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  • 1.
    Al-Gburi, Majid
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Prediction of Restraint in Second Cast Sections of Concrete Culverts using Artificial Neural Networks2016In: European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, ISSN 1964-8189, E-ISSN 2116-7214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation of restraint is very important for accurately predicting the risk of early thermal and shrinkage cracking in concrete structures. The stress in young concrete is affected by changes in its dimensions during hydration and the restraint imposed by adjoining structures. In concrete culverts, the restraints from existing structures acting upon the first and second casting sections to be cast are different, causing them to exhibit different early cracking behaviour. This work presents a new method for predicting restraint in complex concrete structures using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Finite element calculations were performed to predict restraint in 108 slabs, 324 walls and 972 roofs from second sections of concrete culverts, and the results obtained were used to train and validate ANN models. The ANN models were then used to study the effects of varying selected parameters (the thickness and width of the roof and slab, the thickness and height of the walls, and the length of the culvert section) on the predicted restraint. Mathematical expressions for predicting restraint values in slabs, walls and roofs were derived based on the ANN models’ output and implemented in an Excel spreadsheet that provides a simple way of predicting restraint in practical applications. Restraint values predicted in this way agree well with the results of finite-element calculations

  • 2.
    Al-Gburi, Majid
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Reduction of Early Age Crack Risks in Concrete Walls by Using a New Casting Technique2016In: Structural Engineering International, ISSN 1016-8664, E-ISSN 1683-0350, Vol. 26, no 3, 216-224 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volumetric changes in early age concrete that are restrained might lead to cracks. The degree of restraint is influenced by the casting sequence and the dimensions of the castings. In the current study a new casting technique is proposed to reduce restraint in the newly cast concrete with a new arrangement of the structural joint to the existing old concrete. The proposed technique is valid for the typical structure wall-on-slab using one structural joint. This casting method means that lower part of the wall is cast together with the slab, and that part is called a kicker. Hereby, the behavior of the structure changes from a typical case wall-on-slab to a typical case wall-on-wall. It has been proven by the beam theory and demonstrated by numerical calculations that there is a clear reduction in the restraint from the slab to the wall using kickers. In the paper different kicker heights are studied with the aim of determining the minimum restraint in the upper part of the wall cast in contact with the kicker. The technique using kickers is compared with common measures used in the field to avoid cracking, such as cooling pipes in the new casting and/or heating cables in the adjoining old concrete. The presented method is both cost and time effective, as it opens the possibility to use larger structural length of each casting sequence.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Isac
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Ek, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Temperature distribution and charring penetrations in timber assemblies exposed to parametric fire curves: Comparisons between tests and TASEF predictions2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Four furnace tests have been performed using two different parametric fire curves and the results are compared with computer simulations and Eurocode calculations. What differentiates the parametric fire curve from other fire curves is in particular the cooling phase, something that has proven to be hard to model for timber structures.

    A literature study and computer simulations were followed by experimental work performed at SP Wood Building Technology in Stockholm. The computer simulations were performed using the computer code TASEF. The predictions from TASEF were compared with measurements from the fire tests to evaluate how well the program can predict temperature distribution using a parametric fire curve.

    The four fire tests were executed at SP Wood Building Technology, glued laminated timber beams were used in all tests. When preparing the test specimens thermocouples were installed to measure temperature distribution, the thermocouples were installed in drilled holes. A deviation study regarding these drill-holes was performed as a part of the preparations. The temperature distributions measured during the tests were compared with the temperature distribution predicted by TASEF.

    Charring rate and charring depth were obtained from the fire tests, from the TASEF simulations but also by using equations given in the Eurocode. Since TASEF simulates temperature distribution and not charring depth, the 300 °C isotherm was assumed to represent the charring depth. The results from all three methods were compared and evaluated.

    The agreement between experiments and TASEF predictions regarding temperature distribution and charring depth were in general very good. Parametric fire curves with opening factors of 0.02 m1/2 and 0.04 m1/2 were used in four fire tests. TASEF performed more accurate predictions regarding the temperature distribution for the small opening factor but looking at the charring depth the predictions were better for the bigger opening factor. It is recommended to perform further studies and find out the reason for this behaviour.

    Comparing the charring depths measured at the tests with values calculated using Eurocode 5 there were some differences in charring depths. Charring depths for the horizontal direction of the beams were much alike, but when comparing the charring depths for the vertical direction there is a significant difference. The equations regarding charring depth for wood exposed to parametric fire curves in Eurocode 5 underestimate the charring depth. It is recommended to evaluate these equations further.

    For one of the timber beams delamination occurred, this has previously been assumed not to occur to glued laminated beams. More studies should be performed regarding delamination of glued laminated beams exposed to fire.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Lucas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Thermal Exposure Caused by the Smoke Gas Layer in Pre-flashover Fires: A Two-zone Model Approach2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A pre-flashover fire is very different from a post-flashover fire. The main difference is that in a pre-flashover fire the gas temperature and the radiation temperature differ. One thing that makes it a lot different is that the thermal exposure induced by a pre-flashover fire is largely affected by the smoke gas layer. These smoke gases can be very hot and therefore they emit heat radiation to their surroundings. The theory used, to calculate the thermal exposure of a pre-flashover fire, in this thesis relies on using thermal resistances to describe the heat transfer from the smoke gases. By doing so it is possible to calculate the temperatures of the smoke gases and the surfaces in touch with the smoke gases. Another approach is to use CFD software to numerically calculate the temperatures and in this thesis the two-zone model are compared to FDS, a CFD software. The two-zone model are also compared to a reduced-scale test. The comparisons gave good results, the two-zone model produced similar results compared to re reduced-scale test and FDS. This method of calculating thermal exposure can thereby be used to evaluate evacuation safety and save a lot of calculation time compared to calculating the thermal exposure with CFD software such as FDS.

