkage factors.

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  • 5.
    Aamir, Muhammad Haseeb
    et al.
    Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie, GeoRessources, University of Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Gonçalves, Pedro Pereira
    Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Peñalolén, Santiago, Chile.
    Otsuki, Akira
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie, GeoRessources, University of Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Peñalolén, Santiago, Chile; Neutron Beam Technology Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan.
    Complementary results of non-destructive elemental assay and liberation analysis of waste printed circuit boards2024Ingår i: Non-Destructive Material Characterization Methods / [ed] Otsuki, Akira; Jose, Seiko; Mohan, Manasa; Thomas, Sabu, Elsevier , 2024, s. 767-782Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Abarkan, Abdellah
    et al.
    Blekinge tekniska högskola, Karlskrona, Sverige.
    Rizzo, Agatino
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Öjehag-Pettersson, Andreas
    Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sverige.
    Byerley, Andrew
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Karvonen, Andy
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Legby, Ann
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Braide, Anna
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Hellström, Björn
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Christophers, Brett
    Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Johansson, Britt-Marie
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Yigit Turan, Burcu
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Listerborn, Carina
    Malmö universitet, Malmö, Sverige.
    Dyrssen, Catharina
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Gabrielsson, Catharina
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Thörn, Catharina
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Mukhtar-Landgren, Dalia
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Koch, Daniel
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Polanska, Dominika V
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Högström, Ebba
    Blekinge tekniska högskola, Karlskrona, Sverige.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Clark, Eric
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Stenberg, Erik
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Andersson, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Henriksson, Greger
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Lindholm, Gunilla
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Sandin, Gunnar
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Forsberg, Gunnel
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Baeten, Guy
    Malmö universitet, Malmö, Sverige.
    Cars, Göran
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Rohracher, Harald
    Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sverige.
    Westlund, Hans
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Mattsson, Helena
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Frichot, Hélène
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Palmer, Henrietta
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Corvellec, Hervé
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Thörn, Håkan
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Sandström, Ida
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Lindell, Ilda
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Werner, Inga Britt
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Molina, Irene
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Mack, Jennifer
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Stenberg, Jenny
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Magnusson, Jesper
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Metzger, Jonathan
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Wangel, Josefin
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Fredriksson, Julia
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Bradley, Karin
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Grundström, Karin
    Malmö universitet, Malmö, Sverige.
    Nylund, Katarina
    Malmö universitet, Malmö, Sverige.
    Grange, Kristina
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Nilsson, Kristina L.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Ståhl, Lars-Henrik
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Olsson, Lina
    Malmö universitet, Malmö, Sverige.
    Soneryd, Linda
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Smas, Lukas
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Hellström Reimer, Maria
    Malmö universitet, Malmö, Sverige.
    Håkansson, Maria
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Zapata Campos, María José
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Franzén, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Kärrholm, Mattias
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Qviström, Mattias
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Schalk, Meike
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Tesfahuney, Mekonnen
    Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sverige.
    Tahvilzadeh, Nazem
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Björling, Nils
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Nylander, Ola
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Zapata, Patrik
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Femenías, Paula
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Hagbert, Pernilla
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Schmitt, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Ek, Richard
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Andersson, Roger
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Kopljar, Sandra
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Borgström, Sara
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Brorström, Sara
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Schmidt, Staffan
    Malmö universitet, Malmö, Sverige.
    Gromark, Sten
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Westerdahl, Stig
    Malmö universitet, Malmö, Sverige.
    Holgersen, Ståle
    Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Urban, Susanne
    Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Salonen, Tapio
    Malmö universitet, Malmö, Sverige.
    Borén, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Haas, Tigran
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Glad, Wiktoria
    Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sverige.
    Svane, Örjan
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Lyssna på forskningen: Den visar på avregleringens problem2019Ingår i: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, nr 10/21/2019Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
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  • 7.
    Abba, Alia Besma
    et al.
    Laboratory of Water and Environment Engineering in Saharan Environment, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Saggai, Sofiane
    Laboratory of Water and Environment Engineering in Saharan Environment, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Touil, Youcef
    Laboratory of Biogeochemical of Desert Environment, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Kouadri, Saber
    Laboratory of Water and Environment Engineering in Saharan Environment, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Nouasria, Fatima Zohra
    Dynamic Interactions and Reactivity of Systems, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Najm, Hadee Mohammed
    Department of Civil Engineering, Zakir Husain Engineering College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India.
    Mashaan, Nuha S.
    Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.
    Eldirderi, Moutaz Mustafa A.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia.
    Khedher, Khaled Mohamed
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia; Department of Civil Engineering, High Institute of Technological Studies, Mrezgua University Campus, Nabeul 8000, Tunisia.
    Copper and Zinc Removal from Wastewater Using Alum Sludge Recovered from Water Treatment Plant2022Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, nr 16, artikel-id 9806Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to determine Aluminum sludge composition and structure for its valorisation as an alternative natural material for heavy metals removal from wastewater for further reuse as treated water in different applications. The study was conducted to investigate the introduction of Al-bearing sludge composition. The physical and chemical properties were examined using X-ray diffraction tests (XRD), scanning electron microscope tests (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared tests (FTIR), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller tests (BET). Furthermore, the heavy metal concentrations of synthetic wastewater were measured using the spectrophotometry method. The experimental procedure is based on testing different pH limits and amounts of aluminum sludge to find the optimum conditions for copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) removal. The results demonstrated a high removal efficiency where its value reached up to 97.4% and 96.6% for Zn and Cu, respectively, in an acidic medium (pH = 6) using a relatively high amount of sludge (1400 mg). Nevertheless, a low efficiency was obtained in the strongly acidic medium (pH = 4) and a smaller sludge amount of about 480 mg.

  • 8.
    Abba, S. I.
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Baze University, Abuja, Nigeria.
    Abdulkadir, R. A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Nigeria.
    Gaya, M. S.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Nigeria.
    Sammen, Saad Sh.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Diyala, Diyala Governorate, Iraq.
    Ghali, Umar
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Near East University, Mersin-10, Nicosia, North Cyprus, 99138, Turkey.
    Nawaila, M. B.
    Department of Computer Science Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Nigeria.
    Oğuz, Gözde
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Near East University, Mersin 10, Nicosia, North Cyprus, Turkey.
    Malik, Anurag
    Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bathinda, Punjab, 151001, India.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Effluents quality prediction by using nonlinear dynamic block-oriented models: A system identification approach2021Ingår i: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 218, s. 52-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic and complex municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP) process should be handled efficiently to safeguard the excellent quality of effluents characteristics. Most of the available mathematical models do not efficiently capture the MWWTP process, in such cases, the data-driven models are reliable and indispensable for effective modeling of effluents characteristics. In the present research, two nonlinear system identification (NSI) models namely; Hammerstein-Wiener model (HW) and nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous (NARX) neural network model, and a classical autoregressive (AR) model were proposed to predict the characteristics of the effluent of total suspended solids (TSSeff) and pHeff from Nicosia MWWTP in Cyprus. In order to attain the optimal models, two different combinations of input variables were cast through auto-correla-tion function and partial auto-correlation analysis. The prediction accuracy was evaluated using three statistical indicators the determination coefficient (DC), root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (CC). The results of the appraisal indicated that the HW model outperformed NARX and AR models in predicting the pHeff, while the NARX model performed better than the HW and AR models for TSSeff prediction. It was evident that the accuracy of the HW increased averagely up to 18% with regards to the NARX model for pHeff . Likewise, the TSSeff performance increased averagely up to 25% with regards to the HW model. Also, in the validation phase, the HW model yielded DC, RMSE, and CC of 0.7355, 0.1071, and 0.8578 for pHeff, while the NARX model yielded 0.9804, 0.0049 and 0.9902 for TSSeff, respectively. For comparison with the traditional AR, the results showed that both HW and NARX models outperformed in (TSSeff) and pHeff prediction at the study location. Hence, the outcomes determined that the NSI model (i.e., HW and NARX) are reliable and resilient modeling tools that could be adopted for pHeff and TSSeff prediction.

