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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Johan M.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Dep. of Space, Earth and Environment, Div. of Energy Technology.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Dep. of Space, Earth and Environment, Div. of Energy Technology; RISE Research Institute of Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Dep. of Space, Earth and Environment, Div. of Energy Technology.
    Value chains for integrated production of liquefied bio-SNG at sawmill sites: Techno-economic and carbon footprint evaluation2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 206, p. 1590-1608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry’s increasing demand for liquefied natural gas could be met in the future by liquefied methane produced from biomass feedstock (LBG - liquefied biogas). This study presents results from an investigation of value chains for integrated production of LBG at a generic sawmill site, based on gasification of sawmill waste streams and forest residues. The objective was to investigate the cost for, as well as the carbon footprint reduction associated with, production and use of LBG as a fuel. Five different LBG plant sizes were investigated in combination with three different sawmill sizes. The resulting cases differ regarding biomass feedstock composition, biomass transportation distances, LBG plant sizes, how efficiently the excess heat from the LBG plant is used, and LBG distribution distances. Pinch technology was used to quantify the heat integration opportunities and to design the process steam network. The results show that efficient use of energy within the integrated process has the largest impact on the performance of the value chain in terms of carbon footprint. The fuel production cost are mainly determined by the investment cost of the plant, as well as feedstock transportation costs, which mainly affects larger plants. Production costs are shown to range from 68 to 156 EUR/MW hfuel and the carbon footprint ranges from 175 to 250 kg GHG-eq/MW hnet biomass assuming that the product is used to substitute fossil LNG fuel. The results indicate that process integration of an indirect biomass gasifier for LBG production is an effective way for a sawmill to utilize its by-products. Integration of this type of biorefinery can be done in such a way that the plant can still cover its heating needs whilst expanding its product portfolio in a competitive way, both from a carbon footprint and cost perspective. The results also indicate that the gains associated with efficient heat integration are important to achieve an efficient value chain.

  • 2.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Dimensioning of value chains for production of liquefied bio-SNG2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Landälv, Ingvar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis oil: Evaluation of blend ratios and methanol production capacities2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 110, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study is to investigate integrated methanol production via co-gasification of black liquor (BL) and pyrolysis oil (PO), at Swedish pulp mills. The objectives are to evaluate techno-economically different blends ratios for different pulp mill capacities. Furthermore, the future methanol production potential in Sweden and overall system consequences of large-scale implementation of PO/BL co-gasification are also assessed.It is concluded that gasification of pure BL and PO/BL blends up to 50% results in significantly lower production costs than what can be achieved by gasification of unblended PO. Co-gasification with 20–50% oil addition would be the most advantageous solution based on IRR for integrated biofuel plants in small pulp mills (200 kADt/y), whilst pure black liquor gasification (BLG) will be the most advantageous alternative for larger pulp mills. For pulp mill sizes between 300 and 600 kADt/y, it is also concluded that a feasible methanol production can be achieved at a methanol market price below 100 €/MW h, for production capacities ranging between 0.9 and 1.6 TW h/y for pure BLG, and between 1.2 and 6.5 TW h/y for PO/BL co-gasification. This study also shows that by introducing PO/BL co-gasification, fewer pulp mills would need to be converted to biofuel plants than with pure BLG, to meet a certain biofuel demand for a region. Due to the technical as well as organizational complexity of the integration this may prove beneficial, and could also potentially lower the total investment requirement to meet the total biofuel demand in the system. The main conclusion is that PO/BL co-gasification is a technically and economically attractive production route for production biomethanol.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Malek, Laura
    Lund Universitet.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund Universitet.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    System studies on biofuel production via integrated biomass gasification2013Report (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Carvalho, Lara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Anheden, Marie
    Innventia AB.
    Wolf, Jens
    Innventia AB.
    Techno-economic assessment of catalytic gasification of biomass powders for methanol production2017In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 237, p. 167-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the techno-economic performance and potential benefits of methanol production through catalytic gasification of forest residues and lignin. The results showed that while catalytic gasification enables increased cold gas efficiencies and methanol yields compared to non-catalytic gasification, the additional pre-treatment energy and loss of electricity production result in small or no system efficiency improvements. The resulting required methanol selling prices (90-130 €/MWh) are comparable with production costs for other biofuels. It is concluded that catalytic gasification of forest residues can be an attractive option as it provides operational advantages at production costs comparable to non-catalytic gasification. The addition of lignin would require lignin costs below 25 €/MWh to be economically beneficial.

  • 6.
    Carvalho, Lara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. IVL – Swedish Environmental Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ma, Chunyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Öhrman, Olov G. W.
    IVL – Swedish Environmental Institute, Stockholm, Sweden;RISE Energy Technology Center AB, Piteå, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and a novel syngas cleaning: Part 2: Techno-economic analysis2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 165, no Part B, p. 471-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that alkali addition has operational advantages in entrained flow biomass gasification and allows for capture of up to 90% of the biomass sulfur in the slag phase. The resultant low-sulfur content syngas can create new possibilities for syngas cleaning processes. The aim was to assess the techno-economic performance of biofuel production via gasification of alkali impregnated biomass using a novel gas cleaning systemcomprised of (i) entrained flow catalytic gasification with in situ sulfur removal, (ii) further sulfur removal using a zinc bed, (iii) tar removal using a carbon filter, and (iv) CO2 reductionwith zeolite membranes, in comparison to the expensive acid gas removal system (Rectisol technology). The results show that alkali impregnation increases methanol productionallowing for selling prices similar to biofuel production from non-impregnated biomass. It was concluded that the methanol production using the novel cleaning system is comparable to the Rectisol technology in terms of energy efficiency, while showing an economic advantagederived from a methanol selling price reduction of 2–6 €/MWh. The results showed a high level of robustness to changes related to prices and operation. Methanol selling prices could be further reduced by choosing low sulfur content feedstocks.

