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  • 1.
    Akimaya, Muhammad
    et al.
    Department of Accounting and Finance, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Academic Belt Road, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences. Payne Institute of Public Policy, Colorado School of Mines, Engineering Hall Room 128, 816 15th Street, Golden, CO 80401, United States of America.
    Political power, economic trade-offs, and game theory in Indonesian gasoline subsidy reform2022In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 92, article id 102782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasoline subsidies distort the gasoline market resulting in inefficiencies and a costly burden in government budget. In Indonesia, they have taken up to 15 % of the government expenditures that arguably could be better spent elsewhere. Governments are aware of these costs, yet face difficulties in removing the policy. Governments would like to release the subsidy fund for other programs while still maintaining political power. Simultaneously, a reform will reduce the purchasing of the population and thus, it is commonly met with strong public resistance. The general population can influence the government’s decision to carry out a reform by exerting pressure that may affect the country’s political stability. There is a vast economics literature analysing the economic impact from a subsidy reform. Meanwhile, the government’s hesitancy is analysed in the political science literature. We combined these two fields by developing a quantitative game theory model to show the interaction between the government and the general population. The model is based on Indonesian data but provides a framework that can be applied elsewhere. Different policy removal schemes are simulated including completely or partially phasing-out the subsidy with and without compensation. An important take-away from our analysis is that it provides a framework showing governments what they have to quantify in order to make an informed policy decision. Another important implication is that the success of the policy reform is highly dependent on the selectorates trust to the government. It strongly supports the political science recommendations of building trust through transparency and inclusion.

  • 2.
    Allard, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Mineralutvinning i norska Sápmi: Beaktandet av samiska rättigheter i tillståndsprocessen och Nussir-gruvan i Finnmark2021In: Nordisk miljörättslig tidskrift, E-ISSN 2000-4273, Vol. 1, p. 7-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mineralutvinning i traditionella samiska områden orsakar markanvändningskonflikter, och tillståndsprocesserna är komplicerade och långdragna. Det gäller i Norge såväl som i Sverige. Samernas status som urfolk och vilka hänsyn som ska tas till samiska intressen och rättigheter vid beslutsprocesserna är något oklara och flera lagar samverkar. Denna artikel syftar till att redogöra för de norskareglerna som avser att skydda samiska intressen och rättigheter i tillståndsprocessen, med huvudfokuspå den norska minerallagen. Artikeln illustrerar även hur reglerna har tillämpats i praktiken genom det kontroversiella gruvprojektet Nussir som 2019 fått grönt ljus för att starta upp gruvdrifti Finnmark, där specifika regler för att skydda samiska intressen gäller vilka avser att genomföra kraven från ILO-konventionen 169 om ursprungsfolkoch stamfolk i självstyrande länder. Reglernastillämpning och Nussir-gruvan diskuteras sedan bl.a. avseende vad som krävs för att gruvbolag ska kunna bedriva verksamhet parallellt med samisk renskötsel. Det visar sig att långtgående villkor kan ställas i förhållande till driftkoncessionen för att en samexistens ska vara möjlig. Även om de berörda renbetesdistrikten menade att anpassningarna av gruvverksamheten inte var tillräckliga – renskötseln är hårt trängd av andra befintligaoch planerade verksamheter i området – indikerar beslutet ändå på vad som är ”acceptabelt” och genomvillkoren institutionaliseras social hållbarhet och de kostnader som detta medför för gruvdrift i Sápmi.

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  • 3.
    Allard, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Sami land rights: Recent developments in swedish case law2022In: European Yearbook of Minority Issues / [ed] Sia Spiliopoulou Åkermark; Florian Bieber; Arie Bloed; Bill Bowring; Ilze Brands Kehris; Zsuzsa Csergo; Magdalena Dembinska; Rainer Hofmann; Jennifer Jackson Preece; Tove H. Malloy; Joseph Marko; Roberta Medda-Windischer; John Packer; Francesco Palermo; Petra Roter; Eduardo Ruiz Vieytez; Peter Rutland; Sherrill Stroschein; Markku Suksi; Alexandra Xanthaki, Brill Nijhoff, 2022, 19, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 221-238Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Indigenous Sami people traditionally live in what is now Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Russia. A crucial matter for Indigenous peoples, including the Sami living in Sweden, is that of the recognition of their land rights and access to their traditional lands. This article’s aim is to present and analyse recent case law developments in Sweden that relate to the recognition and protection of Sami land rights, specifically the Girjas and Talma cases, through legal-scientific and textual analyses and relevant legal literature. Both cases concern Sami reindeer herding rights in Sweden and the Swedish state as defendant. These cases raise complex legal issues and historical circumstances, demonstrating the need for the Swedish state to treat Sami land rights as equal to other civil rights in Swedish society, in line with international human rights law.

  • 4.
    Allard, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Sámi rights in the sustainable transition-concluding remarks2023In: The Significance of Sámi Rights: Law, Justice, and Sustainability for the Indigenous Sámi in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Dorothée Cambou; Øyvind Ravna, Taylor and Francis , 2023, 1, p. 183-202Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 5.
    Allard, Christina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Brännström, Malin
    Silvermuseet/The Institute for Arctic Landscape Research (INSARC). Umeå University, Department of Law, Sweden.
    Girjas Reindeer Herding Community v. Sweden: Analysing the Merits of the Girjas Case2021In: Arctic Review on Law and Politics, ISSN 1891-6252, E-ISSN 2387-4562, Vol. 12, p. 56-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the first time in the Swedish Supreme Court, a small Sami reindeer herding community has won an important victory affirming the community’s small game hunting and fishing rights. Because of protracted use and the concept of immemorial prescription, the Court recognised the community’s exclusive hunting and fishing rights, including the right to lease these rights to others. Such leases have long been prohibited by legislation and the State has retained its powers to administer such leases. This case signifies a considerable development in the area of Sami law. In its decision, the Supreme Court made some adjustments to the age-old doctrine of immemorial prescription, and provided insights into how historic evidence should be evaluated when the claimant is an Indigenous people. A common motivator for these adjustments is an enhanced awareness of international standards protecting Indigenous peoples and minorities. Even ILO Convention No. 169 – the only legally binding convention concerning Indigenous rights, but which Sweden has not yet ratified – is relevant when it comes to evaluating Sami customary uses. The Court addressed the problem of gaps in the historical material and used evidence from other parts of Swedish Lapland and adjacent time-periods, making reasonable assumptions to fill in these gaps. The Court imposes on the State the burden of proof regarding the extinguishment of already established Sami rights, as well as proof that extinguishment by legislation or expropriation, is “clear and definitive”. These conditions were not met in this case.