  • 5.
    Andrade, Pedro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Structural Assessment and Optimization of the Modular System of a Student Residential Building in Luleå and Coimbra: Affordable Houses Project2010Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays there is a main concern that should always be present in our minds; it is important to integrate and reconcile the economic, social and environmental aspects within a holistic and balanced sustainable development framework.Therefore, the construction sector has been facing a profound change in the materials used, new processes and approaches. According to this new aim, a new concept of structures had been born; the Affordable Houses.A concept is more often seen as an abstract idea of something, being it materialization always faced as a challenge. Therefore the challenge of this thesis is to create a system that could be able to erect, literally, a structure and, simultaneously, create conditions for the construction of a building, through the appliance of the concept of Modular Houses and Top Down Construction.For the implementation of these new concepts two case studies were created for the construction of a student residential building in Coimbra and Luleå. These case studies are integrated in different environments and socio-economic conditions, which will allow the assessment of this study to a more global application.This study was developed within the scope of a partnership between the University of Coimbra and Luleå University of Technology and was supervised by Professor Luís Simões da Silva (UC) and Professor Milan Veljkovic( LTU).

  • 6.
    Andrade, Pedro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Lagerqvist, Ove
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Simões, Rui
    University of Coimbra, Department of Civil Engineering, Coimbra.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Delft University of Technology, Department of Structural Engineering.
    Structural assessment of a column splice with opened slotted holes: Finger Connection2017In: ce/papers, E-ISSN 2509-7075, Vol. 1, no 2-3, 514-521 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a novel joint based on a friction connection designed for column-splices. The jointwas developed within the scope of modular construction to improve the fast assembly of prefabricatedframes and to accommodate eventual misalignments. Gaps at the connection are considered on the jointhorizontal and vertical axis to accommodate misalignments whether they are rotations and/ordisplacements and so to allow for the easy fit of the columns. The efficiency of the joint resistance basedon different connection gaps subjected to uniform compression is assessed.

  • 7.
    Andrade, Pedro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Lagerqvist, Ove
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Delft University of Technology.
    Simoes, Rui
    University of Coimbra.
    Lundholm, John
    Part Construction AB.
    Innovative system for the construction and management of student resisdences: Frameup system2016In: IABSE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovativeand Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid, CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland: International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2016, 1364-1370 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a strong demand on the construction of student accommodations and consequently significant efforts have been taken to increase and streamline construction methods. In addition, the fluctuation on the number of students admitted at each year, in each university, lead to periods of house shortage or, in opposition to that, to eventual surplus on the housing market. For these reasons urges finding a fast execution process in construction to fulfil the market needs, together with a housing mechanism of control which balances the students’ needs with the housing availability. In this sense, the Frameup system arises as a solution to solve both problems by combining a modular construction with an innovative execution process.

    The FRAMEUP buildings uses a steel frame in combination with prefabricated 3D modules - fully equipped and suitable for student accommodations – which are assembled by starting from the roof to the 1st floor. The existence of the lifting system permits the erection of the building, promoting each time the building is lifted, a clearance of one-floor-height, at ground level, for the assembly of a new floor. The procedure is repeated several times, according to the number of floors, until the 1st floor of the building, the last floor of the execution sequence, is assembled.

    Alongside with its advantage on the fast execution, the Frameup system allows to efficiently increase or decrease the number of the floors and consequently its exchangeability with other buildings of same nature. Thus, assuming a net of FRAMEUP buildings at each university, its exchangeability system would create the necessary conditions so that the number of floors at each campus would follow the fluctuations of the students’ population among the different universities on different periods of time, so to suppress the needs for housing or to avoid the surplus on construction.