  • 7.
    Carvalho, Lara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wolf, Jens
    RISE Bioeconomy.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Methanol production via black liquor co-gasification with expanded raw material base: Techno-economic assessment2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 225, p. 570-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrained flow gasification of black liquor combined with downstream-gas-derived synthesis of biofuels in Kraft pulp mills has shown advantages regarding energy efficiency and economic performance when compared to combustion in a recovery boiler. To further increase the operation flexibility and the profitability of the biofuel plant while at the same time increase biofuel production, black liquor can be co-gasified with a secondary feedstock (blend-in feedstock). This work has evaluated the prospects of producing biofuels via co-gasification of black liquor and different blend-in feedstocks (crude glycerol, fermentation residues, pyrolysis liquids) at different blend ratios. Process modelling tools were used, in combination with techno-economic assessment methods. Two methanol grades, crude and grade AA methanol, were investigated. The results showed that the co-gasification concepts resulted in significant increases in methanol production volumes, as well as in improved conversion efficiencies, when compared with black liquor gasification; 5-11 and 4-10 percentage point in terms of cold gas efficiency and methanol conversion efficiency, respectively. The economic analysis showed that required methanol selling prices ranging from 55-101 €/MWh for crude methanol and 58-104 €/MWh for grade AA methanol were obtained for an IRR of 15%. Blend-in led to positive economies-of-scale effects and subsequently decreased required methanol selling prices, in particular for low cost blend-in feedstocks (prices below approximately 20 €/MWh). The co-gasification concepts showed economic competitiveness to other biofuel production routes. When compared with fossil fuels, the resulting crude methanol selling prices were above maritime gas oil prices. Nonetheless, for fossil derived methanol prices higher than 80 €/MWh, crude methanol from co-gasification could be an economically competitive option. Grade AA methanol could also compete with taxed gasoline. Crude glycerol turned out as the most attractive blend-in feedstock, from an economic perspective. When mixed with black liquor in a ratio of 50/50, grade AA methanol could even be cost competitive with untaxed gasoline.

  • 8.
    de Jong, Sierk
    et al.
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University.
    Hoefnagels, Ric
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Faaij, André
    Energy Academy Europe, University of Groningen.
    Junginger, Martin
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University.
    Cost optimization of biofuel production: The impact of scale, integration, transport and supply chain configurations2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 195, p. 1055-1070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a geographically-explicit cost optimization model to analyze the impact of and interrelation between four cost reduction strategies for biofuel production: economies of scale, intermodal transport, integration with existing industries, and distributed supply chain configurations (i.e. supply chains with an intermediate pre-treatment step to reduce biomass transport cost). The model assessed biofuel production levels ranging from 1 to 150 PJ a−1 in the context of the existing Swedish forest industry. Biofuel was produced from forestry biomass using hydrothermal liquefaction and hydroprocessing. Simultaneous implementation of all cost reduction strategies yielded minimum biofuel production costs of 18.1–18.2 € GJ−1 at biofuel production levels between 10 and 75 PJ a−1. Limiting the economies of scale was shown to cause the largest cost increase (+0–12%, increasing with biofuel production level), followed by disabling integration benefits (+1–10%, decreasing with biofuel production level) and allowing unimodal truck transport only (+0–6%, increasing with biofuel production level). Distributed supply chain configurations were introduced once biomass supply became increasingly dispersed, but did not provide a significant cost benefit (<1%). Disabling the benefits of integration favors large-scale centralized production, while intermodal transport networks positively affect the benefits of economies of scale. As biofuel production costs still exceeds the price of fossil transport fuels in Sweden after implementation of all cost reduction strategies, policy support and stimulation of further technological learning remains essential to achieve cost parity with fossil fuels for this feedstock/technology combination in this spatiotemporal context.

  • 9.
    de Jong, Sierk
    et al.
    Utrecht University and SkyNRG.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Hoefnagels, Ric
    Utrecht University.
    Tzanetis, Kostis
    Utrecht University.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University ofTechnology.
    Junginger, Martin
    Utrecht University.
    Optimizing biofuel supply chains based on liquefaction technologies: evaluating the hub-and-spoke model2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Difs, Kristina
    et al.
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linköping Institute of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Trygg, Louise
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linköping Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linköping Institute of Technology.
    Biomass gasification opportunities in a district heating system2010In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 637-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the economic effects and the potential for reduced CO2 emissions when biomass gasification applications are introduced in a Swedish district heating (DH) system. The gasification applications included in the study deliver heat to the DH network while producing renewable electricity or biofuels. Gasification applications included are: external superheater for steam from waste incineration (waste boost, WB), gas engine CHP (BIGGE), combined cycle CHP (BIGCC) and production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) for use as transportation fuel. Six scenarios are used, employing two time perspectives – short-term and medium-term – and differing in economic input data, investment options and technical system. To evaluate the economic performance an optimisation model is used to identify the most profitable alternatives regarding investments and plant operation while meeting the DH demand. This study shows that introducing biomass gasification in the DH system will lead to economic benefits for the DH supplier as well as reduce global CO2 emissions. Biomass gasification significantly increases the potential for production of high value products (electricity or SNG) in the DH system. However, which form of investment that is most profitable is shown to be highly dependent on the level of policy instruments for biofuels and renewable electricity. Biomass gasification applications can thus be interesting for DH suppliers in the future, and may be a vital measure to reach the 2020 targets for greenhouse gases and renewable energy, given continued technology development and long-term policy instruments.