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  • 9.
    Abba, S.I.
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Baze University, Abuja, Nigeria; Interdisciplinary Research Center for Membrane and Water Security, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.
    Abdulkadir, R.A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Nigeria.
    Sammen, Saad Sh.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Diyala, Diyala Governorate, Iraq.
    Pham, Quoc Bao
    Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia in Katowice, Będzińska street 60, 41-200, Sosnowiec, Poland.
    Lawan, A.A.
    Department of Computer Science, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Nigeria.
    Esmaili, Parvaneh
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Near East University, Nicosia, North Cyprus, Turkey.
    Malik, Anurag
    Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bathinda 151001, Punjab, India.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Integrating feature extraction approaches with hybrid emotional neural networks for water quality index modeling2022Ingår i: Applied Soft Computing, ISSN 1568-4946, E-ISSN 1872-9681, Vol. 114, artikel-id 108036Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The establishment of water quality prediction models is vital for aquatic ecosystems analysis. The traditional methods of water quality index (WQI) analysis are time-consuming and associated with a high degree of errors. These days, the application of artificial intelligence (AI) based models are trending for capturing nonlinear and complex processes. Therefore, the present study was conducted to predict the WQI in the Kinta River, Malaysia by employing the hybrid AI model i.e., GA-EANN (genetic algorithm-emotional artificial neural network). The extreme gradient boosting (XGB) and neuro-sensitivity analysis (NSA) approaches were utilized for feature extraction, and six different model combinations were derived to examine the relationship among the WQI with water quality (WQ) variables. The efficacy of the proposed hybrid GA-EANN model was evaluated against the backpropagation neural network (BPNN) and multilinear regression (MLR) models during calibration, and validation periods based on Nash–Sutcliffeefficiency (NSE), mean square error (MSE), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and correlation coefficient (CC) indicators. According to results of appraisal the hybrid GA-EANN model produced better outcomes (NSE = 0.9233/ 0.9018, MSE = 10.5195/ 9.7889 mg/L, RMSE = 3.2434/ 3.1287 mg/L, MAPE = 3.8032/ 3.0348 mg/L, CC = 0.9609/ 0.9496) in calibration/ validation phases than BPNN and MLR models. In addition, the results indicate the better performance and suitability of the hybrid GA-EANN model with five input parameters in predicting the WQI for the study site.

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  • 10.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Wasimi, Saleh
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.
    Flow Variation of the Major Tributaries of Tigris River Due to Climate Change2019Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 437-442Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq relies greatly  on  the  flow of  the  Euphrates  and  Tigris Rivers  and  their tributaries. Five tributaries namely Khabour, Greater Zab, Lesser Zab, AlAd- hiam  and  Daylia,  which  are  the  major  tributaries  of  Tigris  River,  sustain Northern  Iraq  Region,  a  semi-arid,  mainly  a  pastureland.  These  tributaries contribute about 24 km3  of water annually. The discharge in the tributaries, in recent  times,  has  been  suffering  increasing  variability  contributing  to  more severe droughts and floods apparently due to climate change. This is because there were no dams constructed outside Iraq previously. For an appropriate appreciation,  Soil  Water  Assessment Tool  (SWAT)  model  was used  to evaluate  the  impact  of  climate  change  on  their  discharge  for  a  half-centennial lead time to 2046-2064 and a centennial lead time to 2080-2100. The suitability of the model was first evaluated, and then, outputs from six GCMs were incorporated  to  evaluate  the  impacts  of  climate  change  on  water  resources under three emission scenarios: A1B, A2 and B1. The results showed that wa-ter resources are expected to decrease with time.

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  • 11.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne .
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources of Greater Zab River, Iraq2016Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, nr 12, s. 1384-1402Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Greater Zab is the largest tributary of the Tigris River in Iraq where the catchment area is currently being plagued by water scarcity and pollution problems. Contemporary studies have revealed that blue and green waters of the basin have been manifesting increasing variability contributing to more severe droughts and floods apparently due to climate change. In order to gain greater appreciation of the impacts of climate change on water resources in the study area in near and distant future, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) has been used. The model is first tested for its suitability in capturing the basin characteristics, and then, orecasts from six GCMs (general circulation models) with about half-a-century lead time to 2046~2064 and one-century lead time to 2080~2100 are incorporated to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources under three emission scenarios: A1B, A2 and B1. The results showed worsening water resources regime into the future.

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    Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources of Greater
  • 12.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Australia.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources in Diyala River Basin, Iraq2016Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, nr 9, s. 1059-1074Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Diyala River is the third largest tributary of the Tigris River running 445 km length and draining an area of 32,600 km2. The river is the major source of water supply for Diyala City for municipal, domestic, agriculture and other purposes. Diyala River Basin currently is suffering from water scarcity and contamination problems. Up-to-date studies have shown that blue and green waters of a basin have been demonstrating increasing variability contributing to more severe droughts and floods seemingly due to climate change. To obtain better understanding of the impacts of climate change on water resources in Diyala River Basin in near 2046~2064 and distant future 2080~2100, SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) was used. The model is first examined for its capability of capturing the basin characteristics, and then, projections from six GCMs (general circulation models) are incorporated  to assess the impacts of climate change on water resources under three emission scenarios: A2, A1B and B1. The results showed deteriorating water resources regime into the future.

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  • 13.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Model-Based Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Isaac River Catchment, Queensland2016Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 7, s. 460-470Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Isaac River catchment, which is located within Fitzroy basin in Central Queensland, Australia is mostly a semi-arid region, sparsely populated, but rife with economic activities such as mining, grazing, cropping and production forestry. Hydro-meteorological data over the past several decades reveal that the catchment is experiencing increasing variability in precipitation and streamflow contributing to more severe droughts and floods supposedly due to climate change. The exposure of the economic activities in the catchment to the vagaries of nature and the possible impacts of climate change on the stream flow regime are to be analyzed. For the purpose, SWAT model was adopted to capture the dynamics of the catchment. During calibration of the model 12parameters were found to be significant which yielded a R2 value of 0.73 for calibration and 0.66 for validation. In the next stage, six GCMs from CMIP3 namely, CGCM3.1/T47, CNRM-CM3, GFDLCM2.1, IPSLCM4, MIROC3.2 (medres) and MRI CGCM2.3.2 were selected for climate change projections in the Fitzroy basin under a very high emissions scenario (A2), a medium emissions scenario(A1B) and a low emissions scenario (B1) for two future periods (2046-2064) and (2080-2100). All GCMs showed consistent increases in temperature, and as expected, highest rate for A2 and lowest rate for B1. Precipitation predictions were mixed-reductions in A2 and increases in A1B and B1, and more variations in distant future compared to near future. When the projected temperaturesand precipitation were inputted into the SWAT model, and the model outputs were compared with the baseline period (1980-2010), the picture that emerged depicted worsening water resources variability.

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  • 14.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Bhattarai, Surya
    School of Medical and Applied Sciences, Centra l Queensland University, Melbourne .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Impacts of Climate Change on Fitzroy River Basin, Queensland, Australia2017Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 38-47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of historical data of Fitzroy River, which lies in the east coast of Australia, reveals that there is an increasing trend in extreme floods and droughts apparently attributable to increased variability of blue and green waters which could be due to climate change. In order to get a better understanding of the impacts of climate change on the water resources of the study area for near future as well as distant future, SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) model was applied. The model is first tested for its suitability in capturing the basin characteristics with available data, and then, forecasts from six GCMs (general circulation model) with about half-a-century lead time to 2046~2064 and about one-century lead time to 2080~2100 are incorporated to evaluate the impacts of climate change under three marker emission scenarios: A2, A1B and B1. The results showed worsening water resources regime into the future.

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    fulltext
  • 15.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Wasimi, Saleh
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sultana, Nasrin
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Water resources problems of Iraq: Climate change adaptation and mitigation2018Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 26, artikel-id 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is suffering from water scarcity, and future predictions indicate that it could get worse due to changing climate. Arguably, climate change is one of the greatest challenges onfronting this region it could have significant adverse effects on water resources and hence the environment and economy, particularly in the agricultural sector. This study considers possible adaptation and mitigation measures that could be undertaken in response to climate change. To overcome this problem,adaptation measures at farm and government level were conferred. Farm-level adaptation comprises adopting crop modification, soil conservation, irrigation, changing crop calendar and planting of trees. The government role is to ensure success of these adaptation measures. The government should get involved and support the farmers financially and technologically.

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    fulltext
  • 16.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Nasrin, Sultana
    RMIT, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Sabah H.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.
    The Impacts of Sea Level Rise on Basrah City,Iraq: The Impacts of Sea Level Rise on Basrah City,Iraq2020Ingår i: Open Journal of Geology, ISSN 2161-7570, E-ISSN 2161-7589, Open Journal of Geology, ISSN 2161-7570, Vol. 10, nr 12, s. 1189-1197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sea Level Rise (SLR) above the Mean Sea Level (MSL) is more likely to cause a significant risk to the coastal regions. This research explores the potential impact of sea level rise, due to climate change, on coastal areas. It examines the impact of sea level rise on Basrah city and adjacent cities in Iraq. A digital elevation model (DEM) was used to create a model of Potentially Inundated Areas, manipulated and processed in Geographical Information System version 10.7 (ArcGIS 10.7). Through this model, the impact of sea level rise was assessed on the surface area. After the susceptible areas were delineated, it was estimated that at worst case scenario of 5 m sea level rise will impact Basrah city by losing 38 percent of its total surface area.

