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  • 1.
    Aakjær, Mia
    et al.
    Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Pharmacovigilance Research Center, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    De Bruin, Marie Louise
    Department of Pharmacy, Copenhagen Centre for Regulatory Science (CORS), University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS), Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Kulahci, Murat
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Andersen, Morten
    Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Pharmacovigilance Research Center, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Surveillance of Antidepressant Safety (SADS): Active Signal Detection of Serious Medical Events Following SSRI and SNRI Initiation Using Big Healthcare Data2021In: Drug Safety, ISSN 0114-5916, E-ISSN 1179-1942, Vol. 44, p. 1215-1230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The current process for generating evidence in pharmacovigilance has several limitations, which often lead to delays in the evaluation of drug-associated risks.

    Objectives In this study, we proposed and tested a near real-time epidemiological surveillance system using sequential, cumulative analyses focusing on the detection and preliminary risk quantification of potential safety signals following initiation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs).

    Methods We emulated an active surveillance system in an historical setting by conducting repeated annual cohort studies using nationwide Danish healthcare data (1996–2016). Outcomes were selected from the European Medicines Agency's Designated Medical Event list, summaries of product characteristics, and the literature. We followed patients for a maximum of 6 months from treatment initiation to the event of interest or censoring. We performed Cox regression analyses adjusted for standard sets of covariates. Potential safety signals were visualized using heat maps and cumulative hazard ratio (HR) plots over time.

    Results In the total study population, 969,667 new users were included and followed for 461,506 person-years. We detected potential safety signals with incidence rates as low as 0.9 per 10,000 person-years. Having eight different exposure drugs and 51 medical events, we identified 31 unique combinations of potential safety signals with a positive association to the event of interest in the exposed group. We proposed that these signals were designated for further evaluation once they appeared in a prospective setting. In total, 21 (67.7%) of these were not present in the current summaries of product characteristics.

    Conclusion The study demonstrated the feasibility of performing epidemiological surveillance using sequential, cumulative analyses. Larger populations are needed to evaluate rare events and infrequently used antidepressants.

  • 2.
    Abdollahpour, Nosrat
    et al.
    Department of Occupational Health Engineering and Ergonomics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Helali, Faramarz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Implementing Practical Ergonomics Knowledge Transfer Using Ergonomic Checkpoints to Support the Participatory Ergonomics Process in an Industrially Developing Country2022In: IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors, ISSN 2472-5838, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 59-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Implementing ergonomics principles in workplaces requires good knowledge transfer with the participation of professionals, workers, and managers.

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate practical ergonomics knowledge transfer to support the participatory ergonomics process that could lead problem identification and the implementation and development of feasible and low-cost solutions.

    Methods: This was action research on the type of intervention and conducted in four phases. Accordingly, 106 participants from different organizational levels of a manufacturing company, facilitated by an ergonomist by forming 14 action groups, were involved in practical ergonomics knowledge transfer to identify and solve problems of work divisions. Participant reflections were obtained through interviews and field notes.

    Results: The results contributed to the presentation of 145 solutions to improve working conditions by the action groups. Most solutions were low-cost and 57.5% were implemented. The interviews showed the development of a participation culture, learning and institutionalizing ergonomics principles in practice, and improving competence in identifying problems and implementing solutions.

    Conclusions: The key findings were achieved by the participatory ergonomics intervention approach through different tactics of participant engagement, including a pushing tactic for intentional learning and a pulling tactic for voluntary learning, which resulted in the improvement of working conditions and promotion of a participatory culture.

  • 3.
    Abdollahpour, Nosrat
    et al.
    Department of Occupational Health and Ergonomics, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Helali, Faramarz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Rasoulzadeh, Yahya
    Department of Occupational Health and Ergonomics, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Iranian Traffic Injuries Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Hassankhani, Hadi
    Centre of Qualitative Studies, Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Barriers and Challenges to Human Factors/Ergonomics Knowledge Transfer to Small Business Enterprises in an Industrially Developing Country2023In: IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors, ISSN 2472-5838, Vol. 11, no 1-2, p. 14-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATION

    We found that small business enterprises (SBEs) face intra- and extra-organizational barriers in different dimensions related to their work system to practically implement human factors/ergonomics (HFE) knowledge transfer and to achieve its benefits in an industrially developing country. Utilizing a three-zone lens, we evaluated the feasibility of overcoming the barriers identified by stakeholders, especially ergonomists. To overcome the identified barriers in practice, three types of macroergonomics interventions (top-down, middle-out, and bottom-up) were distinguished through macroergonomics theory. The bottom-up approach of macroergonomics, as a participatory HFE intervention, was considered as the entry point to overcome the perceived barriers in the first zone of the lens, which included such themes as lack of competence, lack of involvement and interaction, and inefficient training and learning approaches. This approach focused on improving emotional literacy as a care zone among the small business enterprise personnel.

    TECHNICAL ABSTRACT

    Background: The human factors/ergonomics (HFE) knowledge transfer process is one of the potential challenges for organizations in industrially developing countries (IDCs), especially in small business enterprises (SBEs).

    Purpose: We explored perceived barriers and challenges to the practical implementation of HFE knowledge transfer to SBEs in Iran, as an IDC, to improve their work systems.

    Methods: An exploratory qualitative study was conducted using a conventional content analysis. To identify perceived barriers, we conducted individual interviews (n = 38) and a focus-group discussion (n = 17) with the participation of the SBEs personnel and the officials of related organizations. Inductive content analysis was used for data analysis. We then categorized the identified perceived barriers (themes) to determine the feasibility of overcoming them.

    Results: Regarding perceived barriers, the following nine themes were extracted: lack of competence, resistance to change, technological infrastructure problems, lack of involvement and interaction, using an inappropriate mode of knowledge, lack of culture-building about HFE, inefficient training and learning approaches, lack of scientific management, and extra-organizational problems. Further, a three-zone lens was identified for the extracted themes to check the feasibility of overcoming them.

    Conclusions: We identified nine intra- and extra-organizational barriers in the HFE knowledge transfer process to SBEs. We further evaluated the ways of overcoming perceived barriers defined in the three-zone lens to adapt them for building creative workplace culture zones (care, creative, and improvement). We distinguished three types of macroergonomics interventions (top-down, middle-out, and bottom-up) and three supporting strategies, including, knowledge, management and employees, and participatory HFE.

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  • 4.
    Abou-Hamad, Eliana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    A design solution for prevention of pressure ulcers: A sensor driven bedding for hospital beds that detect pressure2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about preventing pressure ulcers (bedsores). The master thesis was carried outby an Industrial Design Engineering master student at Luleå University of Technology, in thespring of 2021. Pressure ulcers are a difficult and troublesome problem that exists everywherein healthcare. They occur on people who lie or sit in the same position for a long time, wherethe weight of the body creates pressure on the surface. That contributes to reduced bloodflow in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, which leads to pressure ulcers.

    Interest in the work came after getting in touch with Per Söderberg, he described the projecthe used to work on and could not let go of, after retiring. The project was about healing andpreventing pressure ulcers through a bed cradle, CUNIDORM, that Per created. Per gotstuck with his idea due to a design flaw and continued to look for someone who could seethe assignment from a new perspective. The purpose of the project was to find a solution thatprevents pressure ulcers from occurring.

    To solve the problem, an iterative design process PCDIO (Planning, Conceive, Design,Implement & Operate) was used, which was performed with HCD (Human-Centered design)as the way of thinking, because the solution is intended for humans. At the beginning of theprocess, the context phase was carried out. There, the needs were determined throughinterviews and research about the current state. The greatest need identified was the need toreduce patient turnarounds and examinations. Examination is the main method of preventingpressure ulcers. The need for good materials was identified as well, due to moisture and heatbeing a cause of pressure ulcers. After the user needs were established, different methods wereused within the industrial design engineering framework to create ideas and concepts.

    It resulted in three concepts, the air mattress, the foam mattress with mechanical arms andthe mattress with sensors. The concepts were evaluated on the basis of a design specificationwhere they were scored. The concept that met the criteria best with the highest score becamethe winning concept.