  • 6.
    Allard, Christina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Curran, Deborah
    Faculty of Law and School of Environmental Studies, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
    Indigenous Influence and Engagement in Mining Permitting in British Columbia, Canada: Lessons for Sweden and Norway?2023In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mine developments in Indigenous territories risk disrupting Indigenous cultures and their economies, including spiraling already high levels of conflict. This is the situation in Canada, Sweden, and Norway, as elsewhere, and is fostered by current state legal framework that reflect historical trajectories, although circumstances are gradually changing. Promising institutional changes have taken place in British Columbia (BC), Canada, with respect to new legislative reforms. Notably, new legislation from 2019 intends to implement the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) in the province, by promoting consent-based and collaborative decision-making mechanisms. New environmental assessment legislation is another example; this legislation includes early engagement, collaborative decision-making, and Indigenous-led assessments. The article’s aim is, first, to analyze how Indigenous communities can influence and engage in the mining permitting system of BC, and, secondly, to highlight the positive features of the BC system using a comparative lens to identify opportunities for Sweden and Norway regarding mining permitting and Indigenous rights. Applying a legal-scientific and comparative analysis, the article analyzes traditional legal sources. The article concludes that the strong points that the BC regime could offer the two Nordic countries are: the concept of reconciliation, incorporation of UNDRIP, the spectrum of consultation and engagement approaches, and the structure of environmental assessments. All three jurisdictions, however, struggle with balancing mine developments and securing Indigenous authority and influence over land uses in their traditional territories.

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  • 7.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Climate element of migration decision in Ghana: Micro Evidence2015Other (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Effect of gold mining on income distribution in Ghana2016Other (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Essays on the economics of multifunctional forests, migration and climate change2017Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis compiles five papers that independently cover issues on multifunctional forest, migration and climate change. Paper I addresses these questions: What is the effect of site quality on forest growth rate and variability in forest growth? How does site quality impact on ecosystem services, that is, timber production and carbon sequestration? Site quality indicator was found to positively affect forest growth and growth rate, and decreases uncertainty in the productivity. Using dynamic optimization model, Paper II estimates the economic value of site quality taking into account its interaction with timber value and carbon sequestration in Swedish forest. Analytical results showed that net present value when considering ecosystem services provided by the forest and its interaction with site quality is higher than in the case without site quality interaction. Paper III links educational attainment to internal migration decisions with much on rural-urban perspective using Ghana as a case study. The effect of educational attainment on migration decisions in 2005/2006 for urban in-migrant was found to be higher than the effect for rural in-migrant, with its significance varying for the different stages of educational attainment. In absolute terms, whereas the effect of secondary educational attainment on migration decisions for urban in-migrant is higher than for rural in-migrant, the reverse holds for higher educational attainment during the period 2012/2013. Paper IV examines the effect of climate element on internal migration decisions using similar methods and data as for Paper III. Whereas temperature positively affects the probability to migrate, aridity index negatively affects migration decisions. Individuals tend to move to the rural areas relative to urban areas with an increase in precipitation and or a decrease in aridity. Paper V explores the effect of climate variability and socio-economic factors on the number of infectious disease patients in Sweden. Temperature showed a linear negative effect on the number of patients, but a non-linear relationship when winter temperature is used. Conversely, a positive effect of precipitation on the number of patients is found, with modest heterogeneity in the effect of climate variables on the number of patients across disease classifications observed. Socio-economic factors were found to correlate with number of patients. We found significant persistence in the number of infectious disease patients but found only temperature and income as dominant drivers in a dynamic model.

  • 10.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    et al.
    Environment for Development, University of Gothenburg, Box 645, SE 405 30, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Amuakwa Mensah, Salome
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Klege, Rebecca Afua
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701, Cape Town, South Africa; Henry J Austin Health Center, 321 N. Warren Street, Trenton, 08618, New Jersey, USA.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    Department of Development Policy, School of Public Service and Governance, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIMPA), Ghana.
    Stockpiling and food worries: Changing habits and choices in the midst of COVID-19 pandemic2022In: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, ISSN 0038-0121, E-ISSN 1873-6041, Vol. 82 A, article id 101181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Albeit, governments have instituted strong containment measures in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns of continuous local spread and economic impact of the virus are impacting global food chains and food security. This paper investigates the effect of concern about the i) local spread and ii) economic impact of COVID-19, on the change in the amount of food and necessities bought in twelve Sub-Sahara African countries. In addition, we examine if these effects are channeled through food worries. The study uses a unique survey dataset by GeoPoll collected in April 2020 (first round) and May 2020 (second round) and employs a multinomial logit and generalized structural equation models. We find significant effect of concern about COVID-19 on change in the package size of food and necessities bought, which is heterogeneous across gender group and rural-urban divide. Our results reveal that concerns of COVID-19 might be promoting stockpiling behavior among females and those with no food worries (due to having sufficient money or resources). This if not properly managed could in the medium to long-term affect the food supply chain, food waste and exacerbate food worries problem especially for already food deprived homes. We discuss the policy implications.

  • 11.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Salome
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Surry, Yves
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Association between rural electrification and agricultural output: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa2022In: World Development Perspectives, ISSN 2452-2929, Vol. 25, article id 100392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the association between rural electrification and agricultural output at the macro level using panel data on 43 Sub-Saharan African countries from 1990 to 2016. We employed Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) with time trend and country fixed effect in our econometrics estimation to address the potential serial correlation. Our study investigates the following; i) the association between rural electrification and agricultural output, measured as agricultural output per GDP and agricultural output per worker, ii) whether the relationship between rural electrification and agricultural output is conditional on institutional quality of a country, and iii) whether electrification enhances the marginal effect of factor inputs. We find a positive significant association between rural electrification and agricultural output. Also, our result shows that the relationship between electrification and agricultural output is conditional on the quality of institution and factor inputs of a country. With the exception of capital, the association between the interaction term of rural electrification and factor inputs (labour and land), and agricultural output is negative. However, we find a higher positive direct relationship between labour and agricultural output per GDP, implying a higher productivity for those labour who remain in the sector. Our results are heterogenous across population size quartiles sub-samples.