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  • 17.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    The school of engineering & technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    The school of engineering & technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources of Greater Zab and Lesser Zab Basins, Iraq, Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool Model2017Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering, ISSN 2010-376X, Vol. 11, nr 10, s. 823-829Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Greater Zab and Lesser Zab are the major tributaries of Tigris River contributing the largest flow volumes into the river. The impacts of climate change on water resources in these basins have not been well addressed. To gain a better understanding of the effects of climate change on water resources of the study area in near future (2049-2069) as well as in distant future (2080-2099), Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied. The model was first calibrated for the period from 1979 to 2004 to test its suitability in describing the hydrological processes in the basins. The SWAT model showed a good performance in simulating streamflow. The calibrated model was then used to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources. Six general circulation models (GCMs) from phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) under three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5 for periods of 2049-2069 and 2080-2099 were used to project the climate change impacts on these basins. The results demonstrated a significant decline in water resources availability in the future.

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    fulltext
  • 18.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Baby, Sultana Nasrin
    Department of Geospatial Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
    Recent Trends and Long-Range Forecasts of Water Resources of Northeast Iraq and Climate Change Adaptation Measures2018Ingår i: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, nr 11, s. 1-19, artikel-id 1562Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has been experiencing water resources scarcity, and is vulnerable to climate change. Analysis of historical data revealed that the region is experiencing climate change to a degree higher than generally reported elsewhere. The relationship between climate change and its effect on water resources of a region has been sparsely addressed in published literature. To fill that gap this research work first investigates if there has been a significant change in climate in the region, which has been found to be true. In the next stage, the research projects future climatic scenarios of the region based on six oft-used General CirculationModel (GCM) ensembles, namely CCSM4, CSIRO-Mk3.6.0, GFDL-ESM2M, MEROC5, HadGEM2-ES, and IPSL-CM5A-LR. The relationship between climate change and its impact on water resources is explored through the application of the popular, widely used SWAT model. The model depicts the availability of water resources, classified separately as blue and green waters, for near and distant futures for the region. Some of the findings are foreboding and warrants urgent attention of planners and decision makers. According to model outputs, the region may experience precipitation reduction of about 12.6% and 21% in near (2049–2069) and distant (2080–2099) futures, respectively under RCP8.5. Those figures under RCP4.5 are 15% and 23.4%, respectively and under RCP2.6 are 12.2% and 18.4%, respectively. As a consequence, the blue water may experience decreases of about 22.6% and 40% under RCP8.5, 25.8% and 46% under RCP4.5, and 34.4% and 31% under RCP2.6 during the periods 2049–2069 and 2080–2099, respectively. Green water, by contrast, may reduce by about 10.6% and 19.6% under RCP8.5, by about 14.8% and 19.4% under RCP4.5, and by about 15.8% and 14.2% under RCP2.6 during the periods 2049–2069 and 2080–2099, respectively. The research further investigates how the population are adapting to already changed climates and how they are expected to cope in the future when the shift in climate is expected to be much greater.

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  • 19.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Wasimia, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Water Resources of Lesser Zab, Kurdistan, Iraq Using SWAT Model2016Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, s. 697-715Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Kurdistan in northern Iraq, a semi-arid region, predominantly a pastureland, is nourished by Lesser Zab, which is the second major tributary of Tigris River. The discharge in the tributary, in recent times, has been experiencing increasing variability contributing to more severe droughts and floods supposedly due to climate change. For a proper appreciation, SWAT model has been used to assess the impact of climate change on its hydrological components for a half-centennial lead time to 2046-2064 and a centennial lead time to 2080-2100. The suitability of the model was first evaluated, and then, outputs from six GCMs were incorporated to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources under three emission scenarios: A1B, A2 and B1. The results showed worsening water resources regime.

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    fulltext
  • 20.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Techno logy, Central Queensland Univ ersity, Melbourne, Australia .
    Wasimia, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering & Techno logy, Central Queensland Univ ersity, Melbourne, Australia .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources of Al-Adhaim, Iraq Using SWAT Model2016Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, s. 716-732Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    SWAT model (Sediment and Water Assessment Tool) was used to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources in Al-Adhaim Basin which is located in north east of Iraq. Al-Adhaim River is the main source of fresh water to Kirkuk City, one of the largest cities of Iraq. Recent studies have shown that blue and green waters of the basin have been manifesting increasing variability contributing to more severe droughts and floods apparently due to climate change. In order to gain greater appreciation of the impacts of climate change on water resources in the study area in near and distant future, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) has been used. The model is first tested for its suitability in capturing the basin characteristics, and then, forecasts from six GCMs with about half-a-century lead time to 2046-2064 and one-century lead time to 2080-2100 are incorporated to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources under three emission scenarios: A2, A1B and B1. The results showed worsening water resources regime into the future.

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    fulltext
  • 21.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Wasimia, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering & Technology Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment of climate change impacts on water resources of Khabour in Kurdistan , Iraq using SWAT model2016Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 24, s. 1-21, artikel-id 10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Khabour River is one of five tributaries of Tigris River and the first river flows into Tigris River contributing to Tigris Flow by about 2 BCM at Zakho Station. The area of this catchment is 6,143 km2, of which 57% are located in Turkey and 43% in Iraq with a total length of 181 km. Khabour River is the main source of fresh water to Duhok City, one of the major cities of Kurdistan Region. Hydrometeorological data over the past several decades reveal that the catchment is experiencing increasing variability in precipitation and stream flow contributing to more severe droughts and floods presumably due to climate change. SWAT model was applied to capture the dynamics of the basin. The model was calibrated at Zakho station. The performance of the model was rather satisfactory; R2 and ENC were 0.5 and 0.51, respectively in calibration period. In validation process R2 and ENC were nearly consistent. In the next stage, six GCMs from CMIP3 namely, CGCM3.1/T47, CNRM-CM3, GFDL-CM2.1, IPSLCM4, MIROC3.2 (medres) and MRI CGCM2.3.2 were selected for climate change projections in the basin under a very high emissions scenario (A2), a medium emissions scenario (A1B) and a low emissions scenario (B1) for two future periods (2046-2064) and (2080-2100). All GCMs showed consistent increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation, and as expected, highest rate for A2 and lowest rate for B1. The projected temperatures and precipitation were input to the SWAT model to project water resources, and the model outputs were compared with the baseline period (1980-2010), the picture that emerged depicted deteriorating water resources variability.

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    Khabour
  • 22.
    Abbas, Zainab Dekan
    et al.
    Environmental Department, Urban Planning College, Kufa University, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Jassim, Osama
    Environmental Department, Urban Planning College, Kufa University, Iraq.
    Locating Dam Sites For Water Harvesting: Case Study Of Najaf Province, Iraq2019Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, Vol. 27, s. 1-8, artikel-id 10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Middle East is considered as an arid area. Iraq was an exception due to the presence of the Tigris  and  Euphrates  Rivers. After  1970,  the  flow  of  these  rivers  started  to  decrease  due  to  climate change  and  building  of  dams  in  the  upper  parts  of  the  catchments  of  the  rivers.  Now,  Iraq  is experiencing  water  shortage  problems.  Rain  water  harvesting  will  definitely  minimize  the  effect  of water shortage problems. In this research an arid area was selected (al Najaf) to find out the best sites for water harvesting using GIS techniques. The good agreement between the results from a simple GIS model  and  observations  in  cases  such  as  al  Najaf  Sea  is  indicating  a  promising  future  for  GIS application  in  hydrological  modeling.  The  present  study  proposed  a  function  formula  of  estimating suitable dam site using existing geographic information map such as the digital elevation maps. It is expected that it will save time, cost and work force. Finally, through the contour map of the study area, the lowest three elevation values at the governorate level were observed (20, 40, 60m). Based on these values, three possibilities were suggested to select the dam sites.

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    fulltext
  • 23.
    Abbasi, Hamon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Velayat park: En plats för gränsöverskridande möten mellan människor med olika socioekonomisk status2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Tehran, the capital of Iran has undergone major urbanization in the last century, which has caused uncontrollable urban growth. Poor regulation and control of this growth has given rise to environmental problems including high air and water pollution. In turn, this has led to urban growth towards the mountains in the north, where the environment is better. However, this pressure to develop in the north has increased segregation of the city and created a clear social division of class between the northern and southern parts of the City.