    The result was SENSAI, the mattress that senses the patient's weight over a period of time,using sensors. It detects where the pressure is immense and how harmful it is. By detectingpressure and weight, potential pressure ulcers can be detected earlier. The product has notbeen tested using prototypes or similarly, due to the pandemic and lack of access to materials.The conclusion of this project is therefore to perform more tests and investigations.Hopefully, this will happen as continued work after the master thesis is done

  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Digitalisation and Sustainable work: obstacles and pathways2021In: European Journal of Workplace Innovation, ISSN 2387-4570, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work is a central part of our lives in many aspects. Half of our awake time is for most of us performed as paid work. At work, we create the values we need to live the life we desire. At work, we are socialized and shaped into the human beings we are. We are all concerned about how our work will be in the future; will we be able to handle the new technology or will we be replaced by a robot? Do we see the new technology as The wolf is coming or God's gift to mankind? This is an existential question and the future work is shaped here and now. This means that we need to get a picture of what is happening so we can act, but we also need a vision of where we want to go. Our mission as a researcher is to find the pathways to the Sustainable work, but in order to to find the way, we sometimes have to take on the role of the wolf and ask the uncomfortable questions.

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  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Oskar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Assembly station development by flow analysis and systematic layout planning: Mapping of the current state of production, evaluation of alternatives and development of concepts for improved flow and flexibility2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modul system HH deliver modular storage systems and electrical solutions that can be combined according to the customer's wishes. This thesis combines argues for the importance for companies to keep improving their organization and production to remain competitive. By relating to a holistic view of the development of production environments, the project focuses on improvements for efficiency and social sustainability in the development of production. The project became relevant as the company has discovered difficulties in balancing production in the event of capacity changes and wants to develop rational flows and increase its flexibility. The project is limited to exploring three assembly stations and the operations and flows that belong to the assembly. The project spiral's iterative 3-step development process was chosen for strategic planning. This methodology allowed the work to continue forward despite the lack of data. The first step deals with planning and processes where technology and users were examined. In this planning phase, a Gantt schedule was used in the ClickUp program to plan the project and to-do lists and deadlines could be set. A literature study was conducted to strengthen arguments and raise new ideas. The theoretical overview focuses on areas around production development with a focus on the development of layouts/assembly stations, psychosocial work environment and organizational management. In the second phase of the project, requirements and wishes were mapped. This was done together with the company, the results from this step were then used to evaluate concepts before detailed development. The project also has several parts of the framework that Muther & Wheeler developed called Systematic layout planning. It provided the tools to understand important connections through relationships and proximity analysis. These methods were also used to evaluate the results. Interviews, observations, and 3D modelling were also performed in this phase to gather information and to understand different production structures. Semi-structured interviews were performed with product managers, production designers, production planners. From these methods, I was together with some employees able to conclude that customer order-driven product development is the focus. That production places demand on rapid implementations in production and that modularity means great flexibility needs and fast lead times. We also found opportunities to minimize repetitive and time-consuming steps through development based on the operator's point of view. Concepts were developed through a development process based on proximity analysis, time studies and results from more subjective interviews. The concepts were then evaluated through an evaluation matrix based on formulated future requirements and wishes. The winning concept was developed in more detail and developed iteratively together with staff from the company. The final concept combines a new, more compact layout that considers proximity requirements between stations as well as flows of materials and operators. The final layout also introduces new types of material buffers and action proposals for improved collaboration and communication for increased flexibility.

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  • 7.
    Adams, Kweku
    et al.
    Bradford School of Management, University of Bradford, BD7 1SR, United Kingdom.
    Attah-Boakye, Rexford
    University of Nottingham, Wollaton Road, Lenton, Nottingham, NG8 1BB, United Kingdom.
    Yu, Honglan
    University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, HD1 3DH, United Kingdom.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Halmstad University.
    Njoya, Eric Tchouamou
    University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, HD1 3DH, United Kingdom.
    Female board representation and coupled open innovation: Evidence from emerging market multinational enterprises2023In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 124, article id 102749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little research has been done on female board representation in emerging market multinational enterprises (EMNEs). Our paper considers the role of female board representation and its impact on open innovation (OI) in the unique context of emerging markets. We draw on upper echelons and institutional theories to understand how female board representation and cross-country institutional contexts influence coupled OI. Combining a 10-year (2009–2019) dataset with a rich in-depth content analysis of 183 (EMNEs) engaged in OI, our results reveal a significant positive association between female board representation and a firm's commitment to coupled OI initiatives. We also find that country-level institutional factors affect and positively moderate the relationship between female board representation and coupled OI. In emerging market environments where managerial perception and cultural beliefs sometimes hinder the promotion of females into top positions, our work has implications for EMNEs regarding how they harness diversity. We contribute to the OI literature by showing that female board representation enhances corporate OI investment within EMNEs.

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  • 8.
    Ademali, Emre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Adaptation of Pricing Strategies by Hotel Managers in Turkey Response to the Covid-19 Outbreak2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Covid-19 crisis has had a profound impact on the global tourism industry, including theTurkish hotel sector. As hotels face unprecedented challenges, the adaptation of pricingstrategies becomes crucial for their survival and competitiveness. This thesis investigates theimpact of the Covid-19 outbreak on pricing strategies in the Turkish hotel industry and examinesthe strategies implemented by hotel managers to navigate this challenging period.

    Through a comprehensive research methodology, including interviews with hotel managers anddata analysis, this study aims to provide valuable insights into the pricing strategies adopted byhotels during the crisis. It explores the factors influencing the selection and effectiveness of thesestrategies and examines their relationship with the financial performance of hotels.

    The research objectives include assessing the impact of the Covid-19 crisis on pricing strategiesin the Turkish hotel industry, identifying the factors influencing the selection and effectivenessof hotel managers' strategies, exploring the relationship between these strategies and the financialperformance of hotels, and providing recommendations and guidelines for effective hotelmanagement.

    The results of this study make a valuable contribution to the current understanding of pricingstrategies in the hotel industry during times of crisis. By exploring the adaptation of pricingstrategies, this research provides new insights and practical implications for hotel managers.These findings aim to assist managers in formulating effective pricing strategies, ultimatelyenhancing the resilience and adaptability of the hotel industry.

    This research has important implications for both academia and industry, as it provides insightsinto the dynamics of pricing strategies in the context of a global crisis. By understanding thechallenges and opportunities faced by hotel managers during the crisis, this study contributes tothe broader understanding of hotel management pricing strategies in the hospitality sector. 

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  • 9.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    et al.
    School of Public Service and Governance, Department of Development Policy, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIMPA), Accra, Ghana; School of Economics and Finance (SEF), University of the WitWatersrand, Johanneshurg, South Africa; GIMPA - PURC Centre of Excellence in Public Utility Regulation (CEPUR), Accra - Ghana.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. Environment for Development (EfD), University of Gothenburg, Box 645, SE 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Akorli, Charity Dzifa
    School of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences, Department of Economics & Hospitality, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Ghana.
    Energy efficiency as a sustainability concern in Africa and financial development: How much bias is involved?2023In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 120, article id 106577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes to the literature on whether financial development stimulates technical energy efficiency (TEE) or not, by addressing core biases that creep into the relationship and thereby reducing the ability to draw causal inferences from financial development to TEE. Our approach is based on the instrumental stochastic frontier technique, where biases in the frontier and inefficiency equations are dealt with using external instrumental variables. The legal system origin of the country and life expectancy at birth were used as instruments for financial development and income, respectively. The current study demonstrates substantial bias in income elasticity, the estimate of energy efficiency, and the effect of financial development on energy efficiency. Both income elasticity and energy efficiency estimate risk upward bias. Equally, the effect of financial system development and financial institution development on TEE risk downward bias. Other results show that all aspects of financial institution development stimulate TEE, but access to financial institutions is more important. These results raise caution about future studies' estimates of the effect of financial development on TEE. Though this study has demonstrated the potency of external instruments in dealing with the bias in the coefficient estimates, we consider this might prove to be a luxury solution in some cases due to data limitation, context differences, and theory. In those circumstances, reliance on internal instruments might prove to be the second-best option.

  • 10.
    Af Malmborg, Harald
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Evaluation of Car Engine Sound Design Methods in Video Games2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Realistic interactions with sound objects in video games are a contributing factor to the overall immersion. Car engine sound design is an area where the auditory feedback from driving would have an impact on that immersion. For this study, three methods for designing car engine sounds are evaluated. A traditional method in the game sound industry is to use several sampled audio recordings for the reproduction of engine sounds, which is in this study represented as a sample-based model. The sample-based model is evaluated together with a model using granular synthesis in an in-game scenario. A less common method is to use physical modeling, which is in this study evaluated together with the other two models in a listening test. Results show the granular synthesis model to be the most realistic, and the physical model to be the least preferred.

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  • 11.
    Aguilar Montaño, Joel Dorian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Influence of COVID-19 on E-commerce sales: The omnichannel strategies case of the retail businesses in Sweden2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This thesis aims to describe the strategies employed by omnichannel experts in Swedish retail shops during the Covid19 pandemic. Furthermore, the integration of the physical and online channels is studied to describe the methods used to increase sales, especially in the online channels.