  • 11.
    Fallde, Magdalena
    et al.
    Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change, Linköping University.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Energy System Models as a Means of Visualising Barriers and Drivers of Forest-Based Biofuels: An Interview Study of Developers and Potential Users2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-derived biofuels have been on the agenda for several decades. Despite extensive research and development efforts, forest biofuel concepts have nevertheless not yet been realized on any significant scale. The discrepancy between the expectations from the research community and the lack of momentum regarding biofuel production raises the question of if and how research results can be used to achieve such goals. Here, we report results from an interview study with the aim of evaluating how energy system models can be used to illustrate barriers and drivers for forest biofuels, with focus on Swedish conditions, using the BeWhere model as case. The study is framed as an example of expertise, and problematizes how energy system models are interpreted among expected users. While the interviews revealed some general scepticism regarding models, and what kinds of questions they can answer, the belief was also expressed that increased complexity might be an advantage in terms of being able to accommodate more barriers against forest biofuels. The study illustrates the complexity of this policy area, where an energy system model can answer some, but never all, ‘what if…?’ questions. The results reveal a need for reformation in energy system modelling in order to more explicitly make society the subject of the work, and also illustrate that the belief in expertise as a tool for consensus-building in decision-making should be questioned.

  • 12.
    Furusjö, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Jafri, Yawer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Oller, Albert Bach
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Landälv, Ingvar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Gebart, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    SP ETC.
    Co-gasification of pyrolysis oil and black liquor - a new track for production of chemicals and transportation fuels from biomass2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressurized oxygen-blown entrained flow black liquor (BL) gasification, the Chemrec technology, has been demonstrated in a 3 MWth pilot plant in Piteå, Sweden for more than 25,000 h. The plant is owned and operated by Luleå University of Technology since 2013. It is well known that catalytic activity of alkali metals is important for the high reactivity of black liquor, which leads to a highly efficient BL gasification process. The globally available volume of BL is however limited and strongly connected to pulp production. By co-gasifying pyrolysis oil (PO) with BL it is possible to utilize the catalytic activity also for PO conversion to syngas. Adding PO leads to larger feedstock flexibility with the possibility of building larger biofuels plants based on BL gasification technology. This presentation summarizes new results from research activities aimed at developing and assessing the PO/BL co-gasification process. Results from laboratory experiments with PO/BL mixtures show that pyrolysis behavior and char gasification reactivity are similar to pure BL. This means that the decrease in the alkali metal concentration due to the addition of PO in the mixture does not decrease the reactivity. Pure PO is much less reactive. Mixing tests show that the fraction of PO that can be mixed into BL is limited by lignin precipitation as a consequence of PO acidity. Pilot scale PO/BL co-gasification experiments have been executed following design and construction of a new feeding system to allow co-feeding of PO with BL. The results confirm the conclusions from the lab scale study and prove that the co-gasification concept is practically applicable. Process performance of the pilot scale co-gasification process is similar to gasification of BL only with high carbon conversion and clean syngas generation. This indicates that the established BL gasification technology can be used for co-gasification of PO and BL without major modifications.

  • 13.
    Furusjö, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Climate & Sustainable Cities.
    Ma, Chunyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Carvalho, Lara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and novel syngas cleaning: Part 1: Gasifier performance2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 157, p. 96-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that alkali addition in entrained flow biomass gasification can increase char conversion and decrease tar and soot formation through catalysis. This paper investigates two other potential benefits of alkali addition: increased slag flowability and in situ sulfur capture.

    Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show that addition of 2–8% alkali catalyst to biomass completely changes the chemical domain of the gasifier slag phase to an alkali carbonate melt with low viscosity. This can increase feedstock flexibility and improve the operability of an entrained flow biomass gasification process. The alkali carbonate melt also leads to up to 90% sulfur capture through the formation of alkali sulfides. The resulting reduced syngas sulfur content can potentially simplify gas cleaning required for catalytic biofuel production.

    Alkali catalyst recovery and recycling is a precondition for the economic feasibility of the proposed process and is effected through a wet quench. It is shown that the addition of Zn for sulfur precipitation in the alkali recovery loop enables the separation of S, Ca and Mg from the recycle. For high Si and Cl biomass feedstocks, an alternative separation technology for these elements may be required to avoid build-up.