  • 8.
    Andrade, Pedro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Project: FRAMEUP - Optimization of frames for effective assembling2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Axelsson, Kennet B. E.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Luleå, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå University of Technology.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Grennberg, Torsten
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Horrigmoe, Geir
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Institutionen för Anläggningsteknik. Verksamhetsberättelse 1987/881988Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Axelsson, Kennet B. E.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Luleå, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå University of Technology.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Grennberg, Torsten
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Horrigmoe, Geir
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Institutionen för Anläggningsteknik, Verksamhetsberättelse 1988/891989Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Axelsson, Kennet B. E.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Luleå, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå University of Technology.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Grennberg, Torsten
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Horrigmoe, Geir
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Institutionen för Anläggningsteknik. Verksamhetsberättelse 1989/901990Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Axelsson, Kennet B. E.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Luleå, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå University of Technology.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Grennberg, Torsten
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Horrigmoe, Geir
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Institutionen för Anläggningsteknik. Verksamhetsberättelse 1990/911991Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Bagge, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Structural assessment procedures for existing concrete bridges: Experiences from failure tests of the Kiruna Bridge2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing existing bridges is an important task in the sustainable management ofinfrastructure. In practice, structural bridge assessments are usually conducted usingtraditional and standardised methods, despite knowledge that these methods oftenprovide conservative estimates. In addition, more advanced methods are available, suchas nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis, that are used for research purposes and cansimulate the structural behaviour of bridges more accurately. Therefore, it would beuseful to develop practical and reliable procedures for refined assessments using theseadvanced techniques.Focusing on the ultimate load-carrying capacity of existing concrete bridges, this thesispresents a procedure for structural assessments. The fundamental idea is to improve theassessment successively, as necessary to predict bridges’ structural behaviour adequately.The procedure involves a multi-level assessment strategy with four levels of structuralanalysis, and an integrated framework for safety verification. At the initial level (Level 1)of the multi-level strategy, traditional standardised methods are used, no failures arecovered implicitly in the structural analysis and action effects are verified using localresistances calculated using analytical models. In the subsequent enhanced levels (Levels2 – 4), nonlinear FE analysis is used for stepwise integration of the verification of flexural,shear-related and anchorage failures into the structural analysis. The framework for safetyverifications includes partial safety factor (PSF), global resistance safety factor (GRSF) andfull probabilistic methods. Within each of these groups, verifications of desired safetymargins can be conducted with varying degrees of complexity.To demonstrate and evaluate the proposed structural assessment procedure, comparativestudies have been carried out, based on full-scale tests of a prestressed concrete bridge.This was the Kiruna Bridge, located in the northernmost city in Sweden, which was duefor demolition as part of a city transformation project, necessitated by large grounddeformations caused by the large nearby mine. Thus, it was available for destructiveexperimental investigation within the doctoral project presented in this thesis. The bridgehad five continuous spans, was 121.5 m long and consisted of three parallel girders with a connecting slab at the top. Both the girders and slab were tested to failure to investigatetheir structural behaviour and load-carrying capacity. Non-destructive and destructivetests were also applied to determine the residual prestress forces in the bridge girders andinvestigate the in situ applicability of methods developed for this purpose. The so-calledsaw-cut method and decompression-load method were used after refinement to enabletheir application to structures of such complexity. The variation of the experimentallydetermined residual prestress forces was remarkably high, depending on the sectioninvestigated. There were also high degrees of uncertainty in estimated values, and thusare only regarded as indications of the residual prestress force.Level 1 analysis of the multi-level assessment strategy consistently underestimatedcapacity, relative to the test results, and did not provide accurate predictions of the shearrelatedfailure observed in the test. With linear FE analysis and local resistance modelsdefined by the European standard, Eurocode 2, the load-carrying capacity wasunderestimated by 32 % for the bridge girder and 55 % for the bridge deck slab. At theenhanced level of structural analysis (Level 3), nonlinear FE analyses predicted thecapacities with less than 2 % deviation from the test results and correctly predicted thefailure mode. However, for existing bridges there are many uncertainties, for instance,the FE simulations were sensitive to the level of residual prestressing, boundaryconditions and assumed material parameters. To accurately take these aspects intoaccount, bridge-specific information is crucial.The complete structural assessment procedure, combining the multi-level strategy andsafety verification framework, was evaluated in a case study. Experiences from theprevious comparative studies were used in an assessment of the Kiruna Bridge followingthe Swedish assessment code. The initial assessment at Level 1 of the multi-level strategyand safety verification, using the PSF method, indicated that the shear capacity of one ofthe girders was critical. The most adverse load case (a combination of permanent loads,prestressing and variable traffic loads) was further investigated through enhancedstructural analyses implicitly accounting for flexural and shear-related failures (Level 3).Nonlinear FE analysis and safety evaluation using the PSF method, several variants of theGRSF method and the full probabilistic analysis for resistance indicated that the permittedaxle load for the critical classification vehicle could be 5.6 – 6.5 times higher than thelimit obtained from the initial assessment at Level 1. However, the study also indicatedthat the model uncertainty was not fully considered in these values. The modeluncertainty was shown to have strong effects on the safety verification and (thus)permissible axle loads. The case study also highlighted the need for a strategy forsuccessively improving structural analysis to improve understanding of bridges’ structuralbehaviour. The refined analysis indicated a complex failure mode, with yielding of thestirrups in the bridge girders and transverse flexural reinforcement in the bridge deck slab,but with a final shear failure of the slab. It would be impossible to capture suchcomplexity in a traditional standardised assessment, which (as mentioned) indicated thatthe shear capacity of the girder limited permissible axle loads. However, nonlinear FEanalyses are computationally demanding, and numerous modelling choices are required.Besides a strategy for rationally improving the analysis and helping analysts to focus oncritical aspects, detailed guidelines for nonlinear FE analysis should be applied to reduce the analyst-dependent variability of results and (thus) the model uncertainty. Clearly, toensure the validity of bridge assessment methods under in situ conditions, theirevaluations should include in situ tests. This thesis presents outcomes of such tests, therebyhighlighting important aspects for future improvements in the assessment of existingbridges.

  • 14.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Structural performance and failure loading of a 55 year-old prestressed concrete bridge2016In: Maintenance, Moniring, Safety, Risk and Resilience of Bridges and Bridge Networks / [ed] Tulio N. Bittencourt; Dan M. Frangopol; André T. Beck, London: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, , 2016, 2225-2232 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tests have been performed at service- and ultimate load levels of a 55 year-old 121.5 m long prestressed concrete bridge. The purpose was to acquire data for enhanced assessment and calibration of such methods. At service-load several truck overpasses and the dynamic response were particularly studied. Some conclusions were: (a) less stiff load-deflection behavior was obtained with a finite element (FE) analysis compared to measurements and (b) good agreement was obtained for predicted and tested dynamic characteristics. The focus in the destructive tests was on the overall bridge behavior and the ultimate load-carrying capacity of the bridge’s girders and slab. The results were: (a) combined flexure-shear failure of girders occurred after reinforcement yielding for a load indicating an appreciable safety margin in relation to code predictions and (b) good agreement was obtained between FE analysis and the ultimate response and capacity of the tested bridge