    In light of this, and in the context of Tehran as an extremely dense city with limited green space, the City sees a possibility in transforming an unused military airport in the southern districts of the city into a new urban park.

    This master thesis explores how to reclaim the 270Ha former airfield and develop it as an urban park with strengthened links to surrounding neighbourhoods.

    The work aims to gain an understanding of how large vacant areas can become successful public areas and green places in the community. The work is based on urban theory and site analysis and brings forward design proposals for the park.

    Analysis work is divided into an investigative and exploratory stage. The investigative part includes literature studies, data collection and mapping of the city’s urban morphological development, taking into account physical and socio-economic processes. The exploratory part consisted of inventories, site studies and interviews in Tehran, as well as integration analysis with space syntax to explore accessibility and connections in the new park.

    Throughout the study shows how and why the city has evolved and highlights a connection between living in the southern districts, which are low-income areas, with also having poor access to public and recreation areas.

    This analysis forms the foundations for the design proposal, visualizations and programs presented about how the area can be designed as a new urban city park.

    In conclusion, the study highlights that in order to be able to develop new places or renew existing area’s, consideration must be given to urban morphological development. This includes the socio-economic and socio-ecological process. It further concludes, that a ecological viewpoint together with a understanding of the physical environment, the urban landscape identity and the need of people in the context needs to be brought together to plan and create parks and urban spaces

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  • 24.
    Abbott, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    The architectural design of Swedish live-work premises: A case study on live-work premises and its potential2021Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    En pandemi har tvingat många att arbeta hemifrån och mixad arbetsmiljön med bostadsmiljön. Frågan är om detta fungerar? Ett relativt ungt koncept baserat på ett uråldrigt är “bokaler”. Bokaler är ett koncept där bostaden integreras och lever i symbios med arbetet. Bokaler som koncept involverar mer än bara hemmakontor. Arbetet ifråga är i konceptet inte begränsat till det man redan kan utföra i bostaden utan inkluderar även traditionella serviceyrken. Efter ett år med nya arbetsförhållanden var det många som vill behålla möjligheten att kunna arbeta hemifrån men samtidigt har det varit en del som har rapporterat missnöje med arbetsförhållandet. Med denna plötsliga nya trend ska denna rapport då undersöka vilka design metoder som bör utföras för att designa en “god” arbetsplats som lever i symbios med en “god” bostad, det vill säga en “god” bokal.

    Denna studie inleder även med en hypotes att bokaler även kan hjälpa när det kommer till att skapa mer tryggare och attraktiva städer. Då trygghet och attraktivitet förknippas med blandstaden som myntas både av arkitekter och kommunfolk. Möjligheten att etablera bokaler och se hur ett sådant koncept passar in i Sveriges städer ska också undersökas.

    Undersökningen är baserat på en fallstudiemetod där det empirin kommer från nuvarande användare utav bokaler, arkitekter, stadsplanerare och andra sakkunniga. Samt kommer även teorier om hur man skapar goda miljöer jämföras med existerande bokaler. Fallstudien jobbar även ihop med en designmetod där man använder som argument för designval. Studien använder detta för att se om överväganden om hur bokaler ska designas kan replikeras och är sanna.

    Studien lyckades få tag en handfullägare utav bokaler (tio stycken), fem arkitekter och analysera sex olika typologier utav bokaler. Resultatet visade att det oftast var otroligt trångt att få in alla kvaliteter som önskas i en arbetsmiljö, respektive bostadsmiljö. Eftersom bokaler är alltid placerat i bottenplan upplever användare en otrygghet och en utsatthet för stadsmässiga besvärligheter. Arkitekter påpekar även det finns en del lagstiftande element som förhindrar konceptet att blomstra till fullo samt att det även kan finnas kulturella och samhällsmässigabegränsningar. Exempelvis taxeras arbetsplatser och bostäder olika ochnär man har en symbios av dessa blir det svårt att avgöra vad som ska gälla. Sedan är det även så att samhället i Sverige är designat att gynna störreföretag och inte de mindre företag somskulle använda bokaler. Att börja etablera små företag i ett bostadsområde skulle innebära en stor risk för dessa bokalägare.

    Det kom alltså fram till att man måste överväga tre saker när man designaren bokal för att den ska kunna frodas i ett svenskt samhälle. Dessa tre överväganden var sedan även testade på ett område och projekt i Luleå. Funktionerna (bostads- och arbetsfunktioner) ska helst inte beblandas i bostaden, detta för att man ska kunna separera för att undvika konflikter ochför att trivseln i bokalen ska höjas. Bokalen bör vara flexibel och ha möjlighet att kunna anpassa sig för förändringar och olika funktioner.Man behöver tänka sig för hur man förhåller sig till resten av staden. Bokalens placering i staden är viktigt för att den ska överleva, men även föratt de som bor i bokalen ska trivas bör organisationen av hur funktioner placeras i bokalen reflekteras över. Att bokalen kan bidra till attraktivt samhälle är svårt att avgöra innan man ser att bokaler kan faktiskt frodas i vårt samhälle. Möjligheten att uppnå social kontroll med bokaler fungerari teorin men det behöver undersökas ytterligare.

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  • 25.
    Abbu, Muthanna
    et al.
    Building and Construction Engineering Deptartment, Northern Technical University, Mosul, Iraq.
    Al-Attar, Alyaa A.
    Building and Construction Engineering Deptartment, Northern Technical University, Mosul, Iraq.
    Abd Alrahman, Saad
    Building and Construction Engineering Deptartment, Northern Technical University, Mosul, Iraq.
    Al-Gburi, Majid
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    The mechanical properties of lightweight (volcanic pumice) concrete containing fibers with exposure to high temperatures2023Ingår i: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Materials, ISSN 2191-0243, Vol. 32, nr 1, artikel-id 20220249Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires are considered one of the main risks leading to building collapse. Lightweight concrete comprises a variety of components, each of which has a distinct behavior under the effect of temperature change. A total of sixteen concrete mixtures were investigated in this paper. A reference mix of concrete comprising simply ordinary Portland cement and ten mixes having varying percentages of fine and coarse lightweight aggregates (pumice), which were replaced gravel and sand by fine pumice and coarse aggregates pumice by 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. In addition, the study focused on the effects of adding fibers to lightweight aggregate concrete mixtures. Polypropylene fibers, carbon fibers, and steel fibers were employed as fiber additions. The binary mixture had higher density than the remaining mixtures containing one substitute. The behavior of six concrete mixes in addition to the reference mix of ordinary concrete after exposure to temperatures 100, 250, 350 and 450 °C for two hours and then cooled in two ways (water and air) as well as examined directly and the results showed that the concrete mixes containing fiber better behavior compared to other mixtures, especially at high temperature. If left to cool in the air, the lightweight concrete containing Volcanic Pumice can recover its compression strength after being exposed to high temperatures.

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  • 26.
    Abd El‑Hameed, Mona M.
    et al.
    Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt.
    Abuarab, Mohamed E.
    Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abdel Mottaleb, Shady
    Agricultural Botany Department - Plant Physiology Division, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
    Bakeer, Gomaa A.
    Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt.
    Gyasi‑Agyei, Yeboah
    School of Engineering and Built Environment, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, 4111, Australia.
    Mokhtar, Ali
    Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt.
    Phycoremediation of contaminated water by cadmium (Cd) using two cyanobacterial strains (Trichormus variabilis and Nostoc muscorum)2021Ingår i: Environmental Sciences Europe, ISSN 2190-4707, E-ISSN 2190-4715, Vol. 33, nr 1, artikel-id 135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Water pollution with heavy metals is a severe dilemma that concerns the whole world related to its risk to natural ecosystems and human health. The main objective was to evaluate the removal efficiency of Cd of various concentrations from contaminated aqueous solution by use of two cyanobacterial strains (Nostoc muscorum and Trichormus variabilis). For this purpose, a specially designed laboratory pilot-scale experiment was conducted using these two cyanobacterial strains on four different initial concentrations of Cd (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L−1) for 21 days.

    Results

    N. muscorum was more efficient than T. variabilis for removing Cd (II), with the optimum value of residual Cd of 0.033 mg L−1 achieved by N. muscorum after 21 days with initial concentration of 0.5 mg L−1, translating to removal efficiency of 93.4%, while the residual Cd (II) achieved by T. variabilis under the same conditions was 0.054 mg L−1 (89.13% removal efficiency). Algal growth parameters and photosynthetic pigments were estimated for both cyanobacterial strains throughout the incubation period.