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  • 12.
    Andersen, Mikael S.
    et al.
    Deptartment of Environmental Science, Aarhus University , Aarhus, Denmark.
    Christensen, Lotte D.
    Deptartment of Environmental Science, Aarhus University , Aarhus, Denmark.
    Donner‐Amnell, Jakob
    Department of Geographical and Historical Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Eikeland, Per O.
    Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Lysaker, Norway.
    Hedeler, Barbara
    Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hildingsson, Roger
    Department of Political Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Department of Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Khan, Jamil
    Department of Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kronsell, Annica
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Inderberg, Tor H.J.
    Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Lysaker, Norway.
    Nielsen, Helle Ø.
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Pizzol, Massimo
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Sairinen, Rauno
    Department of Geographical and Historical Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Skjærseth, Jon B.
    Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Lysaker, Norway.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Teräväinen, Tuula
    Department of Geographical and Historical Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Thomsen, Marianne
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    To facilitate a fair bioeconomy transition, stronger regional‐level linkages are needed2022In: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, ISSN 1932-104X, E-ISSN 1932-1031, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 929-941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The great hopes in Brussels that a circular bioeconomy will help bridge the growing divide between urban and rural areas and allow the hinterlands to prosper from ‘green growth’ are addressed in this article, which reflects on insights from three Nordic case studies of brown, green and blue biomass use at different levels of technology readiness. A closer examination of the forward, backward, fiscal and final demand linkages at regional level from increased biomass utilization, from eastern Finland and northern Sweden to Jutland and North Atlantic islands, suggests that linkages are and will remain relatively weak, predominantly dashing the expectations. As suppliers and exporters of natural resources, disadvantaged regions may all too easily get locked into a ‘staples trap’, where the value creation evaporates, due in part to the steep start-up costs and the associated boom-and-bust cycles, which place them in a weak position vis-à-vis the resource manufacturers and consumers. To make the prospects of development, employment and prosperity in the hinterlands materialize, measures are needed to strengthen the regional level economic linkages. Regional-level revolving funds based on benefit-sharing instruments related to natural resources can be used to bolster economic development as reflected in such schemes present in both China and Canada. We call for further research into whether and how such approaches can be replicated successfully by channeling revenues from biomass cultivation to regional-scale revolving funds, with mandates to strengthen long-term economic linkages and prosperity within the hinterlands.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden; Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Natural Resources and Sustainable Development, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, 752 36, Uppsala, Sweden.
    de la Torre Castro, Maricela
    Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hughes, Alice C.
    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Ilstedt, Ulrik
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jernelöv, Arne
    Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Department of Natural Sciences, Mid Sweden University, 851 70, Sundsvall, Sweden; Department of Fish, Wildlife and Environmental Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Department of Physical Geography and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Department of Geography, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kritzberg, Emma
    Department of Biology, Lund University, 223 62, Lund, Sweden.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
    McNeely, Jeffrey A.
    Society for Conservation Biology Asia Section, Petchburi, Thailand.
    Mohr, Claudia
    Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mustonen, Tero
    Snowchange Cooperative, Lehtoi, Finland.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Department of Technology, Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96, Gothenburg, Sweden; Gothenburg Centre for Sustainable Development, 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reyes-Garcia, Victoria
    Institució Catalana de Recerca I Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010, Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (ICTA-UAB), 08193, Barcelona, Spain.
    Rusch, Graciela M.
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, 7485, Trondheim, Norway.
    Sanderson Bellamy, Angelina
    Department of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England at Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thomas, David N.
    University of Helsinki, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.
    Wulff, Angela
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Söderström, Bo
    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 104 05, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ambio fit for the 2020s2022In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 1091-1093Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Andersson, Martina
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Umeå University, SE90187 Umeå, Sweden.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences. Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Department of Forest Economics, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Department of Political Science, Umeå University, SE90187 Umeå, Sweden.
    The role of Swedish forests in climate change mitigation - A frame analysis of conflicting interests2022In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 144, article id 102842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests are assumed to play a significant role in relation to climate change mitigation. However, previous studies show that actor groups’ perspectives vary regarding how to best utilize forests. This paper focuses on exploring frames in recent Swedish forest- and climate politics and to what extent they may form the basis for conflict resolution or contribute to perpetuate conflicts among actors. The analysis of recent forest- and climate policies, and actor groups’ positioning on the issues, builds upon the pathways to sustainability approach in combination with frame analysis. The results showed that ideas based on “Ecological Modernisation” dominated within the forest-climate nexus, but also a clear presence of alternative frames promoting “Sustainable Development”. As a result, conflicting frames were identified within the policies on how to reach policy targets - stressing both the importance of consensus and neutral dialogue with actors, while concurrently prioritizing an economic perspective.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Regionalekonomiska modeller för analys och planering: En kartläggning av modeller som relaterar till Raps2023Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Berglund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    The mixed blessing of responsibility relief: An application to household recycling and curbside waste collection2023In: Frontiers in Environmental Economics, E-ISSN 2813-2823, Vol. 1, article id 1081926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the role of personal norms and warm glow in influencing households' waste recycling preferences. The purpose is to explore inter-household differences in the preferences toward the introduction of curbside recycling, which implies that households are relieved from the responsibility of transporting sorted waste to assigned drop-off stations. The main theoretical point of departure for the analysis is an existing model that integrates norm-motivated behavior into neoclassical utility theory. This builds on the assumption that the household members have preferences for upholding a self-image as responsible—norm-compliant—persons, and it also contains a warm-glow component. The empirical investigation relies on a postal survey to households in a Swedish municipality, and this asks households about their willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the introduction of a curbside recycling scheme, as well as about time use and the presence of personal norms and warm glow motives. The results are based on a Heckman selection specification and show that individuals expressing a strong personal norm for recycling are more likely to be willing to pay for curbside recycling, while those with strong warm glow motives are less likely to do so. This suggests the existence of a mixed blessing of responsibility relief. Curbside recycling implies that households are relieved from a moral responsibility that takes time away from leisure activities, but they also experience a loss in warm glow as such a scheme removes the possibility to pursue something that they have learned to appreciate. There could then exist ‘motivational inertia' making it difficult for policy makers to activate personal norms for new pro-environmental household activities in replacement of existing ones.

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  • 17.
    Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Norrbotten 2040 – Fyra explorativa scenarier för länet i ljuset av den gröna industriomvandlingen2023Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 18.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Lépy, Élise
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Brännström, Malin
    Institute for Arctic Landscape Research, INSARC; Silvermuseet in Arjeplog, Sweden; Department of Law and the Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University, Sweden.
    Heikkinen, Hannu I.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Komu, Teresa
    Arctic centre in the University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland; University of Oulu, Finland.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Tourism Studies at the Centre for Tourism and Leisure Research, Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Österlin, Carl
    Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Heritage for the Future: Narrating Abandoned Mining Sites2022In: Resource Extraction and Arctic Communities: The New Extractivist Paradigm / [ed] Sverker Sörlin, Cambridge University Press, 2022, p. 206-228Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter compares the post-extraction dynamics of two mining regions in the Fennoscandinavian Arctic: the Pite valley, Sweden, and Kolari, Finland. In 1946 the Swedish mining company Boliden closed a mine in Laver, which became a ghost town. Decades later, state authorities tried to turn Laver into a cultural heritage site. Boliden joined the effort to support its plan to re-start mining at Laver, a project that has, however, become highly controversial. The Finnish case deals with a similar controversy. Hannukainen mining company wants to re-open an iron ore mine that was in operation 1975-1990. As part of their strategy to gain acceptance for re-opening, the company and supporters of the project have mobilized the history of the mining sites and argues mining is a core element of the heritage of the Kolar municipality. Both cases have generated tension regarding the type of history and heritage of these regions: those of reindeer herding by Sámi and other local communities, or that of extractive industries? The cases show that heritage making can be useful, but it can also be a source of conflict, further underscoring the importance of the long-term view of extraction.

