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  • 1.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Castaño, Miguel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Patwardhan, Amit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Manish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Granström, Rikard
    Trafikverket, 97125 Luleå, Sweden.
    A Human-Centric Model for Sustainable Asset Management in Railway: A Case Study2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 2, article id 936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing digital transformation is changing asset management in the railway industry. Emerging digital technologies and Artificial Intelligence is expected to facilitate decision-making in management, operation, and maintenance of railway by providing an integrated data-driven and model-driven solution. An important aspect when developing decision-support solutions based on AI and digital technology is the users’ experience. User experience design process aims to create relevance, context-awareness, and meaningfulness for the end-user. In railway contexts, it is believed that applying a human-centric design model in the development of AI-based artefacts, will enhance the usability of the solution, which will have a positive impact on the decision-making processes. In this research, the applicability of such advanced technologies i.e., Virtual Reality, Mixed Reality, and AI have been reviewed for the railway asset management. To carry out this research work, literature review has been conducted related to available Virtual Reality/Augmented Reality/Mixed Reality technologies and their applications within railway industry. It has been found that these technologies are available, but not applied in railway asset management. Thus, the aim of this paper is to propose a human-centric design model for the enhancement of railway asset management using Artificial Intelligence, Virtual Reality, and Mixed Reality technologies. The practical implication of the findings from this work will benefit in increased efficiency and effectiveness of the operation and maintenance processes in railway

  • 2.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Patwardhan, Amit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Manish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Eriksson, Hanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Metaverse for Intelligent Asset Management2022In: 2022 International Conference on Maintenance and Intelligent Asset Management (ICMIAM), IEEE, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Patwardhan, Amit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Dersin, Pierre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumari, Jaya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    A cybersecurity approach for improved system resilience2022In: Proceedings of the 32nd European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2022) / [ed] Maria Chiara Leva; Edoardo Patelli; Luca Podofillini; Simon Wilson, Research Publishing Services , 2022, p. 2514-2521Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing digitalisation of industrial systems is bringing new challenges in managing, monitoring, and predicting the overall reliability performance. The overall reliability of a cyber-physical system, such as railways, is highly influenced by the level of resilience in its inherent digital items. The objective of this paper is to propose a systematic approach, based on an enhanced Cyber Kill Chain model, to improve the overall system resilience through monitoring and prediction. The proposed cybersecurity approach can be used to assess the future cyberattack penetration probabilities based on the present security controls. With the advancement in cybersecurity defensive controls, cyberattacks have continued to evolve through the exploitation of vulnerabilities within the cyber-physical systems. Assuming the possibility of a cyberattack it is necessary to select appropriate security controls so that this attack can be predicted, prevented, or detected before any catastrophic consequences to retain the resilience of the system. Insufficient cybersecurity in the context of cyber-physical systems, such as railways, might have a fatal effect on the whole system availability performance and sometimes may lead to safety risks. However, to improve the overall resilience of a cyber-physical system there is a need of a systematic approach to continuously monitor, predict, and manage the health of the system’s digital items with respect to security. Furthermore, the paper will provide a case-study description in railway sector, which has been used for the verification of the proposed approach.

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  • 4.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Patwardhan, Amit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Thaduri, Adithya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    A Methodology for Cybersecurity Risk Assessment – A Case-study in Railway2022In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 5-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalisation is changing the railway globally. One of the major concerns in digital transformation of the railway is the increased exposure to cyberattacks. The railway is vulnerable to these cyberattacks because the number of digital items and number of interfaces between digital and physical components in these systems keep growing. Increased number of digital items and interfaces require new methodologies, frameworks, models, concepts, and architectures to ensure the railway system’s resilience with respect to cybersecurity challenges, such as adoption and convergence of Information Technology (IT) and Operational Technology (OT) technology within the railway. This convergence has brought significant benefits in reliability, operational efficiency, capacity as well as improvements in passenger experience but also increases the vulnerability towards cyberattacks from individuals, organizations, and governments. This paper proposes a methodology on how to deals with OT security in the railway signalling using failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) and ISA/IEC 62443 security risk assessment methodologies.