    Conclusions

    High Cd concentration had a more toxic impact on algal growth. The outcomes of this study will help to produce treated water that could be reused in agrarian activities.

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  • 27.
    Abdeldjouad, Lokmane
    et al.
    EVRNZA Laboratory, University of Ouargla, Ouargla, Algeria; Department of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Ouargla, Ouargla, Algeria.
    Dheyab, Wisam
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Tikrit University, Tikrit, Iraq.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Asadi, Afshin
    EnvoGéotechnique Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Shukla, Sanjay Kumar
    Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Research Group, School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027, Australia.
    Thermal curing effects on alkali-activated treated soils with palm oil fuel ash2023Ingår i: Case Studies in Construction Materials, E-ISSN 2214-5095, Vol. 19, artikel-id e02455Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Regarding the significance of binder quantity, alkali activator molarities, and thermal curing, this work was utilized to geopolymerize with a potassium-based alkaline activator to strengthen soils. Five different molarities of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) in four different amounts were utilized to activate the clayey soil. POFA admixtures have been used to test soils. The results showed that for mixtures with 10 and 12.5 molarities, the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) with 15 % and 20 % of POFA was stronger. Comparing the strengths of the blends with various POFA amounts and concentration molarities allowed for this determination. To increase the strength, it is crucial to consider how the geopolymerization method's temperature and curing time affect the UCS of the soil-POFA mixture with and without fibers. The UCS of the treated soil mixtures was changed by heating at 30, 50, 70, and 90 degrees C. The outcomes demonstrate that increasing the curing temperature will hasten the alkaline activation process. After seven days of heating, the treated soil specimens with and without fibers exhibit the best mechanical properties at a healing temperature of about 70 degrees C, with compressive strengths of 16.7 and 11.4 MPa. The interaction between the geo-polymeric matrix and the fiber surface, the molarities of the alkaline solution, and the heating temperature were the most important aspects, according to an investigation of the microstructures, in improving the behavior of the reinforced mixes. By offering an efficient approach for increasing the qualities of soil treated by the alkali activation of POFA through the inclusion of glass fibers with adequate molarities of reagent and cure heating temperature, the current work offers new insights into soil stabilization operations. This has advantages over conventional calcium-based binders due to their emission of carbon dioxide during manufacture, which is one of the major causes of global warming.

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  • 28.
    Abdel-Hameed, Amal Mohamed
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt.
    Abuarab, Mohamed
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sayed, Hazem
    Irrigation and Drainage Department, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, Giza, 12613, Egypt.
    Kassem, Mohamed A.
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt.
    Elbeltagi, Ahmed
    Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt.
    Mokhtar, Ali
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt; School of Geographic Sciences Key Lab. of Geographic Information Science (Ministry of Education), East China Normal University, Zhongshan, China.
    Estimation of Potato Water Footprint Using Machine Learning Algorithm Models in Arid Regions2024Ingår i: Potato Research, ISSN 0014-3065, E-ISSN 1871-4528Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise assessment of water footprint to improve the water consumption and crop yield for irrigated agricultural efficiency is required in order to achieve water management sustainability. Although Penman-Monteith is more successful than other methods and it is the most frequently used technique to calculate water footprint, however, it requires a significant number of meteorological parameters at different spatio-temporal scales, which are sometimes inaccessible in many of the developing countries such as Egypt. Machine learning models are widely used to represent complicated phenomena because of their high performance in the non-linear relations of inputs and outputs. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to (1) develop and compare four machine learning models: support vector regression (SVR), random forest (RF), extreme gradient boost (XGB), and artificial neural network (ANN) over three potato governorates (Al-Gharbia, Al-Dakahlia, and Al-Beheira) in the Nile Delta of Egypt and (2) select the best model in the best combination of climate input variables. The available variables used for this study were maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), average temperature (Tave), wind speed (WS), relative humidity (RH), precipitation (P), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), solar radiation (SR), sown area (SA), and crop coefficient (Kc) to predict the potato blue water footprint (BWF) during 1990–2016. Six scenarios (Sc1–Sc6) of input variables were used to test the weight of each variable in four applied models. The results demonstrated that Sc5 with the XGB and ANN model gave the most promising results to predict BWF in this arid region based on vapor pressure deficit, precipitation, solar radiation, crop coefficient data, followed by Sc1. The created models produced comparatively superior outcomes and can contribute to the decision-making process for water management and development planners. 

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  • 29.
    Abdel-Hameed, Amal Mohamed
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.
    Abuarab, Mohamed EL-Sayed
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mehawed, Hazem Sayed
    Irrigation and Drainage Department, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, Giza 12613, Egypt.
    Kassem, Mohamed Abdelwahab
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.
    He, Hongming
    School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 210062, China.
    Gyasi-Agyei, Yeboah
    School of Engineering and Built Environment, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111, Australia.
    Mokhtar, Ali
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt; School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 210062, China.
    Winter Potato Water Footprint Response to Climate Change in Egypt2022Ingår i: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 13, nr 7, artikel-id 1052Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The limited amount of freshwater is the most important challenge facing Egypt due to increasing population and climate change. The objective of this study was to investigate how climatic change affects the winter potato water footprint at the Nile Delta covering 10 governorates from 1990 to 2016. Winter potato evapotranspiration (ETC) was calculated based on daily climate variables of minimum temperature, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity during the growing season (October–February). The Mann–Kendall test was applied to determine the trend of climatic variables, crop evapotranspiration and water footprint. The results showed that the highest precipitation values were registered in the northwest governorates (Alexandria followed by Kafr El-Sheikh). The potato water footprint decreased from 170 m3 ton−1 in 1990 to 120 m3 ton−1 in 2016. The blue-water footprint contributed more than 75% of the total; the remainder came from the green-water footprint. The findings from this research can help government and policy makers better understand the impact of climate change on potato crop yield and to enhance sustainable water management in Egypt’s major crop-producing regions to alleviate water scarcity.

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  • 30.
    Abdel-Khalek, N.A.
    et al.
    Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), PO Box 87, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.
    Yassin, K.E.
    Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), PO Box 87, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.
    Selim, K. A.
    Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), PO Box 87, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.
    Rao, Kota Hanumantha
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Kandel, A.-H.
    Chemistry Department Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Helwan, Egypt.
    Effect of starch type on selectivity of cationic flotation of iron ore2012Ingår i: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section C, ISSN 0371-9553, E-ISSN 1743-2855, Vol. 121, nr 2, s. 98-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cationic flotation is one of the most widely accepted technologies for upgrading siliceous iron ore using polysaccharides (mainly starches) as depressing agents for iron bearing minerals while floating silica with amines. In this paper, a group of starches are investigated as depressants for haematite. These starches are wheat, corn, rice, potato and dextrin. The role of starch type on the selectivity of the separation process has been studied through zeta potential, adsorption measurements as well as flotation tests. The effects of type of starch and pH of the medium have been studied. The results indicate that the selectivity of the separation process is strongly affected by the type of starch used, where better results are obtained with corn starch or wheat starch in comparison to the other types. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements indicated that the interaction between starches and haematite surface is intermolecular interaction.

  • 31.
    Abdelnasser, Amr
    et al.
    Geological Engineering Department, Faculty of Mines, Istanbul Technical University. Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha.
    Kumral, Mustafa
    Geological Engineering Department, Faculty of Mines, Istanbul Technical University.
    Zoheir, Basem
    Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benaha.
    Karaman, Muhittin
    Geological Engineering Department, Faculty of Mines, Istanbul Technical University.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    REE geochemical characteristics and satellite-based mapping of hydrothermal alteration in Atud gold deposit, Egypt2018Ingår i: Journal of African Earth Sciences, ISSN 0899-5362, Vol. 145, s. 317-330Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New geochemical data of the hydrothermal alteration zones associated with gold-bearing quartz veins at Atud mine are used for better understanding the ore evolution and exploration vectoring. ASTER and Landsat 8 OLI data are used to elucidate the distribution of gold-associated alteration zones. Three alteration zones are defined; zone 1 (sericite-kaolinite-quartz-pyrite), zone 2 (quartz-sericite-albite-pyrite), and zone 3 (chlorite-carbonate-epidote ± pyrite). Sericite and hydrothermal quartz are confined to the mineralized quartz veins. Fe-OH and OH-bearing minerals are observed along NW- and NE-trending shear zones in the Main Atud mine. The association of gold-bearing quartz veins and sericite alteration is constrained by processing ASTER- and OLI-imagery data. The geochemical data of the ore-enveloping hydrothermally altered rocks are used to assess the behavior of the REEs during the mineralization process. Mild enrichment in LREE and significant enrichment in the HREE are associated with sericite in zones (1) and (2) alterations. Carbonate alteration (zone 3) is enriched in LREE and in immobile HREE. Moreover, LREE and Eu anomalies have negative correlated with the Alteration Index (A.I.) and K2O index (K.I.) in zones 1 and 2, suggesting high mobility of LREE in K-rich hydrothermal fluids. On the other hand, HREE anomalies with increasing MgO index (M.I.) in alteration zone 3 may imply low solubility of these elements in alkaline solutions. Au anomalies linked to sericite/silica alteration is a rather meaningful vector for further exploration in the area.

