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  • 1.
    Babu, NB Karthik
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assam Energy Institute, A Centre of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Sivasagar, India.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Rashedi, Ahmad
    School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.
    Athimoolam, Pugazhenthi
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College of Engineering Dindigul, Dindigul, India.
    Aseer, J. Ronald
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Puducherry, Karaikal, India.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Self‐reinforced polymer composites: An opportunity to recycle plastic wastes and their future trends2022In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 139, no 46, article id e53143Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymers and their composites have played an important role in industrial development. Polymer composites are becoming much stronger and more competitive than other materials as a result of ongoing research and development. This was made possible by newly developed techniques that could alter the physical and chemical properties of constituents. One of them is the self-reinforcement technique, which allows for the fabrication of high-strength thermoplastic polymer composites with reserved degradability, which is not possible with glass fiber/carbon fiber reinforcement. A self-reinforced polymer composite is made of a single polymeric material, which serves as both the matrix and the reinforcement. This review article discusses the use of self-reinforcement in various polymers and its impact on mechanical, thermal, and fire properties. Furthermore, the effects of process parameters (such as temperature and time, an), reinforcement structure, and mechanical property variation on the structure of self-reinforced composites are reviewed and presented in detail. In addition, the effect of foreign filler addition (such as flame retardants, inorganic particles, natural fibers, etc.) on self-reinforced composites is highlighted. In the end, the need for future research and its scope is presented.

  • 2.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Balasubramanian, Karthik Babu Nilagiri
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assam Energy Institute, Centre of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, 785697, Sivasagar, Assam, India.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rantuch, Peter
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Jana Bottu 2781/25, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia.
    Martinka, Jozef
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Jana Bottu 2781/25, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia.
    Jiang, Lin
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 210094, Nanjing, China.
    Xu, Qiang
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 210094, Nanjing, China.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mohanty, Amar
    School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, 80 South Ring Road East, ON N1G 2W1, Guelph, Canada.
    Misra, Manjusri
    School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, 80 South Ring Road East, ON N1G 2W1, Guelph, Canada.
    Functionalised biochar in biocomposites: The effect of fire retardants, bioplastics and processing methods2023In: Composites Part C: Open Access, E-ISSN 2666-6820, Vol. 11, article id 100368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire retardants, although can impart fire-safety in polymeric composites, are detrimental to the mechanical properties. Biochar can be used, in conjunction with fire retardants, to create a balance between fire-safety and mechanical performance. It is possible to thermally dope fire retardants into the pores of biochar to make it functionalised. Thus, the current work is intended in identifying a composite having the combination of the most desirable fire retardant, bioplastic, and a suitable processing method. A comparison was made between two fire retardants (lanosol and ammonium polyphosphate), bioplastics (wheat gluten and polyamide 11), and composite processing methods (compression and injection moulding). It was found that wheat gluten containing ammonium polyphosphate-doped biochar made by compression moulding had the best fire-safety properties with the lowest peak heat release rate (186 kW/m2), the highest fire performance index (0.6 m2s/kW), and the lowest fire growth index (1.6 kW/ms) with acceptable mechanical properties compared to the corresponding neat bioplastic. Thus, for gluten-based polymers, the use of ammonium polyphosphate thermally doped into biochar processed by compression moulding is recommended to both simultaneously improve fire-safety and conserve the mechanical strength of the resulting biocomposites.