  • 5.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Patwardhan, Amit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Thaduri, Adithya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    A review on cybersecurity in railways2022In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalisation is transforming the railway globally. One of the major considerations in digital transformation of any industry including the railway is the increased exposure to cyberattacks. The railway industry is vulnerable to these attacks because since the number of digital items and also number of interfaces between digital and physical components in the railway systems keep increasing. Increased number of items and interfaces require new frameworks, concepts and architectures to ensure the railway system’s resilience with respect to cybersecurity challenges, such as lack of proactiveness, lack of holistic perspective and obsolescence of safety systems exposed to current and future cyber threats landscape. To this date, there are several works carried out in the literature that studied the cybersecurity aspects and its application on railway infrastructure. However, to develop and implement an appropriate roadmap to cybersecurity in railways, there is a need of describing emerging challenges, and approaches to deal with these challenges and the possibilities and benefits of these.Hence, the objective of this paper is to provide a systematic review and outline cybersecurity emerging trends and approaches, and also to identify possible solutions by querying literature, academic and industrial, for future directions. The authors of this paper conducted separate searches through four popular databases, that is, Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Science and IEEE explore. For the screening process, authors have used keywords with Boolean operators and database filters and identified 90 articles most relevant to the study domain. The analysis of 90 articles shows that majority of the cybersecurity studies lies within the railways are conceptual and lags in application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) based security. Like other industries, it is very important that railways should also follow latest security technologies, trends and train their workforce for cyber hygiene since railways are already in digitalization transition mode.

  • 6.
    Patwardhan, Amit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Enablement of digital twins for railway overhead catenary system2022Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway has the potential to become one of the most sustainable mediums for passenger and freight transport. This is possible by continuous updates to the asset management regime supporting Prognostics and Health Management (PHM). Railway tracks and catenaries are linear assets, and their length plays a vital role in maintenance. Railway catenary does not present many failures as compared to the rail track, but the failures that occur do not give enough opportunity for quick recovery. These failures cause extensive time delays disrupting railways operations. Such situations can be handled better by updating the maintenance approach. The domain of maintenance explores possible tools, techniques, and technologies to retain and restore the systems. PHM is dependent on data acquisition and analytics to predict the future state of a system with the least possible divergence. In the case of railway catenary and many other domains, this new technology of data acquisition is Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) device-based spatial point cloud collection. Current methods of catenary inspection depend on contact-based methods of inspection of railway catenary and read signals from the pantograph and contact wire while ignoring the rest of the wires and surroundings. Locomotive-mounted LiDAR devices support the collection of spatial data in the form of point-cloud from all the surrounding equipment and environment. This point cloud data holds a large amount of information, waiting for algorithms and technologies to harness it. A Digital Twin (DT) is a virtual representation of a physical system or process, achieved through models and simulations and maintains bidirectional communication for progressive enrichment at both ends. A systems digital twin is exposed to all the same conditions virtually. Such a digital twin can be used to provide prognostics by varying factors such as time, malfunction in components of the system, and conditions in which the system operates. Railways is a multistakeholder domain that depends on many organisations to support smooth function. The development of digital twins depends on the understanding of the system, the availability of sensors to read the state and actuators to affect the system’s state. Enabling a digital twin depends on governance restrictions, business requirements and technological competence. A concrete step towards enablement of the digital twin is designing an architecture to accommodate the technical requirements of content management, processing and infrastructure while addressing railway operations' governance and business aspects.The main objective of this work is to develop and provide architecture and a platform for the enablement of a DT solution based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) and digital technologies aimed at PHM of railway catenary system. The main results of this thesis are i) analysis of content management and processing requirements for railway overhead catenary system ii) methodology for catenary point cloud data processing and information representation iii) architecture and infrastructure requirements for enablement of Digital Twin and iv) roadmap for digital twin enablement for PHM of railway overhead catenary system.

  • 7.
    Patwardhan, Amit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    LiDAR data processing for railway catenary digital twin enablementIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prognostics and health management enables predictive maintenance through techniques like data analytics. Railway catenary is categorised as a linear asset, where inspection and maintenance present challenges due to large distribution of the asset and limitation of current methods. Digital twin can be used to support system level analytics from design to decommissioning. Development of digital twin for railway catenary requires data analytics as well as strategy for information and knowledge storage. Point cloud data recovered through LiDAR scanning contains spatial information, Point cloud data analytics and representation of extracted information forms the base for development of railway catenary digital twin.

  • 8.
    Patwardhan, Amit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Thaduri, Adithya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Distributed Ledger for Cybersecurity: Issues and Challenges in Railways2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 18, article id 10176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The railway is a complex technical system of systems in a multi-stakeholder environment. The implementation of digital technologies is essential for achieving operational excellence and addressing stakeholders’ needs and requirements in relation to the railways. Digitalization is highly dependent on an appropriate digital infrastructure provided through proper information logistics, whereas cybersecurity is critical for the overall security and safety of the railway systems. However, it is important to understand the various issues and challenges presented by governance, business, and technical requirements. Hence, this paper is the first link in the chain to explore, understand, and address such requirements. The purpose of this paper is to identify aspects of distributed ledgers and to provide a taxonomy of issues and challenges to develop a secure and resilient data sharing framework for railway stakeholders.