  • 32.
    Abdollahi, Morteza
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, Urmia University, Iran.
    Bahrami, Ataallah
    Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering – Urmia University, P.O. Box 57561/51818, Iran.
    Saleh Mirmohammadi, Mir
    School of Mining Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran.
    Kazemi, Fatemeh
    Faculty of Engineering – University of Kashan, Iran.
    Danesh, Abolfazl
    Complex of Copper Processing – Sungun, Headquarters Rd, Tabriz, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
    Ghorbani, Yousef
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    A process mineralogy approach to optimize molybdenite flotation in copper: molybdenum processing plants2020Ingår i: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 157, artikel-id 106557Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sungun copper-molybdenum operation in Iran uses a typical copper-molybdenum flowsheet to produce separate copper and molybdenum concentrates through flotation and regrinding of the rougher concentrates arising from the primary circuit. This site was used as a case study limited to the feed and products of the copper-molybdenum separation circuit, in which process mineralogy might improve the quality of the molybdenum concentrate thorough diagnostic analysis of key flowsheet streams. The undesirable presence of copper in the molybdenum concentrate was identified as a key focus for the investigation by process mineralogy, which has a history of successful process diagnosis. This is because it develops information on minerals, which is far more informative than chemical assays alone. Together with the assays, the mineralogical data inform the investigator of the type and quantity of minerals present, their state of liberation and textural associations, and metal recovery.

    A key finding was that the appearance of chalcopyrite in the molybdenum concentrate was due to the presence of a chalcopyrite-pyrite texture that avoided the chalcopyrite depression in the molybdenum circuit because of suitable pyrite flotation conditions. Recovery of liberated pyrite to this concentrate also diluted the molybdenum concentrate. The open-circuit format of the regrind circuit also contributed to the unnecessary production of ultrafine particles. This flaw expressed itself as ultrafine losses of molybdenite to the flotation tailings.

  • 33.
    Abdolmaleki, Mehdi
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Rasmussen, Thorkild Maack
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Pal, Mahendra K.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Exploration of IOCG Mineralizations Using Integration of Space-Borne Remote Sensing Data with Airborne Geophysical Data2020Ingår i: XXIV ISPRS Congress, Commission III (Volume XLIII-B3-2020) / [ed] N. Paparoditis, C. Mallet, F. Lafarge, J. Jiang, A. Shaker, H. Zhang, X. Liang, B. Osmanoglu, U. Soergel, E. Honkavaara, M. Scaioni, J. Zhang, A. Peled, L. Wu, R. Li, M. Yoshimura, K. Di, O. Altan, H. M. Abdulmuttalib, F. S. Faruque, International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) , 2020, s. 9-16Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, remote sensing technologies are playing a significant role in mineral potential mapping. To optimize the exploration approach along with a cost-effective way, narrow down the target areas for a more detailed study for mineral exploration using suitable data selection and accurate data processing approaches are crucial. To establish optimum procedures by integrating space-borne remote sensing data with other earth sciences data (e.g., airborne magnetic and electromagnetic) for exploration of Iron Oxide Copper Gold (IOCG) mineralization is the objective of this study. Further, the project focus is to test the effectiveness of Copernicus Sentinel-2 data in mineral potential mapping from the high Arctic region. Thus, Inglefield Land from northwest Greenland has been chosen as a study area to evaluate the developed approach. The altered minerals, including irons and clays, were mapped utilizing Sentinel-2 data through band ratio and principal component analysis (PCA) methods. Lineaments of the study area were extracted from Sentinel-2 data using directional filters. Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) were used for classification and analysing the available data. Further, various thematic maps (e.g., geological, geophysical, geochemical) were prepared from the study area. Finally, a mineral prospectively map was generated by integrating the above mentioned information using the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP). The prepared potential map for IOCG mineralization using the above approach of Inglefield Land shows a good agreement with the previous geological field studies.

  • 34.
    Abdulhameed, Ali A.
    et al.
    Department of Reconstruction and Projects, University of Baghdad, Baghdad 10071, Iraq.
    Hason, Mahir M.
    Disaster Information Management Centre, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad 10071, Iraq.
    Sharba, Amjad Ali K.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Hanoon, Ammar N.
    Department of Reconstruction and Projects, University of Baghdad, Baghdad 10071, Iraq.
    Amran, Mugahed
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, 11942 Alkharj, Saudi Arabia.; Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and IT, Amran University, 9677 Amran, Yemen.
    Magbool, Hassan M.
    Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Experimental and environmental investigations of the impacts of wood sawdust on the performance of reinforced concrete composite beams2023Ingår i: Case Studies in Construction Materials, E-ISSN 2214-5095, Vol. 19, artikel-id e02550Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been established that using recycled materials to replace some of the fine aggregates is a viable solution. Most researchers focused on the durability aspect of wood sawdust concrete, while less information is available on its structural performance. Therefore, this article aimed to investigate the performance of reinforced concrete beams fabricated from concrete with a partially replaced fine aggregate (FA) by wood sawdust (WS) in the range of 5–45 % (by weight). Six beams underwent 4-point bending tests till collapse. The beams' slump, density, compressive strength, cracking and failure mode, energy absorption, and economic and environmental aspects were studied. The findings showed that the failure region of sawdust concrete was more significant than the reference samples. Despite the compressive strength of the concrete containing different ratios of sawdust being reduced by about 7–30 %, the target compressive strength still has a limit of low to normal concrete grade. The results show that the increase in sawdust percentages decreased the acquired absorbed energy of the subjected load to reach failure. A cost reduction of 9 % and a cost index of 61 % is achieved using wooden sawdust-based concrete. By substituting sawdust for fine aggregate, the sustainability of sawdust concrete in terms of cost and environmental advantages may be improved. In addition, it is well-known that harnessing the transformative potential of industrial waste in concrete production not only minimizes landfill usage, but also promotes resource efficiency, reduces carbon emissions, and advances the circular economy, propelling designers, engineering and builders towards a greener and more sustainable future in the construction industry. According to the test findings, wood sawdust may be utilized to produce normal and low-strength structural concrete.

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  • 35.
    Abdulhameed, Isam Mohammed
    et al.
    University of Anbar, College of Engineering, Upper Euphrates Basin Developing Centre, Ramadi, Iraq.
    Sulaiman, Sadeq Oleiwi
    University of Anbar, College of Engineering, Dams and Water Resources Department, Ramadi, Iraq.
    Ahmed Najm, Abu Baker
    University of Anbar, College of Engineering, Dams and Water Resources Department, Ramadi, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Optimising water resources management by Using Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) in the West of Iraq2022Ingår i: Journal of Water and Land Development, ISSN 1429-7426, nr 53, s. 176-186Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has been suffering from decreasing Euphrates discharge due to the construction of dams within upstream countries and the use of surface irrigation systems. The country is facing a problem with meeting the increasing demand for water as a result of population growth and development in the industrial and agricultural sectors. Therefore, a simulation modelling was applied for western Iraq (Ramadi city as a case study) using the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) for the period 2018–2035. This research follows a four-step approach that involves: (i) evaluating the available water of the Euphrates River under declined water imports caused by the construction of dams in Turkey and Syria, (ii) assessing present and future water demands of the domestic, industrial, and agricultural sectors, (iii) improving water productivity (WP) by means of saving more water, (iv) estimating the economic returns under improved water use. The results showed that Iraq would face a serious problem in the coming years, represented by the limited storage of Haditha Dam, which is considered the strategic water storage site for the central and southern regions of Iraq. The study indicated the necessity of finding alternative sources of water supply by adopting new water management strategies to reduce the water deficit. 