  • 14.
    Höltinger, Stefan
    et al.
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Science Vienna, Austria.
    Mikovits, Christian
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Science Vienna, Austria.
    Schmidt, Johannes
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Science Vienna, Austria.
    Baumgartner, Johann
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Science Vienna, Austria.
    Arheimer, Berit
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrköping, Sweden.
    Lindström, Göran
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrköping, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    The impact of climatic extreme events on the feasibility of fully renewable power systems: a case study for Sweden2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 178, p. 695-713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long term time series of variable renewable energy (VRE) generation and electricity demand (load) provide important insights into the feasibility of fully renewable power systems. The coverage of energy statistics is usually too short or the temporal resolution too low to study effects related to interannual variability or the impact of climatic extreme events. We use time series simulated from climate data to assess the frequency, duration, and magnitude of extreme residual load events of two fully renewable power scenarios with a share of VRE generation (wind and solar PV) of about 50% for the case of Sweden. We define residual load as load – wind – PV – nuclear generation. Extreme residual load events are events that exceed the balancing or ramping capacities of the current power system. For our analysis, we use 29 years of simulated river runoff and wind and PV generation. Hourly load is derived from MERRA reanalysis temperature data by applying statistical models. Those time series are used along with historic capacity and ramping restrictions of hydro and thermal power plants in an optimization model to minimize extreme residual load events. Our analysis shows that even highly flexible power systems, as the Swedish one, are affected by climatic extreme events if they increase their VRE shares. Replacing current nuclear power capacities by wind power results on average in three extreme residual load events per year that exceed the current power system’s flexibility. Additional PV generation capacities instead of wind increase the number of extreme residual load events by about 4 %, as most events occur during the winter month when solar generation is close to zero and thus not able to counterbalance low wind events. Contrarily, overproduction and the need to curtail VRE generation become more pressing with higher shares of PV. In the discussion we highlight measures that could provide additional balancing capabilities to cope with the more frequent and severe residual load events in a fully renewable power system with high shares of VRE generation.

  • 15.
    Höltinger, Stefan
    et al.
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Schmidt, Johannes
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Using long term synthetic time series to assess the impact of meteorological extreme events on renewable energy systems: a case study of wind and hydro power in Sweden2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic time series of renewable energy generation provide important inputs for energy system models that study the transition to low carbon energy systems. The coverage of national energy statistics is usually too short or temporal resolution too low – in particular if meteorological extreme events should be assessed. These extreme events may put high stress on power systems with very high shares of renewables and therefore have to be studied in detail. We use simulated time series of Swedish wind energy generation for a 35 year period based on MERRA reanalysis datasets. The simulation of hydropower generation is more complex and requires hydrological models that combine precipitation data with spatially explicit information on soil type and land cover to simulate river discharge. For this purpose, we use time series of daily river discharge that have been simulated using the open source model HYPE (HYdrological Predictions for the Environment).

    We compared the derived time series for wind and hydropower generation in the four Swedish bidding areas with respect to their long-term correlation, patterns of seasonality, and length and duration of extreme events. Preliminary results show that expanding wind power capacities could significantly reduce the overall variability of renewable energy generation. Furthermore, the frequency and duration of extreme production events in a combined wind-hydropower system is lower than in a hydropower system only. Further work will study the need for backup capacities in a future Swedish power system with very high shares of hydro, wind and solar power (>90%).

  • 16.
    Höltinger, Stefan
    et al.
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Schmidt, Johannes
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Using long term synthetic time series to assess the impact of meteorological extreme events on renewable energy systems: a case study of wind and hydro power in Sweden2017In: Geophysical Research Abstracts, ISSN 1029-7006, E-ISSN 1607-7962, Vol. 19, article id EGU2017-14131Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic time series of renewable energy generation provide important inputs for energy system models that study the transition to low carbon energy systems. The coverage of national energy statistics is usually too short or temporal resolution too low – in particular if meteorological extreme events should be assessed. These extreme events may put high stress on power systems with very high shares of renewables and therefore have to be studied in detail. We use simulated time series of Swedish wind energy generation for a 35 year period based on MERRA reanalysis datasets. The simulation of hydropower generation is more complex and requires hydrological models that combine precipitation data with spatially explicit information on soil type and land cover to simulate river discharge. For this purpose, we use time series of daily river discharge that have been simulated using the open source model HYPE (HYdrological Predictions for the Environment).

    We compared the derived time series for wind and hydropower generation in the four Swedish bidding areas with respect to their long-term correlation, patterns of seasonality, and length and duration of extreme events. Preliminary results show that expanding wind power capacities could significantly reduce the overall variability of renewable energy generation. Furthermore, the frequency and duration of extreme production events in a combined wind-hydropower system is lower than in a hydropower system only. Further work will study the need for backup capacities in a future Swedish power system with very high shares of hydro, wind and solar power (>90%).

  • 17.
    Jafri, Yawer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm.
    Kulander, Ida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm.
    Håkansson, Åsa
    Preem, Stockholm.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., Stockholm.
    Multi-aspect evaluation of integrated forest-based biofuel production pathways: Part 1. Product yields & energetic performance2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 166, p. 401-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-based biofuels are strategically important in forest-rich countries like Sweden but the technical performance of several promising production pathways is poorly documented. This study examines product yields and energy efficiencies in six commercially relevant forest-based “drop-in” and “high blend” biofuel production pathways by developing detailed spreadsheet energy balance models. The models are in turn based on pilot-scale performance data from the literature, supplemented with input from technology developers and experts. In most pathways, biofuel production is integrated with a market pulp mill and/or a crude oil refinery. Initial conversion is by pyrolysis, gasification or lignin depolymerization and intermediate products are upgraded by hydrotreatment or catalytic synthesis.