    Methodology – The study applies a qualitative method where semi-structured interviews were conducted with omnichannel experts from retail businesses.

    Findings – The aim of the retail shops during the Covid19 pandemic has been to perform in- store and online shopping despite the partial restrictions. Retail shops had to adapt to the changes in the Swedish market and the consumer behavior. The challenge of maintaining sales and remaining competitive has shown that Swedish retail shops have remained resilient and that adaptation has been key to their business strategies.

    Practical Implications – Retail businesses worldwide were forced to close their business except for their online services. However, Sweden is a particular case where retailers had to find solutions to their physical and online retail operations. Partial restrictions allowed them to carry out business activities in the Swedish market. Therefore, the current pandemic has influenced Swedish retailers to help them identify business strategies to boost their sales, especially online sales. As well as the data collection and literature findings, both cases suggest that adapting to new technologies is the key to increasing sales in all channels. Therefore, retailers should introduce new ways of working with the help of technological tools to become more competitive and provide excellent service to an increasingly demanding and technologically savvy customer.

    Contribution – This study contributes to the area of research that looks at how omnichannel retail structures can be improved to increase sales. And how they adapt to change market situations that influence consumer behavior.

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  • 12.
    Aguirre, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    What Influences Young Adults to Become Financially Literate: An Explorative Study On Swedish Young Adults’ Attitudes Towards Money2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The low financial literacy among young adults affects individuals’ financial decisions, which impact their well-being and societal welfare. To understand what influences young adults’ financial decisions, it is essential to develop knowledge in elements that give existence to financial literacy. Known factors which influence financial literacy are attitudes about money and socialization sources. The purpose of this thesis is to explore socialization sources’ influence on attitudes towards money and in which way attitudes about money influence young adults’ financial literacy. A theoretical framework regarding these constructs was developed. Based on the Money Attitude Scale (MAS) and socialization source theories, 12 semi-structured interviews were conducted, which were thematically analyzed by developing codes and themes connected to the research questions. The findings from the collected data indicate that young adults are influenced in childhood by how they were raised, their environmental values, and the society and its values that they were brought up in. Findings also indicate that young adults are influenced by trends, media, friends, and their own experiences later in life. The collected data also showed that young adults become more financially literate because of their distrust of banks, the desire to be successful and the best version of themselves, and fear of ending up in challenging financial situations. Some findings pointed to why young adults had low financial literacy, which was connected to fear of being judged, low interest in the subject and still being financially dependent on their parents. This study suggests that policymakers need to develop financial education programs that are directed to socialization sources that influence young adults’ attitudes towards money. Policymakers should also develop trends that actively influence young adults to become more financially literate. 

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  • 13.
    Ahlin, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Miraglia, Andre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Impactinvesterares tillämpningar av en genuslins i investering2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Interviews with impact investors have been conducted to gain a clearer understanding of how socially sustainable investments are made taking into account the identity and gender views of impact investors. The gender lens applied to the study aimed to investigate how gender has been taken into account during company audits and before investment decisions by the impact investors. Furthermore, social identity theory has formed the basis for the deductive study that has been carried out. It has been used to study the impact investors' self-image and how they acted in their professional role in order to gain a deeper understanding of the origin of the impact investors' actions in relation to their identity. These actions have been thematised and examined in terms of criteria, actions, challenges and measures. The recurring factor that most influenced both the company assessment and investment decisions was the dual goals of impact investors, financial return and impact.

    The clearest contribution the study made was that there is a clearer link between impact investors' self-image and their profession compared to other professionals. How this affects impact investors' actions could not be discerned. Furthermore, the study also found that gender is not taken into account during company audits and investment decisions to the extent that previous research has shown. Risk understanding, potentially increased returns and social sustainability are possible outcomes that gender lens investments contribute to. The study's findings suggest that impact investors were aware of this, yet few of the study's respondents were willing to consider gender when making investment decisions.

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  • 14.
    Ahlkvist, Alvina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Hur lyckas organisationer implementera ISO 9001?: Ett medarbetarperspektiv2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom att arbeta med kvalitetsledning kan en organisation ständigt förbättras och bibehålla konkurrenskraft. Ett sätt att arbeta med kvalitetsledning är genom implementering av kvalitetsledningsstandarden ISO 9001. Standarden nämner sju principer, varav en är medarbetarnas engagemang, vilket är essentiellt för organisationer för att lyckas med implementeringen av ISO 9001. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur organisationer kan lyckas med att implementera ISO 9001 genom att undersöka vilka faktorer som bidrar till medarbetarnas engagemang och hur medarbetares engagemang kan stärkas.

    Litteraturstudier indikerar på flera faktorer som kan ha inverkan på medarbetares engagemang, vilka i sin tur beskrevs kunna påverkas med hjälp av förändringsledning. Med utgångspunkt i den teoretiska referensramen analyserades intervjuer, observationer och enkätundersökning med hjälp av tematisk och multivariat analys. På så sätt kartlades nuläget på fallföretaget. Tillsammans med resultatet från litteraturstudien framkom faktorer som kunde avgöra huruvida medarbetare engagerar sig i implementering av ISO 9001 eller inte.

     

    Av identifierade faktorer var det tre som kunde anses vara särskilt viktiga att hantera, då de antingen kan utgöra en barriär eller en framgångsfaktor för lyckad implementering. Faktorerna utgörs av Medvetenhet, Attityd, Användbarhet, Användarvänlighet och Ansvarskänsla, vilka har betydelse för att organisationer ska ta sig från sitt nuläge till sitt börläge. Nuläget utgör utgångspunkten för organisationen, och börläget representeras av en lyckad implementering: faktisk samt långsiktig användning av kvalitetsledningssystemet.

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  • 15.
    Ahlmark, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    We Don´t Make Mistakes, We Have Happy Accidents: En undersökning av komponerande i samverkan med förutbestämda färgtemperaturer2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångspunkten för detta examensarbete var att utveckla en kompositionsmetod med utgångspunkt i en tavla för att skapa en ”simulerad synestesi”. För att skapa kompositionsmetoden har tonsättare med synestesi intervjuats samt har en undersökning om hur en grupp människor tittar på en tavla utförts. Ursprungligen så fanns det bara en vilja hos mig att komponera ett stycke baserat på en tavla tillsammans med en nyfikenhet kring fenomenet synestesi. Under examensarbetets gång har kompositionsmetoden samt undersökningen utformats. Detta resulterade i ett två komponerade stycken och båda styckena utgick ifrån varsin synestesi.

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  • 16.
    Ahlström Sundgren, Oliver
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Demotivate the theft of bicycles: The development of a bicycle stand to promote cycling2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling is a highly beneficial activity that can positively impact individuals, the planet, countries, and cities. It is, therefore, imperative to encourage more people to cycle while reducing obstacles that lead to the use of alternative modes of transportation, such as cars. One of the major challenges that cyclists face is the theft of their bicycles, which can cause significant discouragement and inconvenience. To address this issue, a Master's Thesis was undertaken to investigate ways of reducing bike theft in urban environments. The research question posed in the study was how to minimise bike theft in urban settings. The paper outlines the project's planning and context, identifying the bike stand as the most promising product category to address the issue. Behavioural and persuasive design strategies were implemented to enhance the stand's effectiveness. The research involved comprehensive interviews, ideation, modelling, and prototyping to find a solution that meets the requirements of the scenario. Potential users tested the designs to optimise the product to meet their needs and collective concern. The final concept incorporates most requirements and is discussed for its potential impact on society, sustainable development, and cyclists. By reducing bike theft, the solution can encourage more people to cycle, thus promoting sustainable transportation and reducing carbon emissions and diseases associated with inactivity. The study provides valuable insights into designing effective solutions to address social challenges and promote sustainable development in urban environments. 

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  • 17.
    Ahnér, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Jakobsson, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Vilken påverkan har den avskaffade revisionsplikten på den ekonomiska brottsligheten?: En kvalitativ studie från myndigheternas perspektiv2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The general audit obligation was abolished on 1 November 2010 to simplify the administration and costs for small companies. The hope with the simplification of the rules was to strengthen the companies’ competitiveness and create growth in the economy. The audit obligation has been debated since it was abolished. Advocates in the business community want to raise the limit values for auditing obligations, that is more companies would have freedom of choice if they want an audit. While the authorities experience disadvantages such as increased financial crime and therefore want to reintroduce a general audit obligation. The purpose of the study was to examine the authorities’ attitude on how the audit obligation has affected economic crime in Sweden. 