  • 19.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Centre for Tourism and Leisure Studies, Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Rodon, Thierry
    Department of Political Science, Laval University, Quebec, Canada.
    The making and re-making of high modernist towns in the Circumpolar North2022In: The Extractive Industries and Society, ISSN 2214-790X, E-ISSN 2214-7918, Vol. 12, article id 101191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we explore the fate of high modernist architecture and settlement planning in the North, through the lens of mining towns in Sweden and Quebec. After WW2, cities across the world were subject to a wave of restructuring in accordance with high modernist ideals. The circumpolar north became the subject of some of the most radical examples, often described as utopian. In the Swedish Arctic, a renowned architect Ralph Erskine played a leading role. He combined functionalist principles, with ideas of creating settlements protecting inhabitants from harsh Arctic conditions, in harmony with the environment. Erskine...s ideas were implemented to a different extent in Kiruna and Svappavaara in north Sweden in the 1960's and in Fermont, Quebec, in the early 1970's. Our aim is to understand the challenges of creating industrial settlements in the Arctic, with the capacity to attract employees that are needed for resource extraction and other industries. While Erskine's architecture in Svappavaara and Kiruna will be demolished, the wall shaped town in Fermont is still intact and expanding. By comparing and highlighting differences, we call attention to the threat of demolition of legacies of an era that has yet to be defined as cultural heritage.

  • 20.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Rosqvist, Gunhild
    Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    When Mines Go Silent: Exploring the Afterlives of Extraction Sites2021In: Nordic Perspectives on the Responsible Development of the Arctic: Pathways to Action / [ed] Nord, Douglas, Springer International Publishing , 2021, p. 349-367Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the characteristics of extractive industries, in the Arctic and elsewhere, is their sensitivity to fluctuations on world markets. When demand and prices are high companies expand operations and when they fall, companies tend to close extraction sites. Moreover, no ore body lasts forever. De-industrialisation poses particular challenges to communities in the Arctic, where distances are great, alternative economies few and where the environmental and social imprints of mining often are significant. How can communities that were developed based on extraction transition to post-extraction futures? This is a key question to pose when exploring how to achieve responsible development in the Arctic. This book chapter presents research within REXSAC exploring how mining communities in the Nordic Arctic has dealt with legacies of past mining operations and under which circumstances such legacies have been ascribed new values after extraction has ended. REXSAC has dealt with this research problem in an interdisciplinary way, combining methods and approaches from humanities, social- and natural sciences. The chapter will focus on this process of research and how it has generated insights in to three main post-extraction processes: environmental remediation, heritage making and re-economization.

  • 21.
    Bellerud, Carl
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Norrbottens roll i samhällsekonomin: en kritisk granskning av regionala indikatorer samt några lärdomar för framtiden2021Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 22.
    Bennerhag, Carina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Steel Making Hunter-Gatherers in Ancient Arctic Europe2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on findings made by Norrbotten County Museum around 2010 in the vicinity of Sangis in Arctic Sweden of advanced iron and steel production in a hunter-gatherer setting dated to the pre-Roman Iron Age (c. 200-50 BC), the aim of the present thesis is twofold. First, with a focus on know-how/established process stages, it investigates the possible wider geographical distribution of such production in the Arctic European area. The analysis is based on archaeometallurgical methods applied to materials from previously conducted and new surveys/excavations. Second, the aim is also to analyze the probable social/organizational conditions for the adaptation of iron and steel production among the ancient Arctic hunter-gatherer groups. The results are of breakthrough character, revealing an extensive spatial distribution of advanced iron and steel production at more than 40 sites in present-day northernmost Finland, Sweden, and Norway more than 2000 years ago (i.e., contemporary, and even partly prior to the Romans). The geographical spread of advanced and early iron technology which emerges through the results fundamentally challenges traditional perceptions of the emergence of ferrous metallurgy, especially when societies traditionally considered as less complex/highly mobile are addressed. Hence, iron- and steel production necessitated long-term organization/balancing with other subsistence activities in the collected rhythm of activities in the strongly seasonally influenced (climate-wise) landscape of the ancient Arctic hunter-gatherer communities. In addition to advanced knowledge, the new metal-related activities required significant supplies of raw materials (including their extraction, transportation, preparation, and storage) and thus (related) manpower. Overall, the results imply we ought to significantly broaden the perspectives of the ancient Arctic hunter-gatherer communities in terms of specialization and complex organization far beyond the traditional interpretative paradigm labeling prehistoric iron technology in the European Arctic as small-scale, dependent on imports, and underdeveloped or archaic. Also, because some parts of the process, like the necessary production of charcoal, required multi-year planning, the adaptation and investment of iron technology in the rhythm of activities in the landscape logistically bound the communities to specific locations in the landscape, thus implying reduced residential mobility, i.e.,  a higher degree of sedentism than previously recognized for these groups. The research process forming the basis of this thesis (conducted by a small group of archaeologists, archaeometallurgists, and historians of technology) was strongly characterized by the fact the results are completely at odds with both the larger international and Arctic European literature, implying both weak support for the interpretation of our results and perceived need for pin-pointing hidden assumptions in earlier research in order to “make room” for our results. In addition, the process was characterized by the fact that it took place in (and the ancient findings were made within) a region strongly marked by ethnopolitical forces and groups striving for identity building, where history (and particularly ancient findings) often gets to play a central role.

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  • 23.
    Bennerhag, Carina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Grandin, Lena
    Archaeologists, National Historical Museums, Sweden.
    Hjärtner-Holdar, Eva
    Archaeologists, National Historical Museums, Sweden.
    Stilborg, Ole
    Archaeological Research Lab, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Hunter-gatherer metallurgy in the Early Iron Age of Northern Fennoscandia2021In: Antiquity, ISSN 0003-598X, E-ISSN 1745-1744, Vol. 95, no 384, p. 1511-1526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of ferrous metallurgy in ancient communities of the Circumpolar North is poorly understood due, in part, to the widespread assumption that iron technology was a late introduction, passively received by local populations. Analyses of two recently excavated sites in northernmost Sweden, however, show that iron technology already formed an integral part of the hunter-gatherer subsistence economy in Northern Fennoscandia during the Iron Age (c. 200-50 BC). Such developed knowledge of steel production and complex smithing techniques finds parallels in contemporaneous continental Europe and Western Eurasia. The evidence presented raises broader questions concerning the presence of intricate metallurgical processes in societies considered less complex or highly mobile. 