    While lignin oil (LO) hydrodeoxygenation had the highest expanded system efficiency, considerable uncertainty surrounds product yields owing to absence of suitable experimental data on LO upgrading. Co-feeding vacuum gas oil and fast pyrolysis oil in a fluidized catalytic cracker has a complex and uncertain effect on fossil yields, which requires further investigation. Co-locating bio-oil hydrotreatment at the refinery improves heat utilization, leading to higher system efficiencies. Explicit consideration of mill type and energy requirements is required to avoid performance misestimation as an assumption of energy surplus can confer a definite advantage.

  • 18.
    Jafri, Yawer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm.
    Kulander, Ida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm.
    Håkansson, Åsa
    Preem, Stockholm.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., Stockholm.
    Multi-aspect evaluation of integrated forest-based biofuel production pathways: Part 2, economics, GHG emissions, technology maturity and production potentials2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 172, p. 1312-1328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Promoting the deployment of forest-based drop-in and high blend biofuels is considered strategically important in Sweden but many aspects of the overall performance of the foremost production technologies are as yet unexamined. This paper evaluates the technology maturity, profitability, investment requirements, GHG performance and Swedish biofuel production potential of six commercially interesting forest-based biofuel production pathways.

    Significant heterogeneity in technology maturity was observed. Lack of technical demonstration in industrially representative scales renders the liquefaction-hydrotreatment route for drop-in biofuels less mature than its gasification-catalytic upgrading counterpart. It is a paradox that short-term priority being accorded to pathways with the lowest technology maturity. Nth-of-a-kind investments in (a) gasification-based methanol, (b) hydropyrolysis-based petrol/diesel, and (c) lignin depolymerization-based petrol/diesel were profitable for a range of plant sizes. The profitability of pulp mill-integrated small gasification units (<100 MW) goes against the common perception of gasification being economically feasible only in large scales. New low-cost options for debottlenecking production at recovery boiler-limited kraft mills appear worth investigating. GHG emission reductions ranged from 66 to 95%; a penalty was incurred for high consumption of natural gas-based hydrogen. Swedish biofuel production potentials ranged from 4 to 27 TWh/y but a more feasible upper limit is 12–15 TWh/y.

  • 19.
    Krook Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Biomassa, systemmodeller och målkonflikter2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability and competition for woody biomass has been analysed with a district heating perspective with an aim to contribute to a broader system understanding of the interaction between the district heating system, the forest biomass system and the biofuel system. The starting point has been two energy system models that in different ways capture the competition for biomass in Sweden. The focus has been on (1) identifying possible conflicting targets between increased electricity generation from district heating, increased biofuel production and reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and (2) identifying how the models can communicate and be further developed in order to improve the representation of biomass in the national energy system analysis.

  • 20.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    CHP or Biofuel Production in Europe?2012In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 20, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the opportunity to invest in combined heat and power (CHP) plants and second-generation biofuel production plants in Europe is investigated. To determine the number and type of production plants, a mixed integer linear model is used, based on minimization of the total cost of the whole supply chain. Different policy scenarios are studied with varying values of carbon cost and biofuel support. The study focuses on the type of technology to invest in and the CO2 emission substitution potential, at constant energy prices. The CHP plants and the biofuel production plants are competing for the same feedstock (forest biomass), which is available in limited quantities. The results show that CHP plants are preferred over biofuel production plants at high carbon costs (over 50 EUR/tCO2) and low biofuel support (below 10 EUR/GJ), whereas more biofuel production plants would be set up at high biofuel support (over 15 EUR/GJ), irrespective of the carbon cost. Regarding the CO2 emission substitution potential, the highest potential can be reached at a high carbon cost and low biofuel support. It is concluded that there is a potential conflict of interest between policies promoting increased use of biofuels, and policies aiming at decreased CO2 emissions.

  • 21.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Schmidt, Johannes
    BOKU - University of Natural Resources & Applied Life Sciences.
    Natarajan, Karthikeyan
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Policies and Modeling of Energy Systems for Reaching European Bioenergy Targets2015In: Handbook of Clean Energy Systems, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd , 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Supply assessment of forest biomass: A bottom-up approach for Sweden2015In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 75, p. 213-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As there is increasing interest in the use of biomass for energy in Sweden, the potential availability and harvesting costs of forest roundwood, harvesting residues and stumps were estimated up to the year 2069 in 10-year intervals, using a high spatial resolution GIS. In each individual forest area, an average harvesting cost per forest assortment was estimated, based on the geographic and other properties of the area. Using cost structure and resource availability, marginal cost curves were constructed to allow analyses of the effects of changing market conditions and different policy frameworks. Based on geographically explicit data, the results indicated that the average harvesting costs would be 21–24 € m−3 for roundwood, depending on the type of harvesting and extraction operation. The corresponding cost estimate for harvesting residues was 23–25 € m−3 and 35 € m−3 for stumps. The harvesting cost estimates lie on the steeper part of the marginal cost curve, suggesting that increases in the supply of woody biomass can only occur at significantly higher harvesting costs. From a policy perspective, this suggests that subsidies aimed at reducing the harvesting costs will only have limited success in increasing the harvested volumes, given current technology. Therefore, for future development in the supply of forest assortments for energy generation, it is important to consider not only the supply potential, but also the integration of improvements in harvesting and transportation systems.

