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  • 1.
    Amin, Sidra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.Department of Chemistry, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Shaheed Benazirabad, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Solangi, Amber
    National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Acreo, Research Institute of Sweden, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Morante, J.R
    Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Barcelona, Spain.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry, Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering, Sweden.
    Falhman, Mats
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry, Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering, Sweden.
    Mazzaro, Raffaello
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Ibupoto, Zafar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    A practical non-enzymatic urea sensor based on NiCo2O4 nanoneedles2019In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 9, no 25, p. 14443-14451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a new facile electrochemical sensing platform for determination of urea, based on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo2O4) nanoneedles. These nanoneedles are used for the first time for highly sensitive determination of urea with the lowest detection limit (1 μM) ever reported for the non-enzymatic approach. The nanoneedles were grown through a simple and low-temperature aqueous chemical method. We characterized the structural and morphological properties of the NiCo2O4 nanoneedles by TEM, SEM, XPS and XRD. The bimetallic nickel cobalt oxide exhibits nanoneedle morphology, which results from the self-assembly of nanoparticles. The NiCo2O4 nanoneedles are exclusively composed of Ni, Co, and O and exhibit a cubic crystalline phase. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the enhanced electrochemical properties of a NiCo2O4 nanoneedle-modified GCE by overcoming the typical poor conductivity of bare NiO and Co3O4. The GCE-modified electrode is highly sensitive towards urea, with a linear response (R2 = 0.99) over the concentration range 0.01–5 mM and with a detection limit of 1.0 μM. The proposed non-enzymatic urea sensor is highly selective even in the presence of common interferents such as glucose, uric acid, and ascorbic acid. This new urea sensor has good viability for urea analysis in urine samples and can represent a significant advancement in the field, owing to the simple and cost-effective fabrication of electrodes, which can be used as a promising analytical tool for urea estimation.

  • 2.
    Amin, Sidra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan. Department of Chemistry, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Shaheed Benazirabad, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Solangi, Amber
    National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Mazzaro, Raffaello
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Ibupoto, Zafar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Chemistry, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Shaheed Benazirabad, Pakistan.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    A sensitive enzyme-free lactic acid sensor based on NiO nanoparticles for practical applications2019In: Analytical Methods, ISSN 1759-9660, E-ISSN 1759-9679, Vol. 11, p. 3578-3583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A facile and efficient electrochemical sensing platform has been successfully exploited for the first time for the determination of lactic acid using a nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Nickel oxide nanoparticles were prepared by a chemical growth method using different quantities of arginine as a soft template. The structural and morphological properties of NiO nanoparticles were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to study the electrochemical properties of various samples. The modified electrode is highly sensitive and presents a linear response over a wide range (0.005–5 mM) of lactic acid concentrations in 0.1 M NaOH. The detection limit for the sensor was found to be 5.7 μM, and it exhibits good stability. Furthermore, the sensor shows excellent selectivity in the presence of common interfering species. The lactic acid sensor showed good viability for lactic acid analysis in real samples (milk, yogurt and red wine) and demonstrated significant advancement in sensor technology for practical applications.

  • 3.
    Amin, Sidra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan. Department of Chemistry, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Shaheed Benazirabad, Sindh Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Solangi, Amber R.
    National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Mazzaro, Raffaello
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, National Research Council, Bologna, Italy.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh Pakistan.
    Fatima, Almas
    National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca' Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155, 30172 Venezia Mestre, Italy.
    Functional Nickel Oxide Nanostructures for Ethanol Oxidation in Alkaline Media2020In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 1052-1059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nickel oxide (NiO) nanostructures are employed in the basic medium for the oxidation of ethanol. A variety of NiO nanostructures are synthesized by wet chemical growth method, using different hydroxide (OH−) ion sources, particularly from ammonia, hexamethylenetetramine, urea and sodium hydroxide. The use of urea as (OH−) ion source results in flower‐like NiO structures composed by extremely thin nanowalls (thickness lower than 10 nm,), which demonstrated to be the most active for ethanol oxidation. All the samples exhibit NiO cubic phase, and no other impurity was detected. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves of NiO nanostructures were found linear over the concentration range 0.1–3.5 mM (R2=0.99) of ethanol, with the limit of detection estimated to be 0.013 mM for ethanol. The NiO nanostructures exhibit a selective signal towards ethanol oxidation in the presence of different members of alcohol family. The proposed NiO nanostructures showed a significant practicality for the reproducible and sensitive determination of ethanol from brandy, whisky, mixture of brandy and rum, and vodka samples. The nanomaterial was used as a surface modifying agent for the glassy carbon electrode and it showed a stable electro‐oxidation activity for the ethanol for 16 days. These findings indicate that the presented NiO nanomaterial can be applied in place of noble metals for ethanol sensing and other environmental applications (like fuel cells).