  • 15.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sundquist, Håkan
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Carolin, Anders
    Trafikverket, Luleå.
    Assessment and failure test of a prestressed concrete bridge2017In: Life-Cycle of Engineering Systems: Emphasis on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure / [ed] Jaap Bakker; Dan M Frangopol; Klaas van Breugel, Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema , 2017, 1058-1063 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tests have been carried out at service- and ultimate load levels of a 55 year-old prestressed concrete girder bridge. The bridge, located in Kiruna, Sweden, was continuous in five spans with a total length of 121.5 m. The overall aim of the study was to determinate the accuracy of assessment methods for existing structures and to provide procedures for optimized assessment. Before the tests a 2D finite element (FE) analysis was performed to predict the behavior and load-carrying capacity of the bridge. In order to more accurately assess the bridge response a 3D FE model has now been developed. The actual loading history and material properties has been considered in the model. A Life Cycle Cost Assessment of the bridge has also been performed

  • 16.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Evaluation of residual prestress force in a concrete girder bridge2016In: IABSE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovativeand Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid, CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland, 2016, 222-229 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When assessing the structural behaviour of prestressed concrete bridges, understanding the level of prestressing is crucial. However, for existing structures, this is usually an unknown parameter and the literature only describes a few methods of experimentally determining the residual prestress forces. For this paper, a non-destructive testing approach has been evaluated based on testing of a multi-span continuous girder bridge. The method, consisting of in-situ measurements in combination with finite element (FE) simulations, revealed prestress levels in the range 25 % to 82 % of the reinforcement steel yield strength, depending on the section tested. A comparison with theoretically calculated residual prestress forces, taking into account friction and timedependent losses, indicated values of the same order but with some inconsistencies.

  • 17.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilimaa, jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    In-situ methods to determine residual prestress forces in concrete bridges2017In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 135, 41-52 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of residual prestress forces are key parameters when assessing the structural behaviour of existing prestressed concrete bridges. However, these parameters are often unknown and not easy to determine. To explore them, two existing non-destructive and destructive approaches have been further developed for practical application and demonstrated on a multi-span continuous girder bridge. The evaluation of the prestress forces was part of an extensive experimental programme aimed to calibrate and develop assessment methods. Due to the pursuit of practical applications for existing bridges, the main focus was on non-destructive methodology, combining experimental data and finite element modelling to obtain the residual prestress forces. Assuming that the initial prestress force corresponded to 85% of the characteristic 0.2% proof strength of the reinforcing steel, estimated losses in investigated sections ranged between 5 and 70%. However, determined residual prestress forces were generally higher than theoretically based estimates accounting for friction and time-dependent losses in the prestressing system. In addition to describing in detail the methods for prestress evaluation, this paper presents suggestions for improvements and further studies, based on experiences from the field tests.

  • 18.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Puurula, Arto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Carolin, Anders
    Trafikverket, Luleå.
    Full-Scale Tests to Failure Compared to Assessments: Three Concrete Bridges2017In: High Tech Concrete: Where Technology and Engineering Meet - Proceedings of the 2017 fib Symposium / [ed] Lukovic M.,Hordijk D.A., Cham: Springer, 2017, 1917-1924 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three Swedish concrete bridges have been tested to failure and the results have been compared to assessment using standard code models and advanced numerical methods.

    The three tested and assessed bridges were:

    1. (1)

      Lautajokk, a 29 year old one span (7 m) concrete trough bridge tested in fatigue to check the concrete shear capacity.

       
    2. (2)

      Ӧrnskldsvik, a 50 year old two span trough bridge (12 + 12 m) strengthened to avoid a bending failure.

       
    3. (3)

      Kiruna Mine Bridge, a 55 year old five span prestressed concrete road bridge (18 + 21 + 23 + 24 + 20 m) tested in shear and bending of the beams and punching of the slab.

       

    The main results in the paper are the experiences of the real failure types, the robustness/weakness of the bridges, and the accuracy of different codes and models. In all three cases the bridges had a considerable hidden capacity.

  • 19.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Popescu, Cosmin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Failure tests on concrete bridges: Have we learnt the lessons?2017In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full-scale failure tests of bridges are important for improving understanding of bridges’ behaviour and refining assessment methods. However, such experiments are challenging, often expensive, and thus rare. This paper provides a review of failure tests on concrete bridges, focusing on lessons from them. In total, 40 tests to failure of 30 bridges have been identified. These include various types of bridges, with reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete superstructures, composed of slabs, girders and combinations thereof. Generally, the tests indicated that theoretical calculations of the load-carrying capacity based on methods traditionally used for design and assessment provide conservative estimates. It can also be concluded that almost a third of the experiments resulted in unexpected types of failures, mainly shear instead of flexure. In addition, differences between theoretical and tested capacities are often apparently due to inaccurate representation of geometry, boundary conditions and materials

  • 20.
    Bernander, Stig
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Dury, Robin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Progressive Landslide Analysis in Canadian Glacial Silty Clay in Churchill River2017In: / [ed] Vikas Thakur, Jean-Sébastien L’Heureux, Ariane Locat, 2017, 1- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The poster presents the risks for a progressive landslide in a natural dam. The stability will be critical when the water level is raised after the building of a hydro power plant, Bernander (2016), Dury (2017). The analysis is based on a finite difference method developed by Stig Bernander (2011), Bernander et al.(2016)

     

    The following issues will be discussed:  

    - Material properties

    - Risk for liquefaction

    - Three possible failure surfaces: one horizontal, one inclined and one curved

    - Failure riska for different material propeties

    - The need to check the real properties of the soil

  • 21.
    Bernander, Stig
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Riverbank stability in loose layered silty clays: Comments on the North Spur Dam at Muskrat Falls in Churchill River, Labrador, Newfoundland2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The differences are outlined in landslide analysis between the classic limit equilibrium method with assumed plastic properties of the soil and a progressive analysis applying softening material properties.