    A qualitative study was constructed based on secondary and primary data. The main focus of the study is secondary data obtained through government reports, while primary data were obtained through interviews with Ekobrottsmyndigheten and Skattemyndigheten. To answer the research question, an abductive approach has been used to investigate how appropriate the theory is för elucidating connections in the empirical data material. The study is supported by the Fraud Triangle Theory which explains the causes of economic crime and the Fraud Diamond Theory which adds a fourth dimension and describes the individual’s ability to commit crime.

    The study revealed that the authority’s fears of increased eco-crime had taken hold, but that it was not possible to determine how much the eco-crime had increased since the audit obligation was abolished. Which is because economic crimes are complex and depend on a number of factors. The study also shows that more than one possibility of crime, such as general audit obligation, is required for a crime to be realized, which is in line with Diamond Fraud Theory. Many authorities still have an opinion that the audit obligation should be reintroduced, as the business community needs some form of support and control. The general audit obligation can probably not be reintroduced in view of international competition. The authorities are therefore proposing alternative measures to limit economic crime. 

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  • 18.
    Aidanpää, Benjamin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Exploring Consumers' Perception of the Use of Virtual Reality (VR) for Fashion Shopping2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As technology continues to rapidly develop, the realization of Virtual Reality (VR) stores is coming into view for various businesses and industries. As customers today are becoming more aware of their purchasing behaviour and the impact their products have on the environment, it puts pressure on the fashion industry to meet these requirements and needs by developing or adopting new technologies to their practices. In order to try to reduce the sustainability impact of the fashion industry the creation of VR fashion stores may play a role in reducing the need for physical stores, pre-production of clothes, and reducing transportation to reduce the environmental impact. The purpose of this study is to fill the knowledge gap regarding consumers' perceptions of using VR for personal fashion shopping, as well as to explore how consumers perceive the sustainability aspect of VR when considering it as a means to shop for fashion. A theoretical framework regarding this was developed based primarily on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted and then thematically analysed to develop codes and themes related to the research questions. The findings suggest that there is great acceptance of and interest in VR fashion shopping among participants. Participants expected it to become a reality in the future and to become an alternative way of shopping in society. Regarding the perception of the sustainability aspect that VR fashion shopping brings, the study participants noted that they embrace and approve it. However, cost and technological advancements and experiences are of primary importance to them. Future research should focus on conducting wider research regarding VR fashion shopping, as there was an apparent indication that it was accepted by all and something people would choose to use if the technology and opportunity were available.

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  • 19.
    Ajdinovic, Mersiha
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts. Mersiha Ajdinovic.
    Flyktingar, det största hotet i Kosovo?: HUR FLYKTINGKRISEN 2015 BEVAKADES I KOSOVANSK MEDIA2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The refugee crisis during 2015 developed into a highly debated topic. Morning sofas on television, afternoon broadcasts on radio, evening newspapers' leaflets - the news focus was crystal clear. All written reports at that time included diverse topics, including the size of the refugee migration, the long-term economic effects of the refugee crisis, the politicians' proposals, the negotiations in the EU and the tragic accidents in the Mediterranean. The "migration crisis" became a recurring concept and various news media generated their own works where they clearly gave an overview of how people went through a plethora of nasty and violent events to avoid an inevitable fate in their native countries. Majority of the people who fled in 2015 made their way to Europe across the Mediterranean, often in overcrowded boats capsizing on the high seas. Soon thereafter, the Balkan Peninsula, became the alternative route to EU, reason being the life-threatening challenges which the aforementioned route included. 

    Therefore, this essay will look beyond the scope of SVT, TV4, DN, Expressen, Aftonbladet and various Swedish media. The primary focus will be on Kosovo media and its reporting. Greater insight of the methods used by a country who lacks economic growth compared to Sweden, during the biggest challenges of our time, will be the focal point. This study may also be relevant from a societal perspective, as Kosovo, together with other Balkan countries, became important partners for the EU in dealing with the refugee crisis in 2015. 

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  • 20.
    Akimaya, Muhammad
    et al.
    Department of Accounting and Finance, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Academic Belt Road, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences. Payne Institute of Public Policy, Colorado School of Mines, Engineering Hall Room 128, 816 15th Street, Golden, CO 80401, United States of America.
    Political power, economic trade-offs, and game theory in Indonesian gasoline subsidy reform2022In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 92, article id 102782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasoline subsidies distort the gasoline market resulting in inefficiencies and a costly burden in government budget. In Indonesia, they have taken up to 15 % of the government expenditures that arguably could be better spent elsewhere. Governments are aware of these costs, yet face difficulties in removing the policy. Governments would like to release the subsidy fund for other programs while still maintaining political power. Simultaneously, a reform will reduce the purchasing of the population and thus, it is commonly met with strong public resistance. The general population can influence the government’s decision to carry out a reform by exerting pressure that may affect the country’s political stability. There is a vast economics literature analysing the economic impact from a subsidy reform. Meanwhile, the government’s hesitancy is analysed in the political science literature. We combined these two fields by developing a quantitative game theory model to show the interaction between the government and the general population. The model is based on Indonesian data but provides a framework that can be applied elsewhere. Different policy removal schemes are simulated including completely or partially phasing-out the subsidy with and without compensation. An important take-away from our analysis is that it provides a framework showing governments what they have to quantify in order to make an informed policy decision. Another important implication is that the success of the policy reform is highly dependent on the selectorates trust to the government. It strongly supports the political science recommendations of building trust through transparency and inclusion.

  • 21.
    Al, Isak
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Lind, Emmy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Why do local governments say no to wind power?: A public choice approach to the use of the right to veto among Swedish municipalities2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to investigate the factors that affect the use of the municipalveto regarding wind power deployment in Sweden. The study employs a public choiceapproach to investigate the relationship between self-interested voters and the decisionmaking politicians. It employs a probit model specification, which is estimated employing303 municipal decisions in 129 Swedish municipalities over the period 2011-2021. Thefindings suggests that political attributes do generally not play a significant role inmunicipal veto decisions. Instead, in municipalities with high property prices there is alower probability of approval whereas it is higher in municipalities with a high share ofeducated individuals and already installed wind power. Further research is recommendedto be conducted in the future when more data is available. 

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  • 22.
    Al Zagnonn, Mohammed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Tillämpning av Partial Least Squares för analys och processövervakning av Hybrits reduktionsprocess2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrit development AB strives to produce fossil-free steel by using hydrogen for the direct reduction process of iron ore pellets. To achieve that goal, Hybrit has carried out experimental campaigns where the feasibility of direct reduction using hydrogen gas has been investigated and studied. The quality of the reduced iron must be considered when producing iron and steel. The reduction process is characterized by a variety of process- and quality parameters. Because the quality parameters describe the quality of the product, it is of interest to study how the process parameters affect the quality parameters. The process parameters can be measured at any time through various sensors around the reactor in which the iron ore pellets are reduced. While the quality of the product can only be determined after the iron ore pellets have been completely reduced. Therefore, the process is characterized by a time delay between the measurement of the process parameters and the measurement of the quality parameters, where the reduced iron must be analyzed in a laboratory before the quality parameters can be measured. Because of the time delay, it is of interest to be able to predict the quality of the product based on the process parameters. If it is possible to predict the quality, then it is of importance to be able to determine the validity of the prediction. 

    The aim of this master thesis is to identify how the reduction process parameters affect the quality parameters of the reduced iron. A process monitoring method suitable for monitoring the process need be tested and investigated based on how the method can be used to determine the validity of the prediction. The process monitoring will be used to determine whether the process is in a process state that contributes to a reasonably accurate and appropriate prediction of the quality of the product. 

    65 process parameters and 6 quality parameters were used for the analysis of how the reduction process parameters affect the quality parameters of the reduced iron. The multivariate analysis method Partial Least Squares (PLS) was used to achieve the aim of the thesis. A multivariate model which could describe how the process parameters affect the quality parameters was created through PLS. The PLS-model was able to predict the quality parameters reasonably correctly and appropriately, given that the process is within the scope of the model and that the explanatory power is high for the quality parameter that is predicted. The quality parameter Y6-1 could not be predicted reasonably correct as the explanatory power for Y6-1 was low. The process monitoring method tested and investigated was PLS monitoring. Three process monitoring tools were used when PLS monitoring was investigated based on how they can be used to determine the validity of the prediction. These tools were X-scores process monitoring, Hotelling T2 and SPE. The result was that PLS monitoring could indicate how the process relates to the model. Observations that deviated in the PLS monitoring could not be predicted correctly. Thus, information about the validity of the prediction through PLS monitoring could be obtained. Applying PLS monitoring to determine the validity of the prediction is a greater success. This is because information about the quality of the product before the reduction process is completed can be used to ensure production with a satisfactory product quality. Applying multivariate process monitoring methods to monitor the predicted quality parameters may be of interest for future studies. This is because the process monitoring can be used to minimize the internal variation of the quality parameters.