  • 23.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Forsell, Nicklas
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ouraich, Ismail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Rise.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Large-scale implementation of biorefineries: New value chains, products and efficient biomass feedstock utilisation2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ouraich, Ismail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nolander, Carl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Andersson, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Olofsson, Elias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bryngemark, Elina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Österrike.
    Forsell, Nicklas
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Österrike.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Österrike.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chamlers tekniska högskola.
    Projekt: Storskalig utbyggnad av bioraffinaderier: Nya värdekedjor, produkter och effektivt utnyttjande av skoglig biomassa2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen av kommersiella bioraffinaderikoncept är av strategisk betydelse för Sveriges utveckling till en biobaserad ekonomi. Bioraffinaderier bidrar till att ersätta fossila med biobaserade råvaror. Dessutom bidrar de till en smartare användning av biomassa, ökat förädlingsvärde samt utvecklingspotentialen av nya bioprodukter. Tekniska potentialer och industriella tillämpningar sammanlänkas med råvaruförsörjning samt marknads-, innovations- och policyaspekter. Projektet är tvärvetenskapligt och omfattar integration av modeller som kan redogöra för samspelet mellan olika sektorer, som inkluderar geografiska variationer av utbud och efterfrågan av skoglig biomassa, och som kan fånga effekterna av förändrade marknadsvillkor och styrmedel. För modellintegrationen kommer verktyg tas fram för att underlätta kommunikation och återkoppling mellan de ingående modellerna. Projektet syftar till att generera ny kunskap och ett modellramverk för avancerade systemanalyser relaterade till (i) den svenska biomassa och dess roll i ett hållbart energisystem och (ii) industriell omvandling av processindustrin i riktning mot ett framtida bioraffinaderi branschen. Genomförandefasen bygger på tre uppgiftsområden.

  • 25.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ouraich, Ismail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bryngemark, Elina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Zetterholm, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Olofsson, Elias
    Nolander, Carl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Sverige.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Sverige.
    Ahlström, Johan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Andersson, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Projekt: En hållbar omställning av energisystemet mot en ökad andel bioenergi2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    3 PhD projects: Markets and price formulation (LTU, economics); Technologies and value chains (Chalmers) and; Location and industrial change (LTU, energy engineering). The general system perspective has its starting point in the importance of biomass and bioenergy in the transition to a long-run sustainable energy system and to an efficient spatial resource utilization and production with increased value chains. Focus is on biorefineries. A spatial approach will be applied in combination with national energy system modelling in connection with technological development potentials and industrial applications is linked to the feed-stock supply as well as market and policy issues.

  • 26.
    Mandova, Hana
    et al.
    Bioenergy Centre for Doctoral Training, School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Wang, Chuan
    Swerea MEFOS, Luleå.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Patrizio, Piera
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Gale, William Jeffrey
    Centre for Integrated Energy Research, University of Leeds.
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Possibilities for CO2 emission reduction using biomass in European integrated steel plants2018In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 115, p. 231-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ron and steel plants producing steel via the blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF) route constitute among the largest single point CO2 emitters within the European Union (EU). As the iron ore reduction process in the blast furnace is fully dependent on carbon mainly supplied by coal and coke, bioenergy is the only renewable that presents a possibility for their partial substitution. Using the BeWhere model, this work optimised the mobilization and use of biomass resources within the EU in order to identify the opportunities that bioenergy can bring to the 30 operating BF-BOF plants.

    The results demonstrate competition for the available biomass resources within existing industries and economically unappealing prices of the bio-based fuels. A carbon dioxide price of 60 € t−1 is required to substitute 20% of the CO2 emissions from the fossil fuels use, while a price of 140 € t−1 is needed to reach the maximum potential of 42%. The possibility to use organic wastes to produce hydrochar would not enhance the maximum emission reduction potential, but it would broaden the available feedstock during the low levels of substitution.

    The scope for bioenergy integration is different for each plant and so consideration of its deployment should be treated individually. Therefore, the EU-ETS (Emission Trading System) may not be the best policy tool for bioenergy as an emission reduction strategy for the iron and steel industry, as it does not differentiate between the opportunities across the different steel plants and creates additional costs for the already struggling European steel industry.

  • 27.
    Mandova, Hana
    et al.
    University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Patrizio, Piera
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Kjärstad, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wang, Chuan
    SWERIM AB, Luleå, Sweden; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria c.
    Gale, William
    University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Achieving carbon-neutral iron and steelmaking in Europe through the deployment of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 218, p. 118-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 30 integrated steel plants operating in the European Union (EU) are among the largest single-point CO 2 emitters in the region. The deployment of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (bio-CCS) could significantly reduce their emission intensities. In detail, the results demonstrate that CO 2 emission reduction targets of up to 20% can be met entirely by biomass deployment. A slow CCS technology introduction on top of biomass deployment is expected, as the requirement for emission reduction increases further. Bio-CCS could then be a key technology, particularly in terms of meeting targets above 50%, with CO 2 avoidance costs ranging between €60 and €100 t CO2 −1 at full-scale deployment. The future of bio-CCS and its utilisation on a larger scale would therefore only be viable if such CO 2 avoidance cost were to become economically appealing. Small and medium plants in particular, would economically benefit from sharing CO 2 pipeline networks. CO 2 transport, however, makes a relatively small contribution to the total CO 2 avoidance cost. In the future, the role of bio-CCS in the European iron and steelmaking industry will also be influenced by non-economic conditions, such as regulations, public acceptance, realistic CO 2 storage capacity, and the progress of other mitigation technologies. 