    The risk for failure is studied in the dam at the North Spur riverbank ridge at Muskrat Falls in Churchill River in Labrador, Newfoundland, Canada. A sloping failure surface is much more critical than the horizontal surfaces which have hitherto been studied. Results from new analyses have now been obtained applying softening material properties probable for the ridge. The results indicate safety factors lower than 0.5, i.e. there is a high risk that the ridge will fail if the water level is raised to the proposed level.

    Three reports are appended where Stig Bernander argues in detail for the need for a proper progressive failure analysis based on measured material properties. He also proposes how such properties may be obtained and gives an example of a way to stabilize the ridge if the soil properties show a softening behaviour. Finally examples of progressive failure analyses are included using probable material properties.

  • 22.
    Bernander, Stig
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Kullingsjö, Anders
    Skanska Teknik, Göteborg, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Gylland, Anders K
    Multiconsult, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Bengtsson, Per-Evert
    Statens Geotekniska Institut, Linköping, PEB Geoteknik.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Olofsson, Jan
    Skanska Sverige AB, Skanska Teknik, Göteborg.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Downhill Progressive Landslides in Long Natural Slopes: Triggering Agents and Landslide Phases modeled with a Finite Difference Method2016In: Canadian geotechnical journal (Print), ISSN 0008-3674, E-ISSN 1208-6010, Vol. 53, no 10, 1565-1582 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large landslide in Tuve (Gothenburg, Sweden 1977) initiated the development of a model for slope stability analysis taking the deformation-softening of soft sensitive clays into consideration. The model studies triggering agents and five phases in progressive slope failure are identified: (1) in-situ, (2) disturbance, (3) unstable ‘dynamic’, (4) transitory (or permanent) equilibrium, and (5) ‘global’ failure. The clay resistance in these phases may differ widely; mostly due to different rates of loading. Two time dependent failure criteria are defined: (i) the triggering load condition in the disturbance Phase (2), and (ii) the transitory equilibrium in Phase (4), indicating whether minor downhill displacements or a veritable landslide catastrophe will occur. The analysis explains why downhill landslides tend to spread over vast areas of almost horizontal ground further down-slope. The model has been applied to landslides in Scandinavia and Canada. Three case studies are briefly discussed. The model is a finite difference approach, where local downhill deformations caused by normal forces is maintained compatible with deviatory shear deformations above the potential (or the established) failure surface. Software and an easy-to-use spreadsheet are introduced as well as recent developments. See also Video Abstract.

  • 23.
    Blandine, Feneuil
    et al.
    Aalto University, Concrete Technology Laboratory, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto University.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Cwircen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Erratum to: Contribution of CNTs/CNFs morphology to reduction of autogenous shrinkage of Portland cement paste2017In: Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, ISSN 2095-2430, E-ISSN 2095-2449, Vol. 11, no 2, 255-255 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Mätprogram för broarna över Åby älv och Rautasjokk: FAS 22013Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Mätprogram för broarna över Åby älv och Rautasjokk: Utmattning och överlast2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten är beställd av trafikverket som en förstudie om förslag till möjligheterna att mäta på en bro över Åby älv som ligger på stambanan, samt vilka resultat som detta skulle kunna medföra.

  • 26.
    Byström, Alexandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Compartment Fire Temperature Calculations and Measurements2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is devoted to heat transfer and fire dynamics in enclosures. It consists of a main part which summarizes and discusses the theory of heat transfer, conservation of energy, fire dynamics and specific fire scenarios that have been studied. In the second part of this thesis, the reader will find an Appendix containing seven scientific publications in this field.

    In particular, one- and two-zone compartment fire models have been studied. A new way of calculating fire temperatures of pre- and post-flashover compartment fires is presented. Three levels of solution techniques are presented including closed form analytical expressions, spread-sheet calculations and solutions involving general finite element temperature calculations. Validations with experiments have shown good accuracy of the calculation models and that the thermal properties of the surrounding structures have a great impact on the fire temperature development. In addition, the importance of the choice of measurement techniques in fire engineering has been studied. Based on the conclusions from these studies, the best techniques have been used in further experimental studies of different fire scenarios.

  • 27.
    Byström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Lind, Oskar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Palmklint, Erika
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Jönsson, Petter
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Analysis of a new plate thermometer: the copper disc plate thermometer2015In: Proceedings of the International Fire Safety Symposium 2015: Coimbra, Portugal, 20th-22nd April 2015 / [ed] João Paulo C Rodrigues, International Fire Safety Symposium , 2015, 453-460 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two temperatures govern heat transfer to a surface of a solid body. One is the gas temperature which can be measured with thermocouples (TC) and the other the black body radiation temperature. The latter can also be expressed as the incident radiant heat flux. It is difficult to measure as radiometers cannot be used under hot fire conditions. Indirectly the radiation temperature can be obtained by measuring the Adiabatic Surface Temperature (AST) with plate thermometers (PT) for example as defined in the fire resistance furnace standards EN 1363-1 and ISO-834-1 combined with measurements of gas temperature with thin TC. In the test reported here a smaller gauge is used to measure adiabatic surface temperature at surfaces. It has been named copper disc Plate Thermometer (cdPT). Then a thin copper disc with an attached TC is mounted flush at the surface to obtain the AST in e.g. cone calorimeters according to ISO 5660. A main advantage of the cdPT is that it can record the AST before as well after a material has ignited. It can thereby be used to indicate ignition as well as continue recording the thermal exposure thereafter when ignition occurs the cdPT reacts immediately by displaying a quick temperature rise.