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  • 9.
    Patwardhan, Amit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Thaduri, Adithya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Point Cloud Data Augmentation for Linear Assets2024In: International Congress and Workshop on Industrial AI and eMaintenance 2023, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2024, p. 615-625Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Patwardhan, Amit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Thaduri, Adithya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Castano, Miguel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    An Architecture for Predictive Maintenance using 3D Imaging: A Case Study on Railway Overhead Catenary2022In: Proceedings of the 32nd EuropeanSafety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2022) / [ed] Maria Chiara Leva; Edoardo Patelli; Luca Podofillini; Simon Wilson, Research Publishing Services, 2022, p. 3103-3110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway Overhead Catenary (ROC) system is critical for railways’ overall performance! ROC is a linear asset that is spread over a large geographical area. Insufficient performance of ROC has a significant impact on the overall railway operations, which leads to decreased availability and affects performance of the railway system. Prognostic and Health Management (PHM) of ROC is necessary to improve the dependability of the railway. PHM of ROC can be enhanced by implementing a data-driven approach. A data-driven approach to PHM is highly dependent on the availability and accessibility of data, data acquisition, processing and decision-support. Acquiring data for PHM of ROC can be used through various methods, such as manual inspections. Manual inspection of ROC is a time-consuming and costly method to assess the health of the ROC. Another approach for assessing the health of ROC is through condition monitoring using 3D scanning of ROC utilising LiDAR technology.Presently, 3D scanning systems like LiDAR scanners present new avenues for data acquisition of such physical assets. Large amounts of data can be collected from aerial, on-ground, and subterranean environments. Handling and processing this large amount of data require addressing multiple challenges like data collection, processing algorithms, information extraction, information representation, and decision support tools. Current approaches concentrate more on data processing but lack the maturity to support the end-to-end process. Hence, this paper investigates the requirements and proposes an architecture for a data-to-decision approach to PHM of ROC based on utilisation of LiDAR technology.

  • 11.
    Patwardhan, Amit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Thaduri, Adithya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Castano, Miguel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Federated Learning for Enablement of Digital Twin2022In: IFAC-PapersOnLine, E-ISSN 2405-8963, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 114-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creation, maintenance, and update of digital twins are costly and time-consuming mechanisms. The required effort can be optimized with the use of LiDAR technologies, which support the process of collecting data related to spatial information such as location, geometry, and position. Sharing such data in multi-stakeholder environments is hindered due to competition, confidentiality, and security requirements. Multi-stakeholder environments favor the use of decentralized creation and update mechanisms with reduced data exchange. Such mechanisms are facilitated by Federated Learning, where the learning process is performed at the data owner’s location. Two case studies are presented in this paper, where LiDAR is used to extract information from industrial equipment as a part of the creation of a digital twin.

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    fulltext
  • 12.
    Patwardhan, Amit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Verma, Ajit Kumar
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, International Institute of Information Technology, P-14, Pune Infotech Park, Phase-1, Hinjawadi, University College, Haugesund.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    A Survey on Predictive Maintenance Through Big Data2016In: Current Trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety: An Industry Perspective / [ed] Uday Kumar; Alireza Ahmadi; Ajit Kumar Verma; Prabhakar Varde, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2016, p. 437-445Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern manufacturing systems use thousands of sensors retrieving information at hundreds to thousands of samples per second. The real time data being generated is mostly used for monitoring the processes and the equipment condition. Data processing techniques applied to this data to detect anomalies and thus applying preventive maintenance have been used in the industry. Currently available technologies which were developed during the last two decade for scanning the Internet and providing computational services, working at very large scale can be re-targeted to fulfil the requirements of maintenance of complex systems. These systems can support storage and processing of current as well as historical data. Ability to access and process these large data sets will lead from preventive to predictive maintenance and eventually to smart manufacturing..

  • 13.
    Thaduri, Adithya
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Patwardhan, Amit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Predictive maintenance of mobile mining machinery: A case study for dumpers2023In: Proceedings of the 33rd European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2023) / [ed] Mário P. Brito; Terje Aven; Piero Baraldi; Marko Čepin; Enrico Zio, Research Publishing Services , 2023, p. 3481-3488, article id P298Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 13 of 13
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  • ieee
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