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  • 3.
    Edwin Samson, Ponnusamy
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Anna University, Guindy, Chennai, India.
    Senthil Kumaran, Selvadurai
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Anna University, Guindy, Chennai, India.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    The effect of fiber orientation and stacking sequence on carbon/E-glass/epoxy intraply hybrid composites under dynamic loading conditions2023In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 363-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the dynamic mechanical properties of hybrid intraply carbon/E-glass epoxy composites with different orientations and stacking sequences under different loading conditions with increasing temperature. A neat epoxy and five various hybrid composites such as Carbon (0°)/E-glass (90°), Carbon (45°)/E-glass (135°), Carbon (90°)/E-glass (0°), Carbon/E-glass (alternating layer), and Carbon/E-glass (alternating layer 45°) were manufactured. Three-point bending test and dynamic mechanical test were conducted to understand the flexural modulus and viscoelastic behavior (storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss tangent) of the composites. Dynamic mechanical test was performed with the dual cantilever method, at four different frequencies (1, 5, 10, and 20 Hz) and temperatures ranging from 30 to 150°C. The experimental results of storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss tangents were compared with the theoretical findings of neat epoxy and various hybrid composites. The glass transition temperature (Tg) increased with the increase in frequency. A linear fit of the natural log of frequency to the inverse of absolute temperature was plotted in the activation energy estimation. The interphase damping (tanδi) between plies and the strength indicator (Si) of the hybrid composites were estimated. It was observed that the neat epoxy had more insufficient storage and loss modulus and a high loss tangent at all the frequencies whereas hybrid composites had high storage and loss modulus and a low loss tangent for all the frequencies. Compared with other hybrid composites, Carbon (90°)/E-glass (0°) had higher strength and activation energy. The result of reinforcement of hybrid fiber in neat epoxy significantly increases the material's strength and stability at higher temperatures whereas decreasing free molecular movement.

  • 4.
    Mani, Megavannan
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Thiyagu, M.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Nano-enhanced epoxy sandwich composites: Investigating mechanical properties for future aircraft construction2024In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 35, no 6, article id e6492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aviation sector is continually seeking ways to reduce the weight of aircraft structures without compromising their mechanical integrity. Lightweight materials, such as advanced epoxy sandwich composites with hybrid nanostructures, have the potential to significantly contribute to fuel efficiency, thereby addressing environmental concerns and operational costs. This research investigates the mechanical properties of hybrid sandwich polymer composites filled with silica nanoparticles (SNiPs). Epoxy isocyanate (PU) foam sandwich composites were fabricated with kevlar fiber, carbon fiber, and glass fiber, constructed by alternating inclined interply bidirectional fiber and foam layers. SNiPs were introduced into the composite system at varying percentages, such as 0, 2, 4, and 6 wt%. The study employs a systematic approach, incorporating experimental testing, to assess key mechanical parameters, including tensile strength, flexural strength, and shear strength. The test results indicate that the incorporation of SNiPs improved the mechanical properties of the composites, leading to enhanced strength, toughness, and modulus of elasticity. Incorporation of composite laminates with 4 wt% SiNPs resulted in improved three-point bending, tensile, shear, and torsional strengths, with maximum values of ca. 64, ca. 5, ca. 2 MPa, and ca. 22 Nm, respectively. The findings contribute to the ongoing pursuit of materials that can meet the stringent demands of modern aviation, ultimately paving the way for advancements in aircraft construction and design.

  • 5.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Vennström, Alva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Li, Zhiwei
    National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, China.
    Restas, Agoston
    Department of Fire Protection and Rescue Control, National University of Public Service, Budapest, 1011, Hungary.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, 9617976487, Iran.
    Sokol, Denis
    Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, Vilnius, LT-03225, Lithuania.
    Misra, Manjusri
    School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, 80 South Ring Road East, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
    Mohanty, Amar
    School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, 80 South Ring Road East, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials Division, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 100 44, Sweden.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Influence of biochar and flame retardant on mechanical, thermal, and flammability properties of wheat gluten composites2022In: Composites Part C: Open Access, ISSN 2666-6820, Vol. 9, article id 100332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of environmentally friendly materials such as bio-sourced plastics is being driven by increased awareness of environmental issues caused by synthetic plastics. However, bio-sourced plastics have poor fire behaviour that limits their application. The addition of a flame retardant to these plastics is one effective way to increase the fire resistance property; however, the flame retardant should not interfere with the mechanical performance of the plastic. Most flame retardants act as stress concentration points, reducing tensile strength. Hence, to create a balance between tensile strength and fire resistance, biochar (to conserve strength) and lanosol (to improve fire resistance) were added to wheat gluten bioplastic in various ratios and the optimal ratio was identified. Wheat gluten composites were fabricated using compression moulding at four different concentrations of lanosol (2, 4, 6, and 8 wt.%) and biochar (2, 4, 6, and 8 wt.%). From the test results, the composite with 4 wt.% lanosol and 6 wt.% biochar exhibited a good balance between the mechanical and fire properties; it conserved the strength and improved the fire properties (39 % reduction in peak heat release rate).