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  • 36.
    Abduljaleel, Yasir
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Richland, WA 99354, USA.
    Awad, Ahmed
    Egyptian Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI), Giza 11925, Egypt.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Salem, Ali
    Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Minia 61111, Egypt; Doctoral School of Earth Sciences, University of Pécs, Ifjúság útja 6, H-7624 Pécs, Hungary.
    Negm, Abdelazim
    Water and Water Structures Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt.
    Gabr, Mohamed Elsayed
    Civil Engineering Department, Higher Institute for Engineering and Technology, New Damietta, Ministry of Higher Education, New Damietta 34517, Egypt.
    Assessment of Subsurface Drainage Strategies Using DRAINMOD Model for Sustainable Agriculture: A Review2023Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, nr 2, artikel-id 1355Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Practicing agricultural drainage strategies is necessary to manage excess water in poorly drained irrigated agricultural lands to protect them from induced waterlogging and salinity problems. This paper provides an overview of subsurface drainage strategies and the modeling of their performance using the DRAINMOD model. Given that the DRAINMOD model considers a fixed value of the surface depression capacity (SDC) for the whole simulation period, which does not suit many agricultural practices, the paper then assesses the model’s performance under time-variable SDC. It was revealed that adopting a fixed value of SDC for the whole simulation period in the DRAINMOD model causes it to produce improper predictions of the water balance in farmlands characterized by time-variable SDC. Such a model drawback will also adversely impact its predictions of the nitrogen and phosphorus fate in farmlands, which represent major inputs when managing both the agricultural process and agricultural water quality. Researchers should pay attention when applying the DRAINMOD model to farmlands characterized by time-variable SDC. Moreover, it is recommended that the DRAINMOD input module be improved by considering changes in SDC during the simulation period to ensure better management of the agricultural process and agricultural water.

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  • 37.
    Abdul-Kareem, Mohammed B.
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Rashid, Hayder M.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Hassan, Waqed H.
    College of Engineering, University of Warith Al-Anbiyaa, Kerbala, Iraq; Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Kerbala, Kerbala 56001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Lakhera, Sandeep Kumar
    Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur 603203, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Hatshan, Mohammad Rafe
    Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh-11451, Saudi Arabia.
    Faisal, Ayad A.H.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Preparation of coated MgFe layered double hydroxide nanoparticles on cement kiln dust and intercalated with sodium dodecyl sulfate as an intermediate layer for the adsorption of estrogen from water2023Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 344, artikel-id 140338Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Abdullah Abkar, Mahdi Mohammed
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, 86400, Malaysia.
    Yunus, Riduan
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, 86400, Malaysia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Albaom, Mohammed Abdo
    Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Department of Computer Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia.
    Enhancing construction site performance through technology and management practices as material waste mitigation in the Malaysian construction industry2024Ingår i: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 10, nr 7, artikel-id e28721Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry, increasingly prioritizing sustainability, necessitates an exploration of technology and management's role in mitigating material waste at construction sites. This study examines the impact of 3R, IBS, BIM, and MMA in enhancing Construction Site Performance (CSP) in the Malaysian construction sector. Seven hypotheses were formulated to assess the relationship between technology adoption, material management practices, and the moderating influence of Material Management Adoption (MMA) on CSP. Data were collected through an online survey from 295 valid responses in the Malaysian construction sector, focusing on professionals involved in solid waste management. Utilizing Partial Least Squares - Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), the findings highlight the importance of technological integration, efficient material management, and competitive strategies in effective material waste mitigation. Furthermore, the qualitative aspect of the study, conducted among 6 solid waste organizations in Malaysia, enriches the findings by providing nuanced insights into local practices and challenges. Emphasizing the importance of contextual insights, the study addresses professionals involved in solid waste management within the Malaysian construction industry. The geographical specificity adds depth to the analysis, offering a comprehensive understanding of regional dynamics. Despite acknowledging limitations in technology and material usage, the study offers recommendations for refining waste mitigation and improving construction site performance. This research model offers actionable insights for construction site stakeholders, emphasizing the criticality of waste mitigation and CSP. The results, both quantitative and qualitative, underscore the potential of these practices within the Malaysian construction industry to foster innovation and drive positive change.

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  • 39.
    Abdullah, Gamil M. S.
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Najran University, P.O. 1988, Najran, Saudi Arabia.
    Ahmad, Mahmood
    Institute of Energy Infrastructure, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, 43000, Kajang, Malaysia; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar (Bannu Campus), Bannu, 28100, Pakistan.
    Babur, Muhammad
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan.
    Badshah, Muhammad Usman
    Water Wing, Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), WAPDA House Peshawar, Peshawar, 25000, Pakistan.
    Al-Mansob, Ramez A.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Gombak, 50728, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Fawad, Muhammad
    Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland; Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Boosting-based ensemble machine learning models for predicting unconfined compressive strength of geopolymer stabilized clayey soil2024Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikel-id 2323Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research employs new boosting-based ensemble machine learning models i.e., gradient boosting (GB) and adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) to predict the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of geopolymer stabilized clayey soil. The GB and AdaBoost models were developed and validated using 270 clayey soil samples stabilized with geopolymer, with ground-granulated blast-furnace slag and fly ash as source materials and sodium hydroxide solution as alkali activator. The database was randomly divided into training (80%) and testing (20%) sets for model development and validation. Several performance metrics, including coefficient of determination (R2), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean squared error (MSE), were utilized to assess the accuracy and reliability of the developed models. The statistical results of this research showed that the GB and AdaBoost are reliable models based on the obtained values of R2 (= 0.980, 0.975), MAE (= 0.585, 0.655), RMSE (= 0.969, 1.088), and MSE (= 0.940, 1.185) for the testing dataset, respectively compared to the widely used artificial neural network, random forest, extreme gradient boosting, multivariable regression, and multi-gen genetic programming based models. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis result shows that ground-granulated blast-furnace slag content was the key parameter affecting the UCS.

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  • 40.
    Abdullah, Gamil M. S.
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia.
    Chohan, Imran Mir
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Malaysia.
    Ali, Mohsin
    Graduate School of Urban Innovation, Department of Civil Engineering, Yokohama National University, Kanagawa, Japan.
    Bheel, Naraindas
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Malaysia.
    Ahmad, Mahmood
    Institute of Energy Infrastructure, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang, Malaysia; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar (Bannu Campus), Bannu, Pakistan.
    Najeh, Taoufik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Almujibah, Hamad R.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.
    Effect of titanium dioxide as nanomaterials on mechanical and durability properties of rubberised concrete by applying RSM modelling and optimizations2024Ingår i: Frontiers in Materials, E-ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 11, artikel-id 1357094Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of rubber aggregates derived from discarded rubber tyres in concrete is a pioneering approach to replacing natural aggregate (NA) and promoting sustainable building practices. Recycled aggregate in concrete serves the dual purpose of alleviating the accumulation of discarded rubber tyres on the planet and providing a more sustainable alternative to decreasing natural aggregate. Due to fact that the crumb rubber (CR) decreases the strength when used in concrete, incorporating titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a nanomaterial to counteract the decrease in strength of crumb rubber concrete is a potential solution. Response Surface Methodology was developed to generate sixteen RUNs which contains different mix design by providing two input parameters like TiO2 at 1%, 1.5%, and 2% by cement weight and CR at 10%, 20%, and 30% as substitutions for volume of sand. These mixtures underwent testing for 28 days to evaluate their mechanical, deformation, and durability properties. Moreover, the compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength and elastic modulus were recorded by 51.40 MPa, 4.47 MPa, 5.91 MPa, and 40.15 GPa when 1.5% TiO2 and 10% CR were added in rubberised concrete after 28 days respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of TiO2 led to reduced drying shrinkage and sorptivity in rubberized concrete, especially with increased TiO2 content. The study highlights that TiO2 inclusion refines pore size and densifies the interface between cement matrix and aggregate in hardened rubberized concrete. This transformative effect results in rubberized concrete demonstrating a commendable compressive strength comparable to normal concrete.