  • 28.
    Byström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Influence of surrounding boundaries on fire compartment temperature2015In: / [ed] Wald F.,Bjegovic D.,Horova K.,Burgess I.,Jelcic Rukavina M., Prague: Czech Technical University , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows and demonstrates how an analysis of the energy and mass balance of a fully developed (ventilation controlled) compartment fire can be used as a basis for simple and accurate predictions of fire temperatures. The model has been applied on compartments of light weight concrete structures. A finite element FE analysis has been used to solve the heat transfer equation. Effects of moisture were considered for material properties of the surrounding structure. The results were validated with experiments. The model then accurately predicted the fire temperatures and among other things it showed the influence of moisture in the surrounding structure on the fire temperature. Parametric temperature curves according to EN 1991-1-2, 2002 were shown to overestimate the fire temperature.

  • 29.
    Byström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Pre-flashover compartment fire temperature: a new calculation model validated with experimentsIn: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new two-zone model for computing temperature of pre-flashover compartment fires is introduced. This model predicts upper layer fire temperatures in compartments with semi-infinitely thick boundaries as well as with boundaries of insulated or non-insulated steel sheets. The mass flows of air and fire gases are assumed controlled by the plume entrainment depending on a prescribed heat release rate and plume height. The combustion is limited by the rate at which gaseous fuel (pyrolysis gases) is released. The model is based on the assumption that the heat release rate is equal to the heat lost by convection of air and radiation out through the opening(s) and by losses to the surrounding structures.

    For a constant heat release rate, this model yields the maximum upper layer temperature a fire would reach when lasting for a very long time as well as the fire temperature as a function of time depending on the inertia, on the design of the surrounding structure and on the ventilation conditions of the compartment.

    This model is validated by comparisons with very accurately defined and controlled experiments.

  • 30.
    Byström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Temperature of post-flashover compartment fires: calculations and validationIn: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and validates by comparisons with tests a one-zone model for computing temperature of fully developed compartment fires. The model is based on an analysis of the energy and mass balance assuming combustion being limited by the availability of oxygen, i.e. ventilation controlled fire. It is demonstrated that the model can be used to predict fire temperatures in compartments with semi-infinitely thick boundaries as well as with boundaries of insulated and uninsulated steel sheets where the entire heat capacity of the surrounding structure is assumed to be concentrated to the steel core. That is so called lumped heat capacity is assumed.

    When developing the fire model a maximum fire temperature was defined depending on combustion efficiency and opening heights only. This temperature was then used as a thermal boundary condition to calculate the temperature of the surrounding structure. The fire temperature was then derived to be a weighted average between the maximum fire temperature and the current calculated surrounding structure surface temperature.

    A general finite element solid temperature calculation code (TASEF) was used to calculate the temperature in the boundary structure. With this code it is possible to analyze surrounding structures of various kinds comprising materials with properties varying with temperature as well as assemblies of various materials.

    The experiments referred to were accurately defined and surveyed. In all the tests a propane diffusion burner was used as the only fire source. Temperatures were measured with thermocouples and plate thermometers at several positions [1].

  • 31.
    Byström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sjöström, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sverige.
    Anderson, Johan
    Sverige.
    Project: Validation of a one-zone room fire model with well-defined experiments2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Carolin, Anders
    et al.
    Trafikverket, Luleå.
    Anderson, Robert
    Network Rail, London, United Kingdom.
    Heissenberger, Roman
    ÖBB, Wien, Austria.
    Hermosilla Carrasco, Carlos
    Acciona Technology, Madrid, Spain.
    Schewe, Britta
    Deutsche Bahn, Berlin, Germany.
    Nilimaa, jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwircen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Innovative Intelligent Management of Railway Bridges, In2Rail: A European Horizon 2020 Project2016In: IABSE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovativeand Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid, CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland, 2016, 2552-2561 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative Intelligent Railways, In2Rail, is a European Horizon 2020 Project with the objective to enhance capacity, increase reliability and reduce Life Cycle Costs of European Railways. Bridges and Tunnels is the main focus in Work Package 4. The aim is to study, benchmark and further develop new Inspection Technologies in order to create more proactive maintenance procedures. In this paper some preliminary results are presented.

  • 33. Carolin, Anders
    et al.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Vill vi betala mer för ökad dammsäkerhet?2007In: Norrbottens-Kuriren, 3- p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Chung, Johnny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Determination of Thermal Conductivity of Wood Exposed to Fire based on Small Scale Laboratory Trials for Finite Element Calculations2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes an approach to determine the thermal conductivity of wood at elevated temperatures. The aim is to be able to use the developed conductivity as input in structural elements in finite element calculations. The conductivity of pine wood and glue laminated timber with different densities and moisture contents have been evaluated where small scale one-dimensional laboratory trials have been carried out in a cone calorimeter. Steel temperatures were measured behind the exposed wood samples. Obtained temperatures from the experimental trials have been compared with back calculated steel temperatures in the finite element program TASEF (Temperature Analysis in Structures Exposed to Fire). In the back calculations the conductivity at 100 °C, 300 °C and 500 °C was altered in order to achieve a best fit steel temperature curve as the measured ones during the experimental trials. At 20 °C the conductivity was taken from the literature. Between these temperature levels the conductivity was assumed to vary linearly.

    The dehydration of the moisture content in the wood samples have been considered by including it in the specific volumetric enthalpy, i.e. the integral over temperature of the density and specific heat as input in the temperature calculation program TASEF. Regarding the thermal degradation, recommended formulas in Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures – Part 1-2: General – Structural fire design, have been applied.