  • 24.
    Bennerhag, Carina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Hagström Yamamoto, Sara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Towards a Broader Understanding of the Emergence of Iron Technology in Prehistoric Arctic Fennoscandia2023In: Cambridge Archaeological Journal, ISSN 0959-7743, E-ISSN 1474-0540, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 265-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article critically examines interpretations of Old World ferrous metallurgical developments with reference to their consequences for Arctic Fennoscandian iron research. The traditional paradigm of technological innovations recurrently links the emergence of iron technology to increasing social complexity and a sedentary agricultural lifestyle, typically downplaying ‘peripheral’ areas such as Arctic Fennoscandia and its hunter-gatherer communities. Even in postcolonial research of recent years, the archaeometallurgical record of Arctic Fennoscandia is interpreted and organized within the traditional frameworks on the time, course, and cultural context of the introduction of iron technology in Europe, where Arctic Fennoscandia is not considered to have any noteworthy role. However, current archaeological research with new data in Arctic Fennoscandia disputes prevailing ideas in European iron research and shows substantial evidence that iron technology was an integrated part of hunter-gatherer subsistence already during the Early Iron Age (c. 200 BC). Archaeometallurgical analyses reveal advanced knowledge in all the operational sequences of iron technology, including bloomery steel production and the mastering of advanced smithing techniques. Therefore, we urge dispensing with traditional ideas and call for an increased interest in the underlying mechanisms for the transfer of iron.

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  • 25.
    Bennerhag, Carina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Ancient Arctic European Hunter-Gatherer Steelmakers in the LimelightManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The article presents results seriously challenging conventional frameworks on the time, course, and cultural context for the introduction of iron and steel in Europe, these for the major narrative of the development of civilizations indeed important metals. It concerns 2000-year-old finds from as many as 42 different sites across the national borders of present-day northernmost Norway, Finland, and Sweden in Arctic Europe, of advanced iron and steel production (i.e., contemporary with Roman steel production) within the hitherto unthinkable cultural context of hunter-gatherers. Due to insufficient frameworks for the undersigned as historian and archaeologist to interpret these findings through, we used archeometric analyses in combination with an arctic climate- and landscape/taskscape lens to reach new insights into the ancient arctic iron- and steel-making hunter-gatherers. These turned out to be particularly fruitful perspectives for gaining insights into the previously overall weakly explored social/organizational aspects of early ironmaking, as well as for the overall inadequately explored ancient arctic hunter-gatherers. We urge other historians and archaeologists to use similar methods to possibly uncover additional (“unthinkable”) locations/regions with advanced and early metalworking.

  • 26.
    Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Vattenfall Distribution AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Hage, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Recycling, Norms and Convenience: A Bivariate Probit Analysis of Household Data from a Swedish City2022In: Frontiers in Sustainable Cities, E-ISSN 2624-9634, Vol. 4, article id 875811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the role of norms and convenience for households' packaging waste sorting activities. The theoretical point of departure is a simple economic model that integrates norm-motivated behavior into neoclassical utility theory by assuming that the individual has a preference for maintaining a self-image as a morally responsible (norm-compliant) person. The empirical analysis rests on survey responses from 398 households in the city of Eskilstuna, Sweden. Self-reported information on recycling contributions and personal norms is analyzed in a bivariate probit model, which estimates the probability of pursuing high-performing recycling efforts as an endogenously determined decisions to the activation of a personal norm for waste sorting. The results suggest that norm activation is an important driver for households' recycling contributions, as is convenience in the form of access to property-close collection schemes. Personal norms are in turn primarily activated by the presence of social, legal, and descriptive norms. One important implication is that policy needs to build on well-aligned policy instrument mixes that combine references to the moral significance of households' recycling contributions with various infrastructural measures that facilitate such contributions.

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  • 27.
    Blomquist, Johan
    et al.
    AgriFood Economics Centre, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Persson, Lars
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Waldo, Staffan
    AgriFood Economics Centre, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Samhällsekonomiska begrepp i yrkes- och fritidsfiske2022Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences. Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Umeå School of Business, Economics and Statistics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Center for Environmental and Resource Economics, CERE, Umeå, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Per
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Muricho, Deborah
    Department of Land Resource Management & Agricultural Technology (LARMAT), University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Mureithi, Stephen
    Department of Land Resource Management & Agricultural Technology (LARMAT), University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wredle, Ewa
    Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gert
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Adaptive pastoralists—Insights into local and regional patterns in livelihood adaptation choices among pastoralists in Kenya2023In: Pastoralism, E-ISSN 2041-7136, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pastoralist adaptation strategies have to address multiple, overlapping, and often inter-related processes of socio-ecological change. The present study addresses the need for inter-regional comparative studies that account for different geographic, climate, and socio-economic contexts in order to understand how pastoralists adapt to changes in livelihood conditions. The paper uses data from a unique survey study of pastoralist households in four neighbouring counties in dryland Kenya. Taking our point of departure from an empirically based classification of the livelihood strategies available to pastoralists in the Horn of Africa, the survey offers novel insights into adaptation and fodder management strategies of pastoralist individuals and households. The results show that the use of migration as a strategy is more dependent on the ability to migrate than climate conditions. This is the case in localities where a substantial part of the land is subdivided, the population density is high, and where opportunities for migration are subsequently restricted. Diversification of livelihoods as a strategy is largely defined by opportunity. Intensification through active fodder management is mainly common in areas where there has been a proliferation of managed enclosures. Climate change will test the adaptive capacity of pastoralists in the studied region, and diversification and intensification strategies of both herd composition and livelihoods can be seen as strategies for increased climate resilience.

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  • 29.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences. Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Center for Environmental and Resource Economics, CERE, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandorf, Erlend Dancke
    School of Economics and Business, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Mureithi, Stephen M.
    Department of Land Resource Management & Agricultural Technology (LARMAT), University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Muricho, Deborah N.
    Department of Land Resource Management & Agricultural Technology (LARMAT), University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Unravelling the pastoralist paradox - preferences for land tenure security and flexibility in Kenya2023In: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 242-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we use a discrete choice experiment conducted among pastoralists in four different semi-arid counties in Kenya characterized by different land tenure regimes to analyze how pastoralists make tradeoffs between tenure security and grazing flexibility - the so-called pastoralist paradox. Results show that there is one group of respondents who are desperate for change and seem to prefer either group or private title deeds to their current situation. A second, smaller group has strong preferences for the status quo, which could be driven by their relatively short migration distances. Concerning index-based livestock insurance, the basis risk suffered by insured pastoralists due to underprediction is high, but willingness to pay (WTP) for livestock insurance should still be high enough to ensure maximum uptake, leaving current low uptakes hard to explain. The worry about climate change is high but does not translate into increased WTP for more secure tenure or formal livestock insurance.