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  • 41.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Consultant engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Irrigation projects in Iraq2021Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 35-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has a unique irrigation system since the early history, these systems are functioning through many irrigation projects built over `Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Irrigation projects include several categories, which are dams, barrages, canals, drains, pumping stations, regulators, and reservoirs. There are six large dams inside Iraq, 5 are existing in Tigris basin, and one in Euphrates basin, these dams which were built since 1950’s are suffering from several issues, like foundation liquefaction, seismic effects, and others. Tharthar Lake, Habbaniyah Lake, Razzaza Lake, and Southern Marshes are also one of the main projects in Iraq to control flood and storing excess water in some. These lakes serve in protection of the main cities during large floods. There are also many barrages on Tigris and Euphrates, some of these barrages are part of Tharthar and Habbaniyah projects, while others serving the irrigation projects in Mesopotamia. On Euphrates, there are several irrigation projects, where the projects upstream Fallujah city are almost small or medium projects irrigated by pumping. Then, in the rest of Euphrates, there are Great Abu Ghraib project, Great Mussayab, Hilla-Kifil, some small projects, and Kifil-Shinafiyah projects. Also, Hilla branch which is the largest branch in Iraq from Euphrates, where this branch is irrigating several irrigation projects. On Tigris basin, there are Jazeera project irrigated by pumping from Mosul Dam, Kirkuk project that is irrigated from Lesser Zab River, and Diyala are projects. Inside Mesopotamia and over Tigris reach, there are Ishaqi project, Nahrawan project, Middle Tigris projects, Dujailah project, Dalmaj project, and Gharraf Canal projects. In the middle of Mesopotamian plain, Main Outfall Drain was completed in 1992, this grand drain are serving around 6 million donum of farmlands.

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  • 42.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet. Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Missing rainfall data estimation—an approach to investigate different methods: case study of Baghdad2022Ingår i: Arabian Journal of Geosciences, ISSN 1866-7511, E-ISSN 1866-7538, Vol. 15, artikel-id 1740Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The missing of the meteorological data in Iraq is common due to malfunction of measuring devices, security status, and human effects. The study tested 17 missing precipitation data estimation methods in Baghdad city as a case study, where, all the surrounding stations around Baghdad experienced the missing of data for various reasons, and some of the missing data are for a full year record. The methods examined in this study are based on different approaches, some of the methods are based upon the distances to the targeted station, others are upon regression factors, and there are also methods that combine several factors. There are also other types of missing data filling methods which depend on imputation and artificial intelligence. The investigation of the most accurate method to find the missing data will assist researchers and decision makers to fill the gap in their analysis in one of the most vulnerable countries in terms of drought and climate changes impacts. Results showed that Expectation Maximization (EM) method utilization has the best results with the least errors, and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) method was ranked the second best method. In general, all of the applied methods had resulted acceptable interpolations, and it was clear that the combined methods have low significance on the results in comparison with others. All of these findings are limited to the study area meteorological and spatial conditions. 

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  • 43.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan Hewler. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Floods and Flood Protection in Mesopotamia2020Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 155-173Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mesopotamia is a land where floods have occurred very frequently. Many destructive floods had been registered by historians, who noted also the food control schemes used in those times. Over history, many structures were built and managed, but this work was taken up again by the General Directorate of Irrigation which was formed in 1917 to manage floods and reduce as much as possible losses, in addition to the development of irrigation works. Plans were made to build a sophisticated flood control and protection system. Several projects were proposed, and since the 1950s they were successfully implemented. Many multipurpose dams were built to mitigate flood conditions in addition to their other functions, such as Mosul Dam, Dokan Dam, Derbendikhan Dam and Haditha Dam. Other projects which were solely planned for flood protection include developing and using natural depressions such as Habbaniyah Lake on the Euphrates River and Tharthar Lake on the Tigris River, to protect Mesopotamia from floods. Moreover, the southern marshes in lower Mesopotamia may be utilized for flood protection. This paper deals only with these natural depressions leaving the dams at the time being.

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  • 44.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan Hewler. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Irrigation Major Systems on Euphrates River within Mesopotamia2020Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 199-219Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Euphrates River is one of the two rivers where the civilization and irrigation had started, many major irrigation systems are still operating for centuries. The most important advancement of irrigation within this area happened after 1920s, where new structures were constructed, new canals excavated, new pumps installed, and salt affected lands were reclaimed. The major irrigation projects in along the reach of Euphrates within Mesopotamia are, Great Abu Ghraib, Great Musayab, Hilla Branch projects, Kifl-Shiniafiyah, in addition to many other medium and small size projects. Besides, some important Barrages have been built for controlling water levels of the Euphrates for proper operation, such as Fallujah and Hindiya Barrages. There is a great need for more reclamation in the lower parts of this territory, as well alternatives are needed to avoid discharging saline drainage water to the Euphrates in some projects.

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  • 45.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Major Irrigation Systems on Tigris River within Mesopotamia2020Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 175-198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several irrigation systems have been built at Tigris River basin within Mesopotamia plain. The upper part of Tigris at Mesopotamia is extensively exploited, and several major projects were constructed since the 1970s. These are Ishaqi, Khalis, Diyala Combined Reach, Nahrawan, Dujailya and Dalmaj. Other projects were partially developed, which are Middle-Tigris, Gharraf projects, Great Amarah and KutButaira. The important barrages in this part are Kut Barrage, as well, as the barrages in Amarah area which are of vital importance for irrigation and navigation. Shaat Al-Arab is one of the most important waterways in Iraq. This river has been suffered from water scarcity and riparian countries actions. Solutions for adaptation to adapt the situation were studied and planned carefully, but still there is need for more work to cope with the situation in Basra area.

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  • 46.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan Hewler. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Soil Salinity of Mesopotamia and the Main Drains2020Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 221-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since early civilization and the farmers in Mesopotamia are suffering from the soil salinity. This problem had caused the transfer of power from the Sumerians to the Babylonians in ancient history. Great efforts and research have been made since the beginning of the 20th century to overcome this salinity problem. Experts have concluded that the main reason for salinity is the salt content of irrigation water and the shallow saline groundwater derived from the irrigation activities. General schemes were planned, which involve building a new system of drains in parallel to the irrigation network. The backbone of the drainage system in Mesopotamia is the Main Outfall Drain (MOD). Large works such as Musayab Main Drain, Main Outfall Drain, Great Gharraf Drain, East Euphrates Drain were implemented, but there are still large needs for much more work to be done.

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  • 47.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Harvesting in Iraq: Status and Opportunities2020Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 199-217Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Water harvesting in Iraq is an old application with limited extent. Western Desert, Jazeera Desert and Eastern Valleys, are the zones were the water harvesting must be employed. Several water harvesting dams in Western Desert had built since 1970s, these dams are intended to provide habitat and recharge of groundwater resources. There is limited opportunity to recharge groundwater in Jazeera area due to existence of gypsum layers. Regarding Eastern Valleys, the experience of building water harvesting dams on the valleys manifested that sediments accumulation is the main obstacle to adapt this solution. Hemrin Hills considered as one of the most intensively eroded areas in Iraq, so, soil conservation and water harvesting development is important. Many small dams were built in mountainous zone in the last two decades, some are important for agriculture expansion, but there is need to evaluate the effects on large dams feeding. North-Eastern parts of Jordan, which has similar natural conditions of Northern Desert, had present a successful example of water harvesting development.  

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  • 48.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Barrages2019Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 153-167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Barrages are the early water resources structures that were built in the modern history in Iraq. The main function of the barrages to rise the water levels to feed the main canals of irrigation projects. Further, some barrages are functioning as a diversion structures during floods. The first built barrage and still in operation is Kut Barrage which opened in 1939, while the last one is Amarah Barrage that were opened in 2004. Some of the barrages are in good conditions, some are suffering from technical issues, and others especially at the lower reaches of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers getting insufficient maintenance. Generally, the upstream approaches need dredging of the sediments and small islands, and there is a need also for bathymetric survey of the rivers sections near barrages.  

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  • 49.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Irrigation Projects on Euphrates2019Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 169-199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Euphrates River is distinguished with long existing irrigation projects, which had been developed in the 20th century after centuries of deterioration. One of the major projects a long Euphrates inside Iraq is Great Abu Ghraib Project, which is the largest reclaimed area. Also, Great Musayab Project, Kifl-Shinafiyah Project and Shinafiyah-Nasiriya Project are other major projects. The most important for which Hindiyah Barrage had been built is Hilla Branch that supply many projects on both sides of this branch. Euphrates irrigation projects need a lot of investments to develop the status of the projects and confront the continuous decrease in water quality of the river. 

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  • 50.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Irrigation Projects on Tigris2019Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 201-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Along Tigris River reach inside Iraq, many large and small projects of irrigation were built. These projects depend on gravity flow or pumping. Starting from Jazeera project then small projects downstream Fatah, where these feed by pumping. After Samarra scheme, the important Ishaqi project, then after Baghdad, the projects of Nahrawan, Middle-Tigris and Dalmaj. The most important branch from Tigris is Gharraf Canal, which is not exploited yet, although plans were prepared decades ago. Downstream Kut Barrage, several projects are especially on the right side of Tigris. Finally, Shatt Al-Arab project which has a unique importance as it provide the solution for municipal need and save the orchards of dates in Basra.  

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