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  • 23.
    Alajärvi, Ludwig
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Vad är det som går och går men aldrig kommer fram?: En miljöhistorisk kartläggning om efterbehandlingen av Nautanens gruvområde 2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay was to understand why the old mining site in Nautanen continues to pollute the enviroment in the immediate area. Based on the actor-network theory, different actors have had different interests in Nautanen. All actors have been studied neutrally and the starting point has been that there is an ontological equality between the actors – no actor is stronger than the other. Different materials have been processed through a qualitative case study method. The study showed that the post-treatment trials were not fully carried out. This was because two actors, Gällivare municipality and the landowner Sveaskog, were unable to agree on the future responsibility for Nautanen. Thus, it resulted in the project coming to an end and the pollution continuing to pollute. Analyzing the results highlights different evidence for different conclusions about wich actor is the stronger actor and is responsible for why Nautanen continues to pollute. Is it Gällivare municipality or Sveaskog? Is it the law or the state?

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  • 24.
    Albihn, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Creative development of lightweight façade constructions in modular housing: The struggle to shut out the noise of the world2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modular construction of housing is an industry on the rise. The prefabrication of construction modules gives a greater control over material consumption, promotes standardization, and lessens the disturbance during the construction time in the field.

    Lindbäcks Bygg AB prefabricates housing modules in their factory at Haraholmen, Piteå. The modules are then transported to construction sites all over the country and assembled. Lindbäcks Bygg AB has made the design choice to focus on lightweight wooden constructions for their modules, which comes with its own set of challenges.

    The urban densification of our city regions has led to more and more residential building being planned and constructed in areas that are submitted to high noise levels from surrounding traffic. This puts a great strain on the sound reduction of the building’s façade wall construction, something that has proven to be a problem with lightweight wooden walls.

    The aim of this master thesis project has been to test different solutions for lightweight façade wall constructions, and to ultimately find one or more solution that meet the requirements of the Swedish standards and regulations, as well as the needs of the tenants, and that can be implemented by Lindbäcks Bygg AB for manufacturing and assembly.

    The project has therefore been carried out in two parts, one theoretical and one practical. The theoretical part has verified the problem with traffic noise levels in residential buildings and identified the critical areas of the current façade construction. The theoretical work led to a list of defining factors for the sound reduction, which in turn worked as a basis for the ideation process. 

    As a result, the theoretical part led to a number of different construction concepts for façade walls. The concepts were first tested theoretically through modelling and calculation, and verified with the acousticians at Tyréns Sverige AB and the engineers of Lindbäcks Bygg AB. The most promising concepts were sent on to be manufactured.

    The practical part of this master thesis project was carried out mainly as acoustical measurements and the subsequent analysis, where the manufactured façade wall constructions were mounted on a free-standing module.

    The result of the practical part, and of the master thesis project, were four different façade wall constructions that met the requirements for noise reduction, which were presented to Lindbäcks Bygg AB and Tyréns Sverige AB. The construction most easily implemented is a construction with an airgap between the wall panels, and this construction will now have to be structurally verified and adapted for the factory, before being utilized in future building projects.

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  • 25.
    Aldenlöv, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Public Procurement of Railway Infrastructure Maintenance: A Linear Regression Analysis2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish railway infrastructure maintenance has been outsourced through gradualexposure since 2002. The idea behind outsourcing was to reduce cost and improveefficiency. However, railway maintenance cost has increased faster than railwaymaintenance operations, resulting in neglected railway maintenance. Since railwayoperation is governed by the contract design the purpose of this paper was to explore therelationship between contract design and maintenance outcome within Swedish railwayinfrastructure maintenance. To explore this relationship linear regression analysis wasused. The result indicates that asset knowledge and accessibility to the track areimportant to consider for improving maintenance operations.

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  • 26.
    alema, eyob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Förtroende för samhällets institutioner: En jämförelse mellan inrikes och utrikes uppväxta2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka skillnader i förtroende för samhällsinstitutioner mellan olika grupper i samhället, det vill säga personer som har växt upp i Sverige, i ett annat nordiskt land, i ett annat land i Europa och i ett annat land utanför Europa. Vidare är syftet att utforska följande faktorer: Härkomst eller var man växte upp, socioekonomisk status och medborgarnas politiska deltagande och aktiviteter i föreningar. Hur kan dessa faktorer förklara skillnader i förtroende för samhällsinstitutioner mellan inrikes och utrikes uppväxta i Sverige? Studien har gjorts med multipel regressionsanalys med material som hämtades från SOM-undersökning kumulativ dataset, 1986-2020. Studien ställer även upp fyra hypoteser som är till för hypotesprövning.

    Resultaten visar att de som är utrikes uppväxta har högre förtroende för samhällsinstitutioner än de som är uppväxta i Sverige. Ytterligare resultat visar att socioekonomiskt, politiskt deltagande och frivilliga aktiviteter i föreningar inte kan förklara skillnaderna i förtroende för samhällsinstitutioner mellan de som är inrikes uppväxta och de som är utrikes uppväxta. Samtliga hypoteser är motbevisade. 

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  • 27.
    Alharmoodi, Ahmed Abdulla
    et al.
    College of Business, Abu Dhabi University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
    Khan, Mehmood
    College of Business, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
    Mertzanis, Charilaos
    College of Business, Abu Dhabi University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
    Gupta, Shivam
    Department of Information Systems, Supply Chain Management & Decision Support, NEOMA Business School, Reims, France.
    Mikalef, Patrick
    Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; Department of Technology Management, SINTEF Digital, Trondheim, Norway; School of Economics and Business, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Department of Management, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Co-creation and critical factors for the development of an efficient public e-tourism system2024In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 174, article id 114519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study identifies the factors that guide the adoption of a public e-tourism system resulting in value co-creation in the UAE. Integrating and comparing factors drawn from the third version of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM3), the Technology-Task-Fit (TTF) theory, and push-to-use, an Analytic Hierarch Process (AHP) model was implemented with data collected using a structured questionnaire from purposively selected UAE e-tourism experts (N = 15) and analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The findings revealed that usefulness, convenience of use, and push-to-use were the most critical aspects for achieving an efficient public e-tourism system that allows for value co-creation in that order of ranking. The findings also suggest that computer self-efficiency is the most critical factor in effectively establishing an e-tourism system followed by government push-to-use. In conclusion, the findings demonstrate that usefulness and ease-of-use backed by computer self-efficiency, result demonstrability, and output quality are vital for the efficient adoption of a public e-tourism system resulting in value co-creation in the UAE.

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  • 28.
    Ali, Maxamed Duran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Tekes, Serhat
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Credibility Communication of CSR Initiatives: A study on credible CSR communication within the gambling industry among millennials.2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become an increasingly important aspect for companies to consider in a highly competitive business environment. Consequently, stakeholders have shown increased interest in how companies and suppliers relate to sustainable development and place ever higher demands on companies to actively engage in CSR initiatives. However, companies are facing challenges with their CSR communication credibility, especially in the gambling industry. CSR communication credibility is investigated in previous studies where several underlying factors have been presented. However, there is a theoretical gap of how these theories and factors correlate in the gambling industry with regards to CSR communication credibility. 

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the different factors affecting CSR communication credibility within the gambling industry among millennials. Furthermore, the purpose is also to enhance the understanding of what to consider in gambling companies' quest for increasing the credibility of their CSR communication. This is done through testing three hypotheses regarding different constructs, namely CSR credibility, corporate image and institutional credibility and how they influence CSR communication credibility. The research is quantitative in nature and employs a descriptive-explanatory approach, using an online survey to collect primary data. The online survey was distributed to previous and current customer of a Swedish gambling enterprise, which yielded a total sample size of 495 which was used for the statistical analysis. 

    The findings suggest that the underlying factors CSR commitment, company as a source, information attractiveness and reputation influence CSR communication credibility and all factors are needed to be considered when gambling companies investigate their CSR communication credibility. 