  • 28.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Hackl, Roman
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmgren, Kristina M.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Peck, Philip
    Lund University, International Institute For Industrial Environmental Economics.
    Assessing the aggregated environmental benefits from by-product and utility synergies in the Swedish biofuel industry2017In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of biofuels in Sweden has increased significantly in the past years in order to reduce fossil fuel dependence and mitigate climate impacts. Nonetheless, current methodological guidelines for assessing the GHG savings from the use of biofuels do not fully account for benefits from by-products and other utilities (e.g. waste heat and electricity) from biofuel production. This study therefore reviews the aggregated environmental performance of these multi-functional biofuel systems by assessing impacts and benefits from relevant production processes in Sweden in order to improve the decision base for biofuel producers and policymakers in the transition to a bio-based and circular economy. This was done by (1) conducting a mapping of the Swedish biofuel production portfolio, (2) developing future production scenarios, and (3) application of life cycle assessment methodology to assess the environmental performance of the production processes. Special focus was provided to review the potential benefits from replacing conventional products and services with by-products and utilities. The results provide evidence that failure to account for non-fuel-related benefits from biofuel production leads to an underestimation of the contribution of biofuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts when replacing fossil fuels, showing the importance of their multi-functionality.

  • 29.
    Mesfun, Sennai
    et al.
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Patrizio, Piera
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Ecosystems Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Mendoza-Ponce, Alma
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Lammens, Tijs
    B.T.G. Biomass Technology Group B.V, Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Staritsky, Igor
    Wageningen Environmental Research (WENR), Team Earth Informatics, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Elbersen, Berien
    Wageningen Environmental Research (WENR), Team Earth Informatics, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Ecosystems Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Kraxner, Florian
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Spatio-temporal assessment of integrating intermittent electricity in the EU and Western Balkans power sector under ambitious CO2 emission policies2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 164, p. 676-693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates a power dispatch system that aims to supply the power demand of the EU and Western Balkans (EUWB) based on low-carbon generation units, enabled by the expansion of biomass, solar, and wind based electricity. A spatially explicit techno-economic optimization tool simulates the EUWB power sector to explore the dispatch of new renewable electricity capacity on a EUWB scale, under ambitious CO2 emission policies. The results show that utility-scale deployment of renewable electricity is feasible and can contribute about 9–39% of the total generation mix, for a carbon price range of 0–200 €/tCO2and with the existing capacities of the cross-border transmission network. Even without any explicit carbon incentive (carbon price of 0 €/tCO2), more than 35% of the variable power in the most ambitious CO2 mitigation scenario (carbon price of 200 €/tCO2) would be economically feasible to deploy. Spatial assessment of bio-electricity potential (based on forest and agriculture feedstock) showed limited presence in the optimal generation mix (0–6%), marginalizing its effect as baseload. Expansion of the existing cross-border transmission capacities helps even out the variability of solar and wind technologies, but may also result in lower installed RE capacity in favor of state-of-the-art natural gas with relatively low sensitivity to increasing carbon taxes. A sensitivity analysis of the investment cost, even under a low-investment scenario and at the high end of the CO2 price range, showed natural gas remains at around 11% of the total generation, emphasizing how costly it would be to achieve the final percentages toward a 100% renewable system.

  • 30.
    Mesfun, Sennai
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Sanchez, Daniel L.
    Carnegie Institution for Science, Department of Global Ecology.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Biberacher, Markus
    Research Studios Austria (RSA), Studio iSPACE.
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Power-to-gas and power-to-liquid for managing renewable electricity intermittency in the Alpine Region2017In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 107, p. 361-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale deployment of renewable energy sources (RES) plays a central role in reducing CO2 emissions from energy supply systems, but intermittency from solar and wind technologies presents integration challenges. High temperature co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 in power-to-gas (PtG) and power-to-liquid (PtL) configurations could utilize excess intermittent electricity by converting it into chemical fuels. These can then be directly consumed in other sectors, such as transportation and heating, or used as power storage. Here, we investigate the impact of carbon policy and fossil fuel prices on the economic and engineering potential of PtG and PtL systems as storage for intermittent renewable electricity and as a source of low-carbon heating and transportation energy in the Alpine region. We employ a spatially and temporally explicit optimization approach of RES, PtG, PtL and fossil technologies in the electricity, heating, and transportation sectors, using the BeWhere model. Results indicate that large-scale deployment of PtG and PtL technologies for producing chemical fuels from excess intermittent electricity is feasible, particularly when incentivized by carbon prices. Depending on carbon and fossil fuel price, 0.15−15 million tonnes/year of captured CO2 can be used in the synthesis of the chemical fuels, displacing up to 11% of current fossil fuel use in transportation. By providing a physical link between the electricity, transportation, and heating sectors, PtG and PtL technologies can enable greater integration of RES into the energy supply chain globally.