  • 30.
    Bryngemark, Elina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    The Economics of Biofuel Development: Policy Incentives and Market Impacts2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the economics of biofuel development by studying the forest raw material market impacts of increased biofuel production, as well as the role of specific policy incentives. Paper [I] presents an economic assessment of two different developments – both implying an increased demand for forest ecosystem services – and how these could affect the competition for forest raw materials. A Swedish forest sector trade model is updated to a new base year and used to analyze the consequences of: (a) increased bioenergy use in the heat and power sector; and (b) increased forest conservation. A particularly interesting market impact is that bioenergy promotion and forest conservation tend to have opposite effects on forest industry by-product prices. Furthermore, combining the two scenarios mitigates the forest industry by-product price increase compared to the case where only the bioenergy-promoting scenario is implemented. In other words, the heat and power sector is less negatively affected in terms of increased feedstock prices if a bioenergy demand increase is accompanied by increased forest conservation. Paper [2] explores the forest product market impacts of increased domestic second-generation (2G) biofuel production in Sweden. Changes in forest raw material prices and resource allocation are assessed using a forest sector trade model, which has been extended with a 2G biofuel module to address such production. The simulation results show increasing forest industry by-product prices, e.g., displaying that increased 2G biofuel production leads to a more intense raw material competition. The higher feedstock prices make the use of forest biomass in the heat and power sector less profitable. Still, we find little evidence of substitution of fossil fuels for by-products. There is also evidence of synergy effects in that the higher by-product prices spur sawmills to produce more sawn wood, something which in turn induces forest owners to increase harvest levels. Paper [3] presents and demonstrates a conceptual interdisciplinary framework that can constitute the basis for evaluations of the full supply-chain performance of various biorefinery concepts. The framework involves soft-linking a bottom-up and a top-down model; it considers the competition for biomass across sectors, assumes exogenous end-use product demand, and incorporates various geographical and technical constraints. We demonstrate this framework empirically by modelling the case of a sawmill-integrated biorefinery, which produces liquefied biomethane from forest industry residues. This case shows, among other things, the importance of acknowledging price change responses when evaluating supply chains. Paper [4] studies the relationship between green industrial policies and domestic biofuel production among 24 OECD countries over the period 2000-2016. This panel is estimated using a variant of the so-called Poisson pseudo-maximum-likelihood model, and incorporates the mix of demand-pull (biofuel blending mandates) and technology-push policies (government R&D), as well as the interaction between these two types of instruments. The results suggest that a more stringent blending mandate tends not only to increase the use of biofuels, but also domestic production. Government R&D has not, however, induced domestic biofuel industrialization processes. The results instead imply that these two polices target different technological fields, in turn leading to no positive interaction between demand-pull and technology-push policies. Finally, Paper [5] investigates the factors that tend to influence Swedish municipalities’ uptake of green public procurement (GPP) practices in the transport sector. The analysis builds on survey responses from civil servants representing 140 Swedish municipalities, complemented by secondary data on, for instance, municipality size. The survey collected information about both individual (e.g., education) and organizational characteristics (e.g., strategies). These data were used to estimate a bivariate probit model, which addresses the endogeneity in the GPP decision-making process. The results indicate that municipality size increases the likelihood of adopting a GPP strategy but decreases the likelihood for GPP uptake. This suggests that larger municipalities benefit from more resources (e.g., staff), but suffer from a larger organizational distance between the procuring and environmental departments. Finally, the results lend meagre support to the street-level bureaucracy hypothesis, i.e., that individual characteristics influence the uptake of GPP.

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  • 31.
    Bryngemark, Elina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Ekonomiska effekter av vindkraftpark Eystrasalt Offshore på yrkesfisket2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är ett underlag till miljökonsekvensbeskrivningen för Eystrasaltprojektet och studerar vindkraftparkens inverkan på det svenska och finska yrkesfisket. Detta görs dels i termer av effekter på nationell ekonomisk aktivitet (förädlingsvärde och sysselsättning), och dels i termer av påverkan på enskilda fiskares situation (tillgång till fångstområden och påverkan på lönsamhet). 

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  • 32.
    Bryngemark, Elina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Green industrial policies and domestic production of biofuels: an econometric analysis of OECD countries2022In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 225-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between green industrial policies and domestic biofuel production among OECD countries. The analysis builds on a data set including 24 OECD countries over the time period 2000–2016. This panel is estimated using a variant of the so-called Poisson pseudo-maximum-likelihood model and includes the mix of demand-pull (biofuel blending mandates) and technology-push policies (government R&D), as well as the interaction between these two types of instruments. The results suggest a positive relationship between blending mandates and domestic biofuel production. Thus, a more stringent blending mandate does not only increase the use of biofuels, but also domestic production (as a share of total fuel use). Government R&D has not, however, induced domestic biofuel industrialization processes. The results even suggest a negative interaction effect between government R&D and blending mandates, in turn implying that these two polices target different technological fields. The blending mandates tend to primarily favor commercialized first-generation biofuels, while government support to biofuel R&D has instead been focused on advanced biofuel technology.

  • 33.
    Bryngemark, Elina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Thörn, Martina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    The adoption of green public procurement practices: Analytical challenges and empirical illustration on Swedish municipalities2023In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 204, article id 107655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the adoption of green public procurement (GPP) practices at the local authority level. A conceptual contribution of the paper is an analytical framework, which acknowledges that the adoption of green criteria in tenders should be modelled as a conditionally independent decision from the decision to rely on GPP strategies (guidelines). This approach can help provide novel insights into how various political, organizational, and individual characteristics influence GPP. The paper provides an empirical illustration by concentrating on the role of organizational size. This analysis is based on survey responses from civil servants representing 140 Swedish municipalities. The results are based on the bivariate ordered probit estimator and suggest that large municipalities are more likely to rely on GPP strategies but also less prone to adopt green criteria in tenders when controlling for the presence of such strategies. In large organizations, the centralization of the procurement implies efficiency gains, but it will often be accompanied with longer organizational distances between the procuring and the environmental departments. The paper also highlights the wider implications of the proposed framework, including how future research on GPP practices could approach the role of various political and individual factors.

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  • 34.
    Brännström, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences. Silvermuseet in Arjeplog, and the Institute for Arctic Landscape Research (INSARC), Sweden.
    The implementation of Sámi land rights in the Swedish Forestry Act2023In: The Significance of Sámi Rights: Law, Justice, and Sustainability for the Indigenous Sámi in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Dorothée Cambou; Øyvind Ravna, Taylor and Francis , 2023, 1, p. 101-115Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 35.
    Buchholz, Peter
    et al.
    DERA, Berlin, Germany.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Steinbach, Volker
    Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover, Germany.
    Breakthrough technologies and innovations along the mineral raw materials supply chain - towards a sustainable and secure supply INTRODUCTION2022In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 35, no 3-4, p. 345-347Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Chiwona-Karltun, Linley
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7012, 75007, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    University of Gothenburg, Box 645, 405 30, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wamala-Larsson, Caroline
    Institute of Computer and Systems Sciences -SPIDER, DSV, Stockholm University, Postbox 7003, 164 07, Kista, Sweden.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Salome
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Hatab, Assem Abu
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7012, 75007, Uppsala, Sweden. Department of Economics & Rural Development, Arish University, Al-Arish, Egypt.
    Made, Nolwandle
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7012, 75007, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kanuma Taremwa, Nathan
    College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (CAVM), University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Melyoki, Lemayon
    University of Dar es Salaam Business School, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Kinunda Rutashobya, Lettice
    University of Dar es Salaam Business School, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Madonsela, Thulisile
    Faculty of Law Trust Chair in Social Justice, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Lourens, Marna
    Faculty of Law Trust Chair in Social Justice, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Stone, Wendy
    Faculty of Law Trust Chair in Social Justice, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Bizoza, Alfred R.
    College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (CAVM), University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    COVID-19: From health crises to food security anxiety and policy implications2021In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 794-811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like the rest of the world, African countries are reeling from the health, economic and social effects of COVID-19. The continent’s governments have responded by imposing rigorous lockdowns to limit the spread of the virus. The various lockdown measures are undermining food security, because stay at home orders have among others, threatened food production for a continent that relies heavily on agriculture as the bedrock of the economy. This article draws on quantitative data collected by the GeoPoll, and, from these data, assesses the effect of concern about the local spread and economic impact of COVID-19 on food worries. Qualitative data comprising 12 countries south of the Sahara reveal that lockdowns have created anxiety over food security as a health, economic and human rights/well-being issue. By applying a probit model, we find that concern about the local spread of COVID-19 and economic impact of the virus increases the probability of food worries. Governments have responded with various efforts to support the neediest. By evaluating the various policies rolled out we advocate for a feminist economics approach that necessitates greater use of data analytics to predict the likely impacts of intended regulatory relief responses during the recovery process and post-COVID-19.

  • 37.
    Dahlberg, Moa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Social networks that shape conservation outcomes2024In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 151, article id 103616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the role of park rangers’ social networks in two national parks in Sub-Saharan Africa and suggests that the way that actors connect shape conservation outcomes. We do this against the backdrop of how conservation worldwide has moved away from state-centric top-down approaches towards management structures that includes a wide range of stakeholders spanning multiple administrative levels and sectors. This trend entails challenges as well as opportunities for conservation management. The theoretical framework of the study is given by social capital theory and the notion that the structure of social networks – more specifically the three network features of bonding, bridging, and linking – relate to the presence of institutional trust and rule compliance. The findings indicate that the structure of social networks, in particular the different forms of social capital in those networks, matters for the way they function. The result indicates that bridging and linking ties positively relate to institutional trust and rule compliance. These social networks form a basis for building institutional trust in areas where trust towards government tends to be low. Managers should think about these structures when they implement conservation policy. We recommend to 1) foster structures where park rangers connect to a wide range of actors and thus resources, information, and knowledge 2) include park rangers in the decision making for a more efficient and sustainable management, and 3) build bridges that reach the local communities to facilitate institutional trust and encourage voluntary compliance.

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  • 38.
    Dahlberg, Moa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Nuancing the spheres of authority of chiefs: State perspectives on hybrid governance2023In: Governance. An International Journal of Policy, Administration and Institutions, ISSN 0952-1895, E-ISSN 1468-0491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we develop a framework for understanding the different spheres of authority of chiefs aiming to widen the perspectives on how government-chief interactions affect the governance process. The framework is applied in our analysis of interviews with government actors involved in area protection in the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area (GLTFCA). Our results illustrate the variety of approaches and perceptions towards governance with chiefs that exist amongst government actors within the same governance system. Although government actors perceive chiefs in the GLTFCA as a parallel system, chiefs can act as a rival, mediator, adviser, or partner to the government; thus, both enable or hamper government governance.  The informal governance arrangements found in the data between government actors and chiefs moreover underscores the importance of qualitative case studies of hybrid governance systems.

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  • 39.
    Dahlberg, Moa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Conceptualizing xenophobia as structural violence in the lives of refugee women in Gauteng, South Africa2023In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 46, no 12, p. 2768-2790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights the embeddedness of xenophobia in institutions through a theoretical but empirically under-researched concept of structural violence. Drawing on in-depth qualitative interview data with refugee women in Gauteng, South Africa, we explore the empirical utility of the concept of structural violence in shaping refugee women’s everyday experiences of xenophobia through three analytical themes: (a) unequal access to resources (b) constrained agency and (c) dehumanization. While keeping an empirical grip on experiential narratives on xenophobia, we draw attention to three public institutions that enhance the vulnerability of those already vulnerable: The Department of Home Affairs, The South African Police Service and Public Hospitals. Our paper elucidates how refugee women experience xenophobia and how they manage their “everyday” in these circumstances- an aspect that remains underdeveloped in existing research.

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  • 40.
    Dahlqvist, Anna
    et al.
    National Institute of Economic Research, S-10223 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences. Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    National Institute of Economic Research, S-10223 Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Rebound Effect in Energy-Intensive Industries: A Factor Demand Model with Asymmetric Price Response2021In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 177-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate industry-specific direct rebound effects and to relate these effects to industry energy efficiency programs. The rebound effect represents economic behavior that will offset energy savings from energy efficiency improvements. The paper focuses on four energy intense sectors in Sweden; pulp and paper, iron and steel, chemical, and mining, during 2001-2012. We apply a factor demand model that allows for asymmetric energy price responses, i.e. that firms respond differently to increasing and decreasing energy prices. The results show considerable rebound effects. For electricity and non-fossil fuels, efficiency improvements could even ‘backfire’. To mitigate this effect, policies, such as voluntary energy efficiency programs, should be combined with an increase in energy taxes if the ambition is to reduce overall energy use.