  • 4.
    Gulzar, Ali
    et al.
    Dr M.A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan .
    Tahira, Aneela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mallah, Arfana Begum
    Dr M.A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan .
    Ahmed Mallah, Sarfraz
    Dr M.A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan .
    Ibupoto, Akila
    Institute of Chemistry, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Pakistan .
    Ahmed Khand, Aftab
    School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China .
    Baradi, Waryani
    Department of Fresh Water Biology and Fisheries, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan .
    Willander, Magnus
    Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrkoping, Linkoping University, Norrkoping, Sweden .
    Yu, Cong
    State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin, People’s Republic of China .
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Dr M.A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan; State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin, People’s Republic of China .
    Functional CuO Microstructures for Glucose Sensing2018In: Journal of Electronic Materials, ISSN 0361-5235, E-ISSN 1543-186X, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 1519-1525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CuO microstructures are produced in the presence of water-soluble amino acids by hydrothermal method. The used amino acids include isoleucine, alpha alanine, and arginine as a soft template and are used for tuning the morphology of CuO nanostructures. The crystalline and morphological investigations were carried out by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The XRD study has shown that CuO material obtained in the presence of different amino acids is of high purity and all have the same crystal phase. The CuO microstructures prepared in the presence of arginine were used for the development of sensitive and selective glucose biosensor. The linear range for the glucose detection are from 0.001 mM to 30 mM and limit of detection was found to be 0.0005 mM. The sensitivity was estimated around 77 mV/decade. The developed biosensor is highly selective, sensitive, stable and reproducible. The glucose biosensor was used for the determination of real human blood samples and the obtained results are satisfactory. The CuO material is functional therefore can be capitalized in wide range of applications such as lithium ion batteries, all oxide solar cells and supercapacitors.

  • 5.
    Ibupoto, Zafar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Dr. M.A Kazi Institute of Chemistry University of Sindh Jamshoro,Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Tang, PengYi
    Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BIST, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain;Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Morante, Joan Ramon
    Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Arbiol, Jordi
    Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BIST, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain;ICREA, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    MoSx@NiO Composite Nanostructures: An Advanced Nonprecious Catalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Media2019In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 29, no 7, article id 1807562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of the earth‐abundant, nonprecious, efficient, and stable electrocatalysts for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline media is a hot research topic in the field of renewable energies. A heterostructured system composed of MoSx deposited on NiO nanostructures (MoSx@NiO) as a robust catalyst for water splitting is proposed here. NiO nanosponges are applied as cocatalyst for MoS2 in alkaline media. Both NiO and MoS2@NiO composites are prepared by a hydrothermal method. The NiO nanostructures exhibit sponge‐like morphology and are completely covered by the sheet‐like MoS2. The NiO and MoS2 exhibit cubic and hexagonal phases, respectively. In the MoSx@NiO composite, the HER experiment in 1 m KOH electrolyte results in a low overpotential (406 mV) to produce 10 mA cm−2 current density. The Tafel slope for that case is 43 mV per decade, which is the lowest ever achieved for MoS2‐based electrocatalyst in alkaline media. The catalyst is highly stable for at least 13 h, with no decrease in the current density. This simple, cost‐effective, and environmentally friendly methodology can pave the way for exploitation of MoSx@NiO composite catalysts not only for water splitting, but also for other applications such as lithium ion batteries, and fuel cells.