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  • 29.
    Allan, Jon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Royal College of Music, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Listener Preferences in Streamed Music2022In: Journal of The Audio Engineering Society, ISSN 1549-4950, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 156-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cross-disciplinary study between the two research areas of Audio Technology and Music Education was performed to assess how different aspects of education and experience may influence the experience of music listening given a typical streaming service-Spotify.(1) The point of departure is that streamed media facilitates a plenitude of versions of the same song. The paper focuses on the differences that these different songs yield from various mastering processes and production choices motivated by the end distribution media and user settings in the playback system that aim to alter the sound. These variations may all lead to differences in musical dynamics and timbre. A listening test was conducted to examine listeners’ preferences, the assessed audio quality, and subjects’ reports on how the music content affected them when given the possibility to compare versions in a controlled environment. The test subjects (n = 76) represented populations with various educational backgrounds and experience within music and audio technology. Among the results, it was found that education and experience in some cases do affect preferences.

  • 30.
    Allansson, Jim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Stochastic Optimization of Energy Prosumption Systems: A case study on energy balancing for self-sustainable societies2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve a sustainable future fossil electricity is being replaced with renewable, leading to higher uncertainties in electricity production. This has resulted in an incentive for consumers to produce, sell, and store their own electricity, hence becoming prosumers. Austerland Skags is a Swedish project that explores the possibility to convert a small society into a prosumption system. The system includes solar and wind power as electricity producers and hydrogen-fueled vehicles for commodity transport. To capitalize the most on their produced electricity they want to store excess electricity. This master thesis uses Austerland Skags as a case study to develop a stochastic linear optimization model to determine the optimal energy storage solution for an energy prosumption system with both electricity and hydrogen demand.

    The method used in this thesis was the sample average approximation (SAA) algorithm. The results from the SAA were compared to the expected results from the expected value problem (EEV) to show the difference between a stochastic and deterministic solution. The results from the SAA turned out to consistently outperform the EEV for the samples created.

    Since hydrogen demand could only be sourced in-house, the model was forced to use an electrolyzer and hydrogen tank. The final result from the SAA showed that both a battery and fuel cell was used in addition to the electrolyzer and hydrogen tank in the optimal solution. All capacities stayed within reasonable levels showing the possibility of realizing a cost-effective prosumption system.

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  • 31.
    Allansson, Rasmus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Arena Sports in Stereo Versus Binaural - Rating and Important Attributes2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although a majority of the listening is done on headphones today, most, if not all, televised arena sports is still mixed for loudspeakers. By providing binaural audio for headphones listening, the qualities of surround sound could potentially be experienced on headphones. To find out if this holds true, 13 subjects with experience of critical listening agreed to perform a listening test where they were asked to rate four attributes of which preference is one. To the rating of preference, they also had to argue for their thinking. Lastly, further attributes and qualities was collected to find what attributes seem to be of greatest importance for rating of arena sports in binaural. The results show no statistical significance when comparing the ratings of the binaural and stereo mix for each attribute, and the sample group is clearly disagreeing what stimuli to rate the highest. The collection of qualitative data gave better results and could be summarized to seven attributes of which four appeared in the data from more than half of the test subject. With this result it is clear that more research is needed to find what the most important aspects of binaural mixing are, and how binaural audio best can be used for televised arena sports.

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  • 32.
    Allard, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Mineralutvinning i norska Sápmi: Beaktandet av samiska rättigheter i tillståndsprocessen och Nussir-gruvan i Finnmark2021In: Nordisk miljörättslig tidskrift, E-ISSN 2000-4273, Vol. 1, p. 7-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mineralutvinning i traditionella samiska områden orsakar markanvändningskonflikter, och tillståndsprocesserna är komplicerade och långdragna. Det gäller i Norge såväl som i Sverige. Samernas status som urfolk och vilka hänsyn som ska tas till samiska intressen och rättigheter vid beslutsprocesserna är något oklara och flera lagar samverkar. Denna artikel syftar till att redogöra för de norskareglerna som avser att skydda samiska intressen och rättigheter i tillståndsprocessen, med huvudfokuspå den norska minerallagen. Artikeln illustrerar även hur reglerna har tillämpats i praktiken genom det kontroversiella gruvprojektet Nussir som 2019 fått grönt ljus för att starta upp gruvdrifti Finnmark, där specifika regler för att skydda samiska intressen gäller vilka avser att genomföra kraven från ILO-konventionen 169 om ursprungsfolkoch stamfolk i självstyrande länder. Reglernastillämpning och Nussir-gruvan diskuteras sedan bl.a. avseende vad som krävs för att gruvbolag ska kunna bedriva verksamhet parallellt med samisk renskötsel. Det visar sig att långtgående villkor kan ställas i förhållande till driftkoncessionen för att en samexistens ska vara möjlig. Även om de berörda renbetesdistrikten menade att anpassningarna av gruvverksamheten inte var tillräckliga – renskötseln är hårt trängd av andra befintligaoch planerade verksamheter i området – indikerar beslutet ändå på vad som är ”acceptabelt” och genomvillkoren institutionaliseras social hållbarhet och de kostnader som detta medför för gruvdrift i Sápmi.

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  • 33.
    Allard, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Sami land rights: Recent developments in swedish case law2022In: European Yearbook of Minority Issues / [ed] Sia Spiliopoulou Åkermark; Florian Bieber; Arie Bloed; Bill Bowring; Ilze Brands Kehris; Zsuzsa Csergo; Magdalena Dembinska; Rainer Hofmann; Jennifer Jackson Preece; Tove H. Malloy; Joseph Marko; Roberta Medda-Windischer; John Packer; Francesco Palermo; Petra Roter; Eduardo Ruiz Vieytez; Peter Rutland; Sherrill Stroschein; Markku Suksi; Alexandra Xanthaki, Brill Nijhoff, 2022, 19, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 221-238Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Indigenous Sami people traditionally live in what is now Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Russia. A crucial matter for Indigenous peoples, including the Sami living in Sweden, is that of the recognition of their land rights and access to their traditional lands. This article’s aim is to present and analyse recent case law developments in Sweden that relate to the recognition and protection of Sami land rights, specifically the Girjas and Talma cases, through legal-scientific and textual analyses and relevant legal literature. Both cases concern Sami reindeer herding rights in Sweden and the Swedish state as defendant. These cases raise complex legal issues and historical circumstances, demonstrating the need for the Swedish state to treat Sami land rights as equal to other civil rights in Swedish society, in line with international human rights law.

  • 34.
    Allard, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Sámi rights in the sustainable transition-concluding remarks2023In: The Significance of Sámi Rights: Law, Justice, and Sustainability for the Indigenous Sámi in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Dorothée Cambou; Øyvind Ravna, Taylor and Francis , 2023, 1, p. 183-202Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 35.
    Allard, Christina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Brännström, Malin
    Silvermuseet/The Institute for Arctic Landscape Research (INSARC). Umeå University, Department of Law, Sweden.
    Girjas Reindeer Herding Community v. Sweden: Analysing the Merits of the Girjas Case2021In: Arctic Review on Law and Politics, ISSN 1891-6252, E-ISSN 2387-4562, Vol. 12, p. 56-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the first time in the Swedish Supreme Court, a small Sami reindeer herding community has won an important victory affirming the community’s small game hunting and fishing rights. Because of protracted use and the concept of immemorial prescription, the Court recognised the community’s exclusive hunting and fishing rights, including the right to lease these rights to others. Such leases have long been prohibited by legislation and the State has retained its powers to administer such leases. This case signifies a considerable development in the area of Sami law. In its decision, the Supreme Court made some adjustments to the age-old doctrine of immemorial prescription, and provided insights into how historic evidence should be evaluated when the claimant is an Indigenous people. A common motivator for these adjustments is an enhanced awareness of international standards protecting Indigenous peoples and minorities. Even ILO Convention No. 169 – the only legally binding convention concerning Indigenous rights, but which Sweden has not yet ratified – is relevant when it comes to evaluating Sami customary uses. The Court addressed the problem of gaps in the historical material and used evidence from other parts of Swedish Lapland and adjacent time-periods, making reasonable assumptions to fill in these gaps. The Court imposes on the State the burden of proof regarding the extinguishment of already established Sami rights, as well as proof that extinguishment by legislation or expropriation, is “clear and definitive”. These conditions were not met in this case.

  • 36.
    Allard, Christina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Curran, Deborah
    Faculty of Law and School of Environmental Studies, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
    Indigenous Influence and Engagement in Mining Permitting in British Columbia, Canada: Lessons for Sweden and Norway?2023In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mine developments in Indigenous territories risk disrupting Indigenous cultures and their economies, including spiraling already high levels of conflict. This is the situation in Canada, Sweden, and Norway, as elsewhere, and is fostered by current state legal framework that reflect historical trajectories, although circumstances are gradually changing. Promising institutional changes have taken place in British Columbia (BC), Canada, with respect to new legislative reforms. Notably, new legislation from 2019 intends to implement the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) in the province, by promoting consent-based and collaborative decision-making mechanisms. New environmental assessment legislation is another example; this legislation includes early engagement, collaborative decision-making, and Indigenous-led assessments. The article’s aim is, first, to analyze how Indigenous communities can influence and engage in the mining permitting system of BC, and, secondly, to highlight the positive features of the BC system using a comparative lens to identify opportunities for Sweden and Norway regarding mining permitting and Indigenous rights. Applying a legal-scientific and comparative analysis, the article analyzes traditional legal sources. The article concludes that the strong points that the BC regime could offer the two Nordic countries are: the concept of reconciliation, incorporation of UNDRIP, the spectrum of consultation and engagement approaches, and the structure of environmental assessments. All three jurisdictions, however, struggle with balancing mine developments and securing Indigenous authority and influence over land uses in their traditional territories.

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  • 37.
    Alm, Emil
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Andersson, Fanny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Hållbarhetens påverkan vid beslutsfattande: En kvalitativ flerfallstudie om SMEs med en hållbarhetsprofil2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability are concepts that have become increasingly more relevant, where it is no longer accepted by society that companies only prioritize the interests of shareholders without also looking to the interests of society. This has led to large companies being obligated to make sustainability reports in order to report their impact on society. This does not apply to small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) and therefore we have chosen to investigate how SMEs that have a clear sustainability profile are affected by sustainability in their decision-making. There has been some research on why one chooses to be more sustainable as an SME, but there has been little research on how this affects the SMEs who work with sustainability in their day-to-day business decisions when they have more than the shareholders to answer to.

    To investigate this phenomenon, we have done five case studies where we have interviewed five people who are involved in the decision-making in different SMEs. The purpose is to understand how small and medium-sized enterprises that have a clear sustainability profile work with sustainability and how that in turn affects their decision-making. To descriptively describe how decisions are made in relation to sustainability we have used several theories to capture the overall multifaceted reality that these SMEs are faced with in their decision-making. This in turn has made it possible for us to describe this reality by understanding to what extent the companies work with sustainability, how that in turn affects the reference points the companies have and how the interpretation of risk becomes a determining factor in how a SME makes its decisions. 

    What we have seen is that decisions are governed by aspects such as the extent to which sustainability permeates the company which in turn affects the reference point that is chosen when weighing the utility of different decisions. We have also seen how companies interpret risk affects to what extent they choose to compromise in their sustainability work. Industry aspects have also been an affecting factor as some companies are more dependent on other stakeholders for their operations which creates a complicated balance between how you weigh the financial against the sustainable.

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  • 38.
    Almalla, Mohammad Tarek
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Eassa, Iyad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    AI:s upplevda möjligheter och utmaningar: Ekonomernas perspektiv på AI och dess inverkan på yrkesrollen2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial intelligence (AI) has entered the accounting sector, raising both hope and fear among economists worldwide. It is a revolution that challenges our understanding of the workplace and forces us to ask questions about our own role in this new reality. Economists face a development that is filled with various opportunities and obstacles as AI takes over routine tasks and leaves room for creativity and strategic thinking. The idea of being freed from repetitive tasks is enticing, but what opportunities and challenges do economists experience in connection with the introduction of AI? This study highlights the economists' perspectives and experiences when they encounter AI in their work tasks. By examining economists' acceptance of AI and their experiences of working with the technology, the study gains insight into the complex dynamics between man and machine. We delve into the theory and explore the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a guide to understanding how economists accept or reject AI. Through qualitative interviews with eight economists, we take part in their thoughts and reflections. We review previous research and analyze the results along with economists responses to discover patterns and insights. The results show that the economists' perceived benefits regarding AI's implementation are more at the individual level rather than the organizational level, i.e. AI primarily benefits the economists themselves rather than the entire organization. While perceived disadvantages are at both the individual and organizational level, which means that the disadvantages of AI affect both individual economists and the organization. The uncertainty is based on a lack of knowledge, but filling the knowledge gap can facilitate acceptance and ensure success in this revolutionary age.

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  • 39.
    Almqvist, Lina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Value creation through the service consumption process in the fashion industry: An exploratory study of where value is created during the service consumption process in connection with e-commerce2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the customer's perception of value through each stage of the service consumption process in connection with e-commerce. The aim is to see where in the different stages customers experience value.

    Method

    For this research a qualitative method was used in the form of semi structured interviews. Twelve interviews were conducted with women of different ages. The research has an explorative purpose, since there is little knowledge about this subject.

    Findings

    The two most clear findings from this research was that a company needs to have an easy and fast way of purchasing on the website. The other finding was that it is important to make the person feel secure and have control over the purchasing phase. If it is not easy to pay and they do not feel secure, they would consider purchasing from another website.

    Theoretical and practical contributions

    The aim with this research is to define where in the service consumption process the customer perceives the most value, in connection with e-commerce. Therefore the main theories have been the service consumption process and value creation. The findings and conclusions of this thesis could help companies with what they should develop on their websites, to make their customers perceive the most possible value.

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  • 40.
    Al-Neis, Mostafa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Amurah, Mohamed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Belöningssystem och dess effekter på motivation: En kvantitativ studie inom banksektorn2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to identify factors and characteristics of reward systems that can affect bank employees' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Factors studied were bank officers' perceived controllability, fairness, and transparency of a reward system. The two different contrasting streams of research in motivation together with increased interest in motivation and job satisfaction in the banking sector have created a relevant area to explore and identify the impact of the reward system on both the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation of bank employees. The study applied a quantitative research approach in the form of a survey where the participants were anonymous. A statistical analysis using SPSS was used to produce the results in the study. A total of 22 bank employees at a bank in northern Sweden have participated in the survey. The result suggests that there is a positive relationship between bank employees' perceived controllability, fairness and transparency of the reward system and their extrinsic motivation. Furthermore, the results indicate that bank employees' perceived controllability, fairness and transparency of the reward system have no significant impact on their intrinsic motivation. This suggests that the negative undermining effect that reward systems have on intrinsic motivation is absent. Further research investigating the magnitude of the effect by measuring the change in performance both before and after the introduction of a reward system that considers the factors highlighted in the study may be recommended to gain an improved understanding of whether the positive effect on extrinsic motivation is significant or not.

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  • 41.
    Al-Sukhni, Muthana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Information Sharing and the Bullwhip Effect Reduction: A new Prespective Through the Lens of Blockchain Technology2023Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization and the surge of competition across industries forced companies to improve their supply chain capabilities to serve their customers efficiently and effectively. Due to this fact, businesses are no longer capable of handling all supply chain operations without collaboration and coordination with other firms. One of the key obstacles to coordination is the lack of information sharing and trust between firms since they view information as a sensitive asset. Digital technologies like blockchain, with its inherited features, have the capability to facilitate real-time information sharing, solve trust issues, and improve end-to-end visibility across the supply chain. This licentiate thesis highlights the impact of multiple aspects of information sharing on the bullwhip effect mitigation and explores the potential of blockchain technology as a new coordination mechanism for reducing information distortions, enhancing trust, and orchestrating decision making. Three research papers have been produced within this context and are appended to the thesis. Paper A presents an information sharing-based blockchain architecture to mitigate the bullwhip effect in service supply chains. Paper B aims to explores the literature in terms of using multiple aspects of information sharing to lessen the bullwhip effect. Finally, Paper C introduces an agent-based modeling and simulation approach for two aspects of information sharing: “what to share” and “how to share.” The results show that blockchain technology does provide a significant solution to trust-based issues and information sharing visibility considering the bullwhip effect mitigation. The results also provide a guide for supply chain managers to achieve better coordination and serve as a roadmap for supply chain researchers.

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  • 42.
    Al-Sukhni, Muthana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Migdalas, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Blockchain Technology for Information Sharing and Coordination to Mitigate Bullwhip Effect in Service Supply Chains2022In: International Congress and Workshop on Industrial AI 2021 / [ed] Ramin Karim; Alireza Ahmadi; Iman Soleimanmeigouni; Ravdeep Kour; Raj Rao, Springer, 2022, Vol. 1, p. 202-211Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Alvin, Adam
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Does the amount of information displayed in parametric equalizers impact decision making and workflow?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mixing audio is not only an aural activity, but also, becoming increasingly more visual, and connections between the engineer’s action and interface are not yet fully understood. This study aimed to investigate how different amounts and types of data displayed in parametric equalizers impact mix decisions and workflow. A usability test with audio engineer students were conducted. The test consisted of three different interfaces with variable information displayed and subjects were to perform six common equalization tasks. Two categories of stimuli were used, surgical and aesthetic. The parameters that were measured was effectiveness, efficiency, workflow, and preference. A post session questionnaire was also conducted. Each interface and category were compared and a t-test for each comparison were conducted. Task completion and time for task completion were determined and calculated. Eight t-tests were also conducted between interfaces. Parameters adjusted, order of adjustment, and most used parameter were determined. Preference ratings were categorized and analyzed. The results show that the EQ with graphic display performed better for the surgical category. Significant differences were also found for the surgical category between interfaces with most dissimilarities. The workflow tended to alternate between interface designs. The preference rating showed a clear preference for the interface with graphic display.