  • 31.
    Nwachukwu, Chinedu M
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Wang, Chuan
    Swerea MEFOS, Process Integration Department.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Systems analysis of sawmill by-products gasification towards a bio-based steel production2018In: ECOS 2018: Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimisation, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems / [ed] José Carlos Teixeira, Ana Cristina Ferreira, Ângela Silva, Senhorinha Teixeira, Universidade do Minho. Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica Campus Azurém, Guimarães Portugal , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Nwachukwu, Chinedu M
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Biomass-based gas use in Swedish iron and steel industry – Supply chain and process integration considerations2019In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 146, p. 2797-2811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Substitution of fossil gaseous fuels with biomass-based gases is of interest to the iron and steel industry due to its role in the mitigation of anthropogenic CO2emissions. In switching from fossil fuels to biomass-based gases, a systems analysis of the full value chain from biomass supply to the production and supply of final gas products becomes crucial. This study uses process and heat integration methods in combination with a supply chain evaluation to analyse full value chains of biomass-based gases for fossil gas replacement within the iron and steel industry. The study is carried out as a specific case study in order to understand the implications of utilizing bio-syngas/bio-SNG as heating fuels in iron- and steel-making, and to provide insights into the most sensitive parameters involved in fuel switching. The results show a significant cost difference in the fuel production of the two gas products owing to higher capital and biomass use in the bio-SNG value chain option. When tested for sensitivity, biomass price, transportation distance, and capital costs show the most impact on fuel production costs across all options studied. Trade-offs associated with process integration, plant localisation, feedstock availability and supply were found to varying extents.

  • 33.
    Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Söderström, Mats
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linköping Institute of Technology.
    Assessing the climate impact of district heating systems with combined heat and power production and industrial excess heat2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 96, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat demand is a large contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the European Union (EU), as heat is largely produced using fossil fuel resources. Extended use of district heating (DH) could reduce climate impact, as DH systems can distribute heat produced in efficient combined heat and power (CHP) plants and industrial excess heat, thus utilising heat that would otherwise be wasted. The difficulty to estimate and compare GHG emissions from DH systems can however constitute an obstacle to an expanded implementation of DH. There are several methods for GHG emission assessments that may be used with varying assumptions and system boundaries. The aim of this paper is to illuminate how methodological choices affect the results of studies estimating GHG emissions from DH systems, and to suggest how awareness of this can be used to identify possibilities for GHG emission reductions. DH systems with CHP production and industrial excess heat are analysed and discussed in a systems approach. We apply different methods for allocating GHG emissions between products and combine them with different system boundaries. In addition, we discuss the impact of resource efficiency on GHG emissions, using the framework of industrial symbiosis (IS). We conclude that assessments of the climate impact of DH systems should take local conditions and requirements into account. In order for heat from CHP production and industrial excess heat to be assessed on equal terms, heat should be considered a by-product regardless of its origin. That could also reveal opportunities for GHG emission reductions

  • 34.
    Ouraich, Ismail
    et al.
    Tillväxtanalys, Internationalisation and Structural Change, Östersund.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Ecosystems Services and Management, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Forsell, Nicklas
    Ecosystems Services and Management, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    A spatial-explicit price impact analysis of increased biofuel production on forest feedstock markets: a scenario analysis for Sweden2018In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 119, p. 364-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper introduces an integrated spatially explicit framework for assessing price impact on forestry markets in Sweden. The framework is based on the “soft-link” of a price determination model, the SpPDM model with the BeWhere Sweden model. The aim is to analyse the impacts of increased forest-based biofuel production for transportation within the Swedish context by 2030. To that effect, we develop scenarios analyses based on the simulations of successive biofuel production targets, under different assumptions concerning the competition intensity for forest biomass and the use of industrial by-products. The results suggest marginal impacts on the prices of forest biomass. The average across spatial-explicit prices varies from 0% to 2.8% across feedstocks and scenario types. However, the distribution of the spatial-explicit price impacts displays large variation, with price impacts reaching as high as 8.5%. We find that the pattern of spatial distribution of price impacts follows relatively well the spatial distribution of demand pressure. However, locations with the highest price impacts show a tendency of mismatch with the locations of the highest demand pressure (e.g. sawlogs). This is a counterintuitive conclusion compared to results from non-spatial economic models. The spatial-explicit structure of the framework developed, and its refined scale allows such results to be reported. Hence, from a policy-making perspective, careful analysis should be devoted to the locational linkages for forestry markets of increased biofuel production in Sweden.

  • 35.
    Patrizio, Piera
    et al.
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program (ESM), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) School of Business Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program (ESM), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Kraxner, Florian
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program (ESM), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Fuss, Sabine
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program (ESM), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA); Working Group Sustainable Resource Management and Global Change, Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change.
    Kindermann, Georg
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program (ESM), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Mesfun, Sennai
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program (ESM), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Spokas, Kasparas
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program (ESM), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University.
    Mendoza, Alma
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program (ESM), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Mac Dowell, Niall
    Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London; Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College London.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Ecosystems Services and Management Program (ESM), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Ecosystems Services and Management Program (ESM), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Dotzauer, Erik
    School of Business Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University.
    Yowargana, Ping
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program (ESM), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Obersteiner, Michael
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program (ESM), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Reducing US Coal Emissions Can Boost Employment2018In: Joule, ISSN 2542-4351, Vol. 2, no 12, p. 2633-2648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns