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  • 1.
    Moritz, Juliane
    et al.
    Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Materials Science (IfWW), 01069, Dresden, Germany; Technology Field Additive Manufacturing and Surface Technologies, Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, 01277, Dresden, Germany.
    Teschke, Mirko
    Chair of Materials Test Engineering (WPT), TU Dortmund University, 44227, Dortmund, Germany.
    Marquardt, Axel
    Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Materials Science (IfWW), 01069, Dresden, Germany; Technology Field Additive Manufacturing and Surface Technologies, Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, 01277, Dresden, Germany.
    Heinze, Stefan
    Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Materials Science (IfWW), 01069, Dresden, Germany.
    Heckert, Mirko
    Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Materials Science (IfWW), 01069, Dresden, Germany.
    Stepien, Lukas
    Technology Field Additive Manufacturing and Surface Technologies, Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, 01277, Dresden, Germany.
    López, Elena
    Technology Field Additive Manufacturing and Surface Technologies, Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, 01277, Dresden, Germany.
    Brueckner, Frank
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. Technology Field Additive Manufacturing and Surface Technologies, Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, 01277 Dresden, Germany.
    Walther, Frank
    Chair of Materials Test Engineering (WPT), TU Dortmund University, 44227, Dortmund, Germany.
    Leyens, Christoph
    Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Materials Science (IfWW), 01069, Dresden, Germany; Technology Field Additive Manufacturing and Surface Technologies, Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, 01277, Dresden, Germany.
    Influence of Two-Step Heat Treatments on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a β-Solidifying Titanium Aluminide Alloy Fabricated via Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion2023In: Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN 1438-1656, E-ISSN 1527-2648, Vol. 25, no 2, article id 2200931Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing technologies, particularly electron beam powder bed fusion (PBF-EB/M), are becoming increasingly important for the processing of intermetallic titanium aluminides. This study presents the effects of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and subsequent two-step heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the TNM-B1 alloy (Ti–43.5Al–4Nb–1Mo–0.1B) fabricated via PBF-EB/M. Adequate solution heat treatment temperatures allow the adjustment of fully lamellar (FL) and nearly lamellar (NL-β) microstructures. The specimens are characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray computed tomography (CT), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The mechanical properties at ambient temperatures are evaluated via tensile testing and subsequent fractography. While lack-of-fusion defects are the main causes of failure in the as-built condition, the mechanical properties in the heat-treated conditions are predominantly controlled by the microstructure. The highest ultimate tensile strength is achieved after HIP due to the elimination of lack-of-fusion defects. The results reveal challenges originating from the PBF-EB/M process, for example, local variations in chemical composition due to aluminum evaporation, which in turn affect the microstructures after heat treatment. For designing suitable heat treatment strategies, particular attention should therefore be paid to the microstructural characteristics associated with additive manufacturing.

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  • 2.
    Moritz, Juliane
    et al.
    Institute of Materials Science (IfWW), Technische Universität Dresden, 01069, Dresden, Germany; Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, 01277, Dresden, Germany.
    Teschke, Mirko
    Chair of Materials Test Engineering (WPT), TU Dortmund University, 44227, Dortmund, Germany.
    Marquardt, Axel
    Institute of Materials Science (IfWW), Technische Universität Dresden, 01069, Dresden, Germany; Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, 01277, Dresden, Germany.
    Stepien, Lukas
    Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, 01277, Dresden, Germany.
    López, Elena
    Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, 01277, Dresden, Germany.
    Brueckner, Frank
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, 01277 Dresden, Germany.
    Walther, Frank
    Chair of Materials Test Engineering (WPT), TU Dortmund University, 44227, Dortmund, Germany.
    Leyens, Christoph
    Institute of Materials Science (IfWW), Technische Universität Dresden, 01069, Dresden, Germany; Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, 01277, Dresden, Germany.
    Influence of Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion Process Parameters at Constant Volumetric Energy Density on Surface Topography and Microstructural Homogeneity of a Titanium Aluminide Alloy2023In: Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN 1438-1656, E-ISSN 1527-2648, Vol. 25, no 15, article id 2201871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, the volumetric energy density E V is a commonly used parameter to quantify process energy input. However, recent results question the suitability of E V as a design parameter, as varying the contributing parameters may yield different part properties. Herein, beam current, scan velocity, and line offset in electron beam powder bed fusion (PBF-EB) of the titanium aluminide alloy TNM–B1 are systematically varied while maintaining an overall constant E V. The samples are evaluated regarding surface morphology, relative density, microstructure, hardness, and aluminum loss due to evaporation. Moreover, the specimens are subjected to two different heat treatments to obtain fully lamellar (FL) and nearly lamellar (NLγ) microstructures, respectively. With a combination of low beam currents, low-to-intermediate scan velocities, and low line offsets, parts with even surfaces, relative densities above 99.9%, and homogeneous microstructures are achieved. On the other hand, especially high beam currents promote the formation of surface bulges and pronounced aluminum evaporation, resulting in inhomogeneous banded microstructures after heat treatment. The results demonstrate the importance of considering the individual parameters instead of E V in process optimization for PBF-EB.

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  • 3.
    Moritz, Juliane
    et al.
    Institute of Materials Science (IfWW), Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden, Germany; Technology Field Additive Manufacturing and Surface Technologies, Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, 01277 Dresden, Germany.
    Teschke, Mirko
    Chair of Materials Test Engineering (WPT), TU Dortmund University, 44227 Dortmund, Germany.
    Marquardt, Axel
    Institute of Materials Science (IfWW), Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden, Germany; Technology Field Additive Manufacturing and Surface Technologies, Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, 01277 Dresden, Germanyterial and Beam Technology IWS, 01277 Dresden, Germany.
    Stepien, Lukas
    Technology Field Additive Manufacturing and Surface Technologies, Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, 01277 Dresden, Germany.
    López, Elena
    Technology Field Additive Manufacturing and Surface Technologies, Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, 01277 Dresden, Germany.
    Brueckner, Frank
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. Technology Field Additive Manufacturing and Surface Technologies, Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, 01277 Dresden, Germany.
    Walther, Frank
    Chair of Materials Test Engineering (WPT), TU Dortmund University, 44227 Dortmund, Germany.
    Leyens, Christoph
    Institute of Materials Science (IfWW), Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden, Germany; Technology Field Additive Manufacturing and Surface Technologies, Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, 01277 Dresden, Germany.
    Locally Adapted Microstructures in an Additively Manufactured Titanium Aluminide Alloy Through Process Parameter Variation and Heat Treatment2023In: Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN 1438-1656, E-ISSN 1527-2648, Vol. 25, no 2, article id 2200917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron beam powder bed fusion (PBF-EB/M) has been attracting great research interest as a promising technology for additive manufacturing of titanium aluminide alloys. However, challenges often arise from the process-induced evaporation of aluminum, which is linked to the PBF-EB/M process parameters. This study applies different volumetric energy densities during PBF-EB/M processing to deliberately adjust the aluminum contents in additively manufactured Ti–43.5Al–4Nb–1Mo–0.1B (TNM-B1) samples. The specimens are subsequently subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and a two-step heat treatment. The influence of process parameter variation and heat treatments on microstructure and defect distribution are investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, as well as X-ray computed tomography (CT). Depending on the aluminum content, shifts in the phase transition temperatures can be identified via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It is confirmed that the microstructure after heat treatment is strongly linked to the PBF-EB/M parameters and the associated aluminum evaporation. The feasibility of producing locally adapted microstructures within one component through process parameter variation and subsequent heat treatment can be demonstrated. Thus, fully lamellar and nearly lamellar microstructures in two adjacent component areas can be adjusted, respectively.

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    fulltext
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