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  • 44.
    Amann, Marie
    et al.
    Management Consultant, PA Consulting, SE-111 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granström, Gabriel
    Programme Manager and Analyst, The Knowledge Foundation, SE-111 47 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Elfsberg, Jenny
    Director and Head of Innovation Management Division, Vinnova, Mäster Samuelsgatan 56, 101 58, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mitigating not-invented-here and not-sold-here problems: The role of corporate innovation hubs2022In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 111, article id 102377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a growing number of Corporate Innovation Hubs (CIHs) in recent years, limited attention has been paid to understanding the key problems that arise among organizations collaborating through CIHs. In particular, organizations often experience Not-Invented-Here (NIH) and Not-Sold-Here (NSH) problems, i.e. negative attitudes towards absorbing external knowledge and towards sharing internal knowledge externally. Consequently, many CIHs fail to deliver and are regarded as “innovation theatres” rather than engines of renewal. By drawing upon an inductive multiple case study of five CIHs, their parent companies and associated startups, located in Silicon Valley (USA) and the Gothenburg region (Sweden), the article sheds light on how CIHs can mitigate NIH and NSH problems in knowledge transfer. Specifically, we investigate the causes, consequences and mitigating mechanisms of NIH and NSH problems among the organizations collaborating through a CIH. These findings are presented in a framework that connects causes and consequences with the corresponding mitigating mechanisms. We also present new theoretical implications for the literatures on NIH and NSH.

  • 45.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Climate element of migration decision in Ghana: Micro Evidence2015Other (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Effect of gold mining on income distribution in Ghana2016Other (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Essays on the economics of multifunctional forests, migration and climate change2017Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis compiles five papers that independently cover issues on multifunctional forest, migration and climate change. Paper I addresses these questions: What is the effect of site quality on forest growth rate and variability in forest growth? How does site quality impact on ecosystem services, that is, timber production and carbon sequestration? Site quality indicator was found to positively affect forest growth and growth rate, and decreases uncertainty in the productivity. Using dynamic optimization model, Paper II estimates the economic value of site quality taking into account its interaction with timber value and carbon sequestration in Swedish forest. Analytical results showed that net present value when considering ecosystem services provided by the forest and its interaction with site quality is higher than in the case without site quality interaction. Paper III links educational attainment to internal migration decisions with much on rural-urban perspective using Ghana as a case study. The effect of educational attainment on migration decisions in 2005/2006 for urban in-migrant was found to be higher than the effect for rural in-migrant, with its significance varying for the different stages of educational attainment. In absolute terms, whereas the effect of secondary educational attainment on migration decisions for urban in-migrant is higher than for rural in-migrant, the reverse holds for higher educational attainment during the period 2012/2013. Paper IV examines the effect of climate element on internal migration decisions using similar methods and data as for Paper III. Whereas temperature positively affects the probability to migrate, aridity index negatively affects migration decisions. Individuals tend to move to the rural areas relative to urban areas with an increase in precipitation and or a decrease in aridity. Paper V explores the effect of climate variability and socio-economic factors on the number of infectious disease patients in Sweden. Temperature showed a linear negative effect on the number of patients, but a non-linear relationship when winter temperature is used. Conversely, a positive effect of precipitation on the number of patients is found, with modest heterogeneity in the effect of climate variables on the number of patients across disease classifications observed. Socio-economic factors were found to correlate with number of patients. We found significant persistence in the number of infectious disease patients but found only temperature and income as dominant drivers in a dynamic model.

  • 48.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    et al.
    Environment for Development, University of Gothenburg, Box 645, SE 405 30, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Amuakwa Mensah, Salome
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Klege, Rebecca Afua
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701, Cape Town, South Africa; Henry J Austin Health Center, 321 N. Warren Street, Trenton, 08618, New Jersey, USA.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    Department of Development Policy, School of Public Service and Governance, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIMPA), Ghana.
    Stockpiling and food worries: Changing habits and choices in the midst of COVID-19 pandemic2022In: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, ISSN 0038-0121, E-ISSN 1873-6041, Vol. 82 A, article id 101181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Albeit, governments have instituted strong containment measures in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns of continuous local spread and economic impact of the virus are impacting global food chains and food security. This paper investigates the effect of concern about the i) local spread and ii) economic impact of COVID-19, on the change in the amount of food and necessities bought in twelve Sub-Sahara African countries. In addition, we examine if these effects are channeled through food worries. The study uses a unique survey dataset by GeoPoll collected in April 2020 (first round) and May 2020 (second round) and employs a multinomial logit and generalized structural equation models. We find significant effect of concern about COVID-19 on change in the package size of food and necessities bought, which is heterogeneous across gender group and rural-urban divide. Our results reveal that concerns of COVID-19 might be promoting stockpiling behavior among females and those with no food worries (due to having sufficient money or resources). This if not properly managed could in the medium to long-term affect the food supply chain, food waste and exacerbate food worries problem especially for already food deprived homes. We discuss the policy implications.

  • 49.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts. Environment for Development, University of Gothenburg, Box 645, SE 405 30, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Klege, Rebecca Afua
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701, Cape Town, South Africa; Henry J Austin Health Center, 321 N. Warren Street, Trenton, 08618, New Jersey, USA.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    Department of Development Policy School of Public Service, Governance Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration GIMPA, Ghana.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Environment for Development, University of Gothenburg, Box 645, SE 405 30, Göteborg, Sweden; School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701, Cape Town, South Africa.
    COVID-19 and handwashing: Implications for water use in Sub-Saharan Africa2021In: Water Resources and Economics, ISSN 2212-4284, Vol. 36, article id 100189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because the main modes of transmission of the COVID-19 virus are respiration and contact, WHO recommends frequent washing of hands with soap under running water for at least 20 s. This article investigates how the level of concern about COVID-19 affects the likelihood of washing hands frequently in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss the implication of the findings for water-scarce environment. The study makes use of a unique survey dataset from 12 sub-Saharan African countries collected in April 2020 (first round) and May 2020 (second round) and employs an extended ordered probit model with endogenous covariate. The results show that the level of concern about the spread of the virus increases the likelihood of washing hands with soap under running water for a minimum of 20 s at least five times a day. The increase in the probability of handwashing due to concern about COVID-19, ranges from 3% for Benin to 6.3% for South Africa. The results also show heterogeneous effects across gender- and age-groups, locality and various water sources. However, in Africa, the sustainability of the handwashing protocol could be threatened by the severe water scarcity that exists in the region. To sustain frequent handwashing, sub-Saharan Africa needs an effective strategy for water management and supply.

  • 50.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts. Environment for Development Initiative (EfD), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Näsström, Elin
    Swedish Transport Administration, Solna Strandväg 98,171 54 Solna, Sweden.
    Role of banking sector performance in renewable energy consumption2022In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 306, no B, article id 118023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To secure future universal access to modern energy, large investments in renewable energy technology are required. This paper estimates the impact of five banking sector performance indicators (return on asset, market capitalisation, asset quality, managerial efficiency and financial stability) on renewable energy consumption for a global panel consisting of 124 countries. The study used two-step system-GMM panel model to handle potential endogeneity and serial correlation. The paper considers three homogenous subpanels which are constructed based on the income group classification (high-, middle-, and low-income countries). Generally, our results show that improved banking sector performance enhances renewable energy consumption, with heterogenous effect across income group classification. For high -income (HI) countries, an increase in bank size together with improved asset quality and managerial efficiency have positive effects on renewable energy consumption. For middle-income (MI) and low-income (LI) countries, a high return on asset, an increase in bank size and financial stability are positive determinants of renewable energy consumption. We also find heterogenous effect of banking performance indicators across various renewable energy consumption types. The results highlight the importance of a well-functioning bank sector to achieve the investment in renewable energy needed to meet future energy demand and simultaneous decrease CO2 emissions.

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