  • 41.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Andersson, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Motives for walking and cycling when commuting - differences in local contexts and attitudes2021In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The purpose of this study is to analyse what factors that explain individual differences in walking and cycling when commuting in different parts of Sweden. Walking and cycling is potentially accessible all over the country, while well developed public transport is mainly a viable option in densely populated areas. Methodology The importance of differences in local characteristics for the choice of transport mode will be scrutinised, together with individual differences in attitudes andpreferences. Data is collected through a survey sent to people living in five Swedish municipalities with different demographic, socio-economic ,infrastructural and geographical characteristics. Results The results for the pooled sample indicate that the choice to walk/cycle when commuting is related to health considerations and environmental concerns. Distance to work/school is also an important factor. Men tend to be more prone to choose active transport, and so do respondents with lower income. The results further reveal that availability of safe routes for walking and cycling are important for the choice to walk/cycle when commuting. As health considerations are important, we suggest policy makers to stress health motives when they promote walking and cycling in the future. Our results further suggest that it is important to consider availability and accessibility in community planning, and to prioritize safety and comfort of walking and cycling, not least in parts of the country where public transport is not an economically viable option.

  • 42.
    Elenius, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Clothing fashion variations for festive periods and everyday life2021Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 43.
    Elenius, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Klädmodets variationer i helg och vardag2020Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Från att en kyrka byggdes fram tills i dag har människorna samlats till gudstjänst i Gammelstad. Vid vistelsen i kyrkstugan tog man på sig sina bästa kläder. I Klädmodets variationer berättar historikern Lars Elenius om hur människorna i lulebygden klädde sig till vardags och till fest. Under självhushållningens tid vävde man själv tyget som man sydde kläder av. Ull var det självklara material man hade på gården, men man odlade också hampa. Linet importerade man däremot.

    I klädernas formspråk och val av material signalerades också status och makt. Under ståndssamhällets tid var den sociala skiktningen starkt cementerad. Det fanns en föreställning om att adelsmannen, prästen och bonden tillhörde skilda grupper, där de lägre stånden skulle underordna sig de högre. Inget stånd fick överskrida sin plats i den sociala hierarkin genom att förhäva sig. Därför blev sidentyger och andra exklusiva tyger förbjudna att användas offentligt av de lägre stånden under 1600- och 1700-talet. De som överträdde förbudet fick sitta i fängelse ett antal dagar på vatten och bröd eller böta.

    Industrialiseringen tillsammans med den billiga bomullen revolutionerade klädseln. Rallarna som byggde järnvägen till Malmfälten och till Luleå hade ingen möjlighet att sy upp kläder. De beställde efter från postorderföretag eller köpte kontant av handlare. Kvinnor i mejerier och på sjukhus började klä sig i vita kläder. Till Luleå stad flyttade företagare, bokhållare, hattmakare, hushållerskor och andra. Det borgerliga modet spred sig till kyrkstugorna i Gammelstad, till bönderna i byarna och arbetarna i städerna. I klädmodets förändring ser vi också samhället förändring.

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  • 44.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Changing locus of mining2022In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 35, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Editorial2012In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 25, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences. RMG Consulting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The evolving structure of the global mining industry: [Comment l’industrie minière mondiale évolue]2023In: Matériaux & Techniques, ISSN 0032-6895, Vol. 111, no 3, article id 303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The green energy transition has been called a transition from a fossil fuel dependency to a metal and mineral dependency. Concerns about the security of future supplies are raised mainly in the EU and the USA with the Critical Raw Materials Act and the Inflation Reduction Act. The perspectives of these policies are centred on the demands created in the industrialised countries. The need for metals to lift billions of poor people out of poverty and to cater for the population growth is often, if not always, left out of the equation. While demand undoubtedly is increasing, the opposition to new mines and new renewable energy supply is strong and perhaps even increasing. It is necessary to find new ways to create a recognition that mining plays a key role for the green transition.

  • 47.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    XXIX World Marble and Stones Report 2018 by Carlo Montani2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 255-256Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Löf, Anton
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löf, Olof
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Обзор мирового рынка железной руды за 2019–2020 годы: [Iron ore market report 2019–2020]2021In: Gornaya Promyshlennost (Russian Mining Industry), ISSN 1609-9192, no 1, p. 74-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    '. Preliminary figures of global iron ore and steel production in 2020 show a slight decline. The article reviews iron ore production by global companies (Vale, Rio Tinto, BHP, FMG, Anglo American, etc.) in 2019 and 2020, as well as production figures by the leading steel producing countries (China, India, Japan, Russia, USA, South Korea) in 2020. Iron ore imports and exports are also analyzed. It is noted that the global iron ore exports had increased by around 43% over the previous decade, however, they went down by 1.7% in 2019, and this decline in exports continued in 2020. Australia is the largest iron ore exporter with a market share of 55%; this share increased by one percentage point in 2020 compared to the previous year. Green-field projects by global producing companies are presented in Brazil, Australia and other countries. A conclusion is made that despite a 3.5% decline in the global economy forecast by the International Monetary Fund in 2020, it is possible to acknowledge that the iron ore market is well balanced. However, if steel demand and steel production volumes increase unexpectedly and some of the planned new mines are not commissioned, the surplus can quite promptly turn into a deficit. In the long term, the plans to produce steel without using fossil fuels, without coke and therefore without CO2 emissions, could revolutionize the iron ore market and increase the demand for products with a high iron content.

  • 49.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Löf, Anton
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löf, Olof
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Muller, Daniel B.
    Industrial Ecology Program, Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Cobalt: corporate concentration 1975-20182023In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world’s dependency on cobalt mines in Congo and cobalt refineries in China is seen as serious security issues with potentially dangerous implications for the energy transition. However, Chinese refineries have a similar supply security issue as most of its cobalt concentrates are imported. Most supply security studies take a country perspective on market concentration and supply risks. However, control of the mines and refineries lies with the producing companies, not the governments of the countries where they are located. This paper analyses the corporate structure of the cobalt industry at the mine and the refinery stages over a longer time period to establish changes in the level of corporate concentration and to put the situation in 2018 in perspective. The level of corporate concentration at the mine stage is low and does not raise concerns for market failures or a lack of competitiveness. Corporate concentration of refined cobalt depends on the Chinese government’s influence over Chinese production: if the state control over individual refineries is assumed to be strong, the corporate concentration is high. Mine stage supply security could be strengthened by improving the general political stability in the DRC to make the country more attractive for investors other than the present ones. Increased local beneficiation would strongly benefit Congo and reduce China’s influence. This is a long and complicated process and its success is not at all certain. At the refinery stage, the solution is much easier: reliability of supply could be improved by constructing refineries in countries outside China.

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  • 50.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Professor Marian Radetzki (1936-2022) in memoriam2023In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 187-188Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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