    The final back calculated conductivity values of the studied pine wood at specific temperatures (20 °C, 100 °C, 300 °C och 500 °C) were determined by the cone calorimeter test to be as follows; 0.09 W/mK, 0.07 W/mK, 0.05 W/mK and 0.35 W/mK. Comparing with presented conductivity of wood in Eurocode 5 the developed conductivity in this study are generally lower.

    Derived conductivity values from the back calculations in TASEF have been reconsidered for the glue laminated timber by taken account of differences in density and moisture content. By using a developed conversion factor, so called “conductivity ratio”, new conductivity values could be obtained which then has been used as an input in TASEF. As a result, good similarities between calculated steel temperatures and measured steel temperatures could be seen.

    The implemented method, consisting of simple one-dimensional laboratory trials for determining the thermal conductivity is deemed to be promising.  However, further studies are needed to be done in order to increase the accuracy of the method.

  • 35. Dury, Robin
    et al.
    Bernander, Stig
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Kullingsjö, Anders
    Skanska Teknik AB.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Progressive Landslide Analysis with Bernander Finite Difference Method2017In: / [ed] Vikas Thakur, Jean-Sébastien L’Heureux, Ariane Locat, 2017, 1- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The poster presents a new Spreadsheet developed by Robin Dury (2017) to simplify the use of the Finite Difference Method developed by Stig Bernander et al (2011, 2016).

    It includes:

    - Material Properties

    - Finite Difference Method

    - Progressive failure process with five phses

    - Discussion

    - References

  • 36.
    Eberius, Catrin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Fjällström, Kristin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    The impact of fire development on design resistance of structures2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current design methods used to determine fire progression and temperature-time development in fire compartments today are being questioned to not give accurate results in large and complex enclosures (larger than 500 m2). The established design methods proposed by Eurocode and used by fire safety engineers today are primarily the standard temperature-time curve and the parametric temperature-time curves. The parametric temperature-time curves are based on the heat and mass balance equations and both methods assume homogenous temperatures and uniform burning. These assumptions are being questioned for use in large enclosures such as open-plan compartments and compartments with multiple floors connected which are typically modern and common building types in today’s society.

    Today there are no established design methods developed to determine fire progression in large enclosures, but the Improved Travelling Fire Method (iTFM) and the New MT model II are new, alternative design methods which are prospects to become established engineering tools in the future. The iTFM is developed at the University of Edinburgh for travelling fires in large size compartments and the New MT model II is developed by RISE, Research Institutes of Sweden, for large tunnel fires. These two new design methods have been investigated and compared to established methods in a case study. Also localised fires from Eurocode with proposed interpretations by Ulf Wickström has been investigated and compared to the standard temperature-time curve and the parametric temperature-time curves. The new interpretation suggests that the given heat flux boundary conditions in Eurocode are interpreted as adiabatic surface temperatures based on given emissivities and convection heat transfer coefficients according to Eurocode.

    Through a case study the different methods were compared throughout reference buildings with constant material properties and fire loads, but with varying floor area and height. The result focused on if the new methods have more bearing on reality than the standard fire curve and the parametric temperature-time curves methods when determining fire progression and temperature-time development. Desired benefits with the new methods are to better predict and describe fire development in large enclosures. The referenceIIIbuildings were considered as occupancy class 2 (Vk2) and Br2 buildings with a load bearing fire resistance capacity demand of 30 minutes. This report is an early stage in the process of developing new fire models to improve the fire designing process when working with large compartments. The aim with the new, alternative methods and localised fires with proposed interpretation is to enable them to become engineering tools used by fire safety engineers in the future to create a more efficient and adapted design process.

    The results differ significantly depending on used method and reference building. The maximum temperatures conducted by the iTFM are in general higher than the standard fire curve and the parametric temperature-time curves. When applying the method to the reference building with high ceiling height and low spread rate the resulting temperatures were lower than the standard fire curve. The fire progression of the New MT model II is highly dependent on opening factor and time until temperature increase starts. In comparison to the parametric fire curves with the same opening factors the New MT model II resulted in considerably faster temperature development and higher temperatures. Localised fires with the new proposed interpretations resulted in adiabatic surface temperatures which were compared to the standard temperature-time curve after 30 minutes of fire and the maximum temperature of the parametric temperature-time curves. The comparison resulted in slightly lower temperatures for the localised fires with the new proposed interpretations compared to the standard temperature-time curve and similar temperatures compared to the parametric temperature-time curves in the case study.

    The results of the iTFM and the New MT model II differs significantly depending on physical parameters used in the calculation processes. The models are customizable and vary depending on fire scenarios and compartments and could possibly be future alternative methods when designing for fires in large compartments. Further studies and development together with real fire tests would provide the models with better accuracy and continuity. Localised fires with proposed new interpretations are a future prospect to become a future standard method for determination of maximum temperature of member surfaces in fire safety design.

  • 37.
    Edrees, Tarek
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nikolakopoulos, George
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Identification of building damage using armax model: A parametric study2016In: Diagnostyka, ISSN 1641-6414, Vol. 17, no 3, 3-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Structural Identification approach is used to identify and localize the existence of damage for a steel frame. The black box linear parametric model called Auto-Regressive Moving Average with eXternal input (ARMAX) was utilized for the construction of the Frequency Response Functions, based on simulation results. The Singular Value Decomposition method was adopted to identify how many significant eigenvalues exist and plot the Complex Mode Indicator Function for the complete frame. Three damage indices were adopted to evaluate the state of damage in the frame. The results indicated that the ARMAX is a robust scheme for structural damage detection.