  • 6.
    Izyumskaya, N.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Ibupoto, Zafar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Lewinski, N.
    Department of Chemical and Lifescience Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.
    Avrutin, V.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.
    Özgür, Ü
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.
    Topsakal, E.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.
    Willander, M.
    Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrkoping, Linköping University.
    Morkoç, H.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.
    Review-Electrochemical Biosensors Based on ZnO Nanostructures2017In: ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, ISSN 2162-8769, E-ISSN 2162-8777, Vol. 6, no 8, p. Q84-Q100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, electrochemical biosensors based on semiconductor and metal nanostructures have attracted a great deal of attention as new instruments in the healthcare arsenal that could substantially enhance early diagnostics capabilities and thus enable active health management. Among numerous materials studied, nanostructured ZnO has been recognized as a promising platform for biomedical applications owing to its low cost, relative ease of preparation leading to a rich variety of nanostructures with high aspect ratios (nanowires, nanobelts, nanoflakes), proven biocompatibility in the bulk form, electronic properties supporting various device types, and catalytic surface activity. In this contribution, we review the recent progress in development of enzymatic and non-enzymatic biosensors based on ZnO nanostructures. After a critical discussion of biocompatibility of nanostructured ZnO, we segue into the discussion of ZnO-based devices for detection of physiologically important analytes, including glucose, cholesterol, L-lactic acid, uric acid, metal ions, and pH. Special attention is given to ZnO nanorod based sensors for intracellular measurements

  • 7.
    Kumar, Raj
    et al.
    National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080, Pakistan.
    Sirajuddin,
    National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080, Pakistan.
    Solangi, Amber Rehana
    National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080, Pakistan.
    Amin, Sidra
    National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080, Pakistan.
    Mahar, Ali Muhammad
    National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080, Pakistan.
    Abro, Muhammad Ishaque
    Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Shaikh, Tayyaba
    National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080, Pakistan.
    Shah, Syed Muhammad Usman Ali
    Department of Electronics, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Dr. M. A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080, Pakistan.
    Synthesis of Sheet Like Morphology of NiO for Sensitive and Selective Determination of Urea2017In: Sensor Letters, ISSN 1546-198X, E-ISSN 1546-1971, Vol. 15, no 10, p. 803-810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient and simple method has been demonstrated for the synthesis of nickel oxide nanostructures using urea as a capping agent. The nanosheet-like morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, crystalline nature was studied by using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface area of nanomaterial was investigated by automated sorption analyzer. Then synthesized NiO nanostructures were used to fabricate the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrocatalytic parameters of modified NiO/GCE electrode were investigated by using various techniques such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), square wave voltammetry (SWV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), normal pulse voltammetry (NPV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry. Various working experimental conditions were optimized in order to attain the highest sensitivity for the determination of urea and the highest peak current 1032 μA of response were obtained at 100 μM concentration of urea. A linear calibration plot was obtained for peak current versus concentration of urea in the range of 10 μM urea to 80 μM urea with a good detection limit of 2 μM. The proposed working strategy was successfully employed for the estimation of urea in human urine samples and the obtained results are found satisfactory. The newly functional urea sensor can be exploited at large scale as an alternative analytical device beside to the other reported urea sensors

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  • 8.
    Saeed, Sumbul
    et al.
    Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Sindh-76080, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Rafiq, Muhammad
    Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Sindh-76080, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Baloach, Qurrat-ul-Ain
    Dr. M. A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry University of Sindh-76080, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Naqvi, Syed Habib Ahmed
    Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Sindh-76080, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Willander, Magnus
    Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrkoping, Linkoping University.
    Akhtar, Mansoor
    Key Lab of Polyoxometalate of Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun City, Jilin Province, P. R. China.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Dr. M. A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry University of Sindh-76080, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Realization of Peptone Biosensor Based on Newly Prepared NiO Nanostructures2017In: Sensor Letters, ISSN 1546-198X, E-ISSN 1546-1971, Vol. 15, no 10, p. 822-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study authenticates the fabrication of nickel oxide porous shaped nanostructure by hydrothermal method. The novel and functionalized nickel oxide nanomaterial were visualized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction techniques (XRD). NiO nanomaterial advertised sensitive, selective and attracted morphology for the development of peptone biosensor. Phenylalanine displays a soft template and growth directing agent for the developing of nickel oxide low dimension nanostructures. The nickel oxide nanomaterial together with protease possesses tremendous role towards the oxidation potential phenomena and transfer of anodic electro-catalytic current for the peptone. The generation of low potential electrochemical signals exhibited the determination of peptone by utilizing different electrochemical techniques for the given concentration ranging from 0.1 mM to 2.5 mM with the measured limit of detection about 0.002 mM with a sensitivity of 107200 μA/mMCm2. The well-defined and highly developed sensor system provides the standard platform for the fabrication and functioning of new devices that are helpful for the determination of many biological macromolecules. The presented peptone biosensor is highly selective, sensitive, and reproducible that could also be useful for the determination of peptone from various milk samples.

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  • 9.
    Tahira, Aneela
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Ibupoto, Zafar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Dr. M.A Kazi Institute of Chemistry University of Sindh Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.
    Mazzaro, Raffaello
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Istituto per la Microelettronica ed i Microsistemi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IMM-CNR), Bologna, Italy.
    You, Shujie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Morandi, Vittorio
    Istituto per la Microelettronica ed i Microsistemi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IMM-CNR), Bologna, Italy.
    Natile, Marta Maria
    Università di Padova, Padova, Italy.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Ca’ Foscari University Venice, Venice, Italy.
    Advanced Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Based on Core–Shell MoS2/TiO2 Nanostructures in Acidic and Alkaline Media2019In: ACS APPLIED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 2053-2062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen production as alternative energy source is still a challenge due to the lack of efficient and inexpensive catalysts, alternative to platinum. Thus, stable, earth abundant, and inexpensive catalysts are of prime need for hydrogen production via hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, we present an efficient and stable electrocatalyst composed of earth abundant TiO2 nanorods decorated with molybdenum disulfide thin nanosheets, a few nanometers thick. We grew rutile TiO2 nanorods via the hydrothermal method on conducting glass substrate, and then we nucleated the molybdenum disulfide nanosheets as the top layer. This composite possesses excellent hydrogen evolution activity in both acidic and alkaline media at considerably low overpotentials (350 mV and 700 mV in acidic and alkaline media, respectively) and small Tafel slopes (48 and 60 mV/dec in acidic and alkaline conditions, respectively), which are better than several transition metal dichalcogenides, such as pure molybdenum disulfide and cobalt diselenide. A good stability in acidic and alkaline media is reported here for the new MoS2/TiO2 electrocatalyst. These results demonstrate the potential of composite electrocatalysts for HER based on earth abundant, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly materials, which can also be of interest for a broader range of scalable applications in renewable energies, such as lithium sulfur batteries, solar cells, and fuel cells.

  • 10.
    Willander, M.
    et al.
    Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrkoping, Linköping University.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Ibupoto, Zafar
    University of Sindh Jamshoro.
    Potentiometric Biosensors Based on Metal Oxide Nanostructures2017In: Reference Module in Chemistry, Molecular Sciences and Chemical Engineering / [ed] Jan Reedijk, Elsevier, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous potentiometric biosensors are fabricated via biocatalytic and bioaffinity-based biosensing mechanisms. Only few of them are useful and applicable to the biomedical application and analysis. The most of those sensing schemes are mainly related to the protein metabolism especially urea and creatinine. The emergence of nanoscience and nanotechnology in the biomedical applications has provided the solid platform for the development of sensitive and selective potentiometric biosensors as new generation analytical devices. Therefore, among the nanomaterials, metal oxides are of prime importance for the potentiometric analytical devices due to generation of strong potential signals and excellent biocompatibility with the proteins such as enzymes, antibodies, DNA, and biological cells. This book chapter is dedicated to the recent advancement in the development of potentiometric biosensors such as urea, uric acid, glucose, and cholesterol due to nanoscience from fundamental to advanced configuration approach of devices.

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