  • 6.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Wang, Dong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Fire behaviour of biochar-based cementitious composites2024In: Composites Part C: Open Access, ISSN 2666-6820, Vol. 14, article id 100471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to test the hypothesis that biochar's unique properties, such as its microporous structure, can enhance concrete's resilience to high temperatures. Despite expectations of reduced crack formation and enhanced fire resistance, the experimental results revealed a limited impact on concrete's fire behaviour. The investigation involved the use of two biochar types, fine and coarse biochar as replacements for cement and aggregates, respectively. Fine biochar exhibited higher water absorption and Young's modulus than coarse biochar, but both resisted ignition at 35 kW/m2 radiative heat flux and had peak heat release rates below 40 kW/m2. Incorporating these biochars at varying weight percentages (10, 15, and 20 wt.%) into concrete led to a gradual decline in compressive and tensile strength due to reduced binding ability with increased biochar content. Exposure to 1000 °C compromised mechanical properties across all the samples. However, the biochar concrete maintained compressive strength (compared to the control) with up to 20 wt.% biochar as a fine aggregate substitute after exposure to 600 °C, and as a cement replacement after exposure to 200 °C. This substitution also yielded a significant reduction in CO2 emissions (50 % reduction as the biochar loading amount doubled) from concrete manufacturing, showcasing biochar's potential for sustainable construction practices. Despite not fully supporting the initial hypothesis, the study demonstrated biochar's viability in reducing carbon footprint while maintaining concrete strength under certain fire conditions.

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  • 7.
    Selvam, Arivazhagan
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, KPR Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Mayilswamy, Suresh
    Department of Robotics and Automation Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Whenish, Ruban
    Centre for Bio Materials, Cellular and Molecular Theranostics, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Naresh, K.
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 90089, USA.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, India.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Multi-objective optimization and prediction of surface roughness and printing time in FFF printed ABS polymer2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, article id 16887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, fused filament fabrication (FFF) printing parameters were optimized to improve the surface quality and reduce the printing time of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) polymer using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), it is a statistical analysis tool. A multi-objective optimization technique was employed to predict the optimum process parameter values using particle swarm optimization (PSO) and response surface methodology (RSM) techniques. Printing time and surface roughness were analyzed as a function of layer thickness, printing speed and nozzle temperature. A central composite design was preferred by employing the RSM method, and experiments were carried out as per the design of experiments (DoE). To understand the relationship between the identified input parameters and the output responses, several mathematical models were developed. After validating the accuracy of the developed regression model, these models were then coupled with PSO and RSM to predict the optimum parameter values. Moreover, the weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS) ranking method was employed to compare the RSM and PSO to identify the best optimization technique. WASPAS ranking method shows PSO has finer optimal values [printing speed of 125.6 mm/sec, nozzle temperature of 221 °C and layer thickness of 0.29 mm] than the RSM method. The optimum values were compared with the experimental results. Predicted parameter values through the PSO method showed high surface quality for the type of the surfaces, i.e., the surface roughness value of flat upper and down surfaces is approximately 3.92 µm, and this value for the other surfaces is lower, which is approximately 1.78 µm, at a minimum printing time of 24 min.

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