  • 38.
    Edrees, Tarek
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. College of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.
    Nikolakopoulos, George
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Dritsas, Leonidas
    University of Patras, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Semi-active control of flexible structures using closed-loop input shaping techniques2017In: Structural Control and Health Monitoring: The Bulletin of ACS, ISSN 1545-2255, E-ISSN 1545-2263, Vol. 24, no 5, e1913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research effort, a novel approach on the control of structures with magnetorheological (MR) dampers is presented, based on an appropriately adapted closed-loop version of the generic input shaping control theory. The MR damper is a very promising kind of semi-active control system (actuator), mixing the advantages of the active and passive structural control systems, hence their increasing use as attenuators that reject the effects of dynamic loads on civil engineering structures. The main contribution of this article is the application and performance evaluation of the novel ‘Linear Matrix Inequality-based’ feedback version of the input shaping control theory for the first time in the area of structural control. The need for the use of a feedback version of input shaping control stems from the design trade-off between robustness and speed of response requirements. A simulation of a benchmark three-story building with one MR damper is employed to verify the efficiency of the proposed control approach. The nonlinear behaviour of the MR damper, rigidly connected between the first floor of the structure and the ground, is captured by the well-known Bouc–Wen model. The superiority and effectiveness of the proposed scheme in reducing the responses of the structure were proved using seven quantifiable evaluation criteria and by comparing these results with those achieved by classical and well-established alternative control schemes.

  • 39.
    Ek, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Andersson, Isac
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Temperature distribution and charring penetrations in timber assemblies exposed to parametric fire curves: Comparisons between tests and TASEF predictions2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Four furnace tests have been performed using two different parametric fire curves and the results are compared with computer simulations and Eurocode calculations. What differentiates the parametric fire curve from other fire curves is in particular the cooling phase, something that has proven to be hard to model for timber structures.

     

    A literature study and computer simulations were followed by experimental work performed at SP Wood Building Technology in Stockholm. The computer simulations were performed using the computer code TASEF. The predictions from TASEF were compared with measurements from the fire tests to evaluate how well the program can predict temperature distribution using a parametric fire curve.

     

    The four fire tests were executed at SP Wood Building Technology, glued laminated timber beams were used in all tests. When preparing the test specimens thermocouples were installed to measure temperature distribution, the thermocouples were installed in drilled holes. A deviation study regarding these drill-holes was performed as a part of the preparations. The temperature distributions measured during the tests were compared with the temperature distribution predicted by TASEF.

     

    Charring rate and charring depth were obtained from the fire tests, from the TASEF simulations but also by using equations given in the Eurocode. Since TASEF simulates temperature distribution and not charring depth, the 300 °C isotherm was assumed to represent the charring depth. The results from all three methods were compared and evaluated.

     

    The agreement between experiments and TASEF predictions regarding temperature distribution and charring depth were in general very good. Parametric fire curves with opening factors of 0.02 m1/2 and 0.04 m1/2 were used in four fire tests. TASEF performed more accurate predictions regarding the temperature distribution for the small opening factor but looking at the charring depth the predictions were better for the bigger opening factor. It is recommended to perform further studies and find out the reason for this behaviour.

     

    Comparing the charring depths measured at the tests with values calculated using Eurocode 5 there were some differences in charring depths. Charring depths for the horizontal direction of the beams were much alike, but when comparing the charring depths for the vertical direction there is a significant difference. The equations regarding charring depth for wood exposed to parametric fire curves in Eurocode 5 underestimate the charring depth. It is recommended to evaluate these equations further.

     

    For one of the timber beams delamination occurred, this has previously been assumed not to occur to glued laminated beams. More studies should be performed regarding delamination of glued laminated beams exposed to fire.

  • 40.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Activity: Bridge Design, K7005B2015Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Aktivitet: Högpresterande betong ger lättare konstruktioner1992Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Aktivitet: Kompetenscentra behövs. Goda erfarenheter av tvärdisciplinär forskning i Luleå1992Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Avdelningen för Konstruktionsteknik. Verksamhetsberättelse 1983/841984Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Avdelningen för Konstruktionsteknik. Verksamhetsberättelse 1984/851985Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Maskinfundament: Beräkning av egensvängningar1984Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En metod presenteras för att beräkna translations- och translationssvängningar för maskinfundament av betong. Metoden illustreras med ett beräkningsexempel.

  • 46.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Notiser.  Hallå där... om Internationella Broföreningens kongress i Stockholm 20162016In: Cementa, ISSN 0346-8771, no 3, 5- p.Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Projekt: Sveriges Bygguniversitet2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En samverkan mellan de tekniska högskolar i Sverige som utbildar civilingenjörer i samhällsbyggnad / väg- och vattenbyggnad, dvs i första hand Lunds tekniska högskola, LTH, Chalmers tekniska högskola, Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH, och Luleå tekniska universitet, LTU)

  • 48.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Project: Mainline-MAINtenance, renewaL and Improvement of rail transport iNfrastructure to reduce Economic and environmental impacts2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    - Apply new technologies to extend the life of elderly infrastructure - Improve degradation and structural models to develop more realistic life cycle cost and safety models - Investigate new construction methods for the replacement of obsolete infrastructure- Investigate monitoring techniques to complement or replace existing examination techniques -Develop management tools to assess whole life environmental and economic impact.

  • 49.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Enochsson, Ola
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Thun, Håkan
    Project: Sustainable Bridges2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett EU-projekt med avsikt att förlänga livlängden för befinmtliga järnvägsbroar

  • 50.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Grennberg, Torsten
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Horrigmoe, Geir
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Axelsson, Kennet B. E.
    Högskolan i Luleå, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå University of Technology.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Institutionen för Anläggningsteknik. Verksamhetsberättelse 1986/871987Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1234 1 - 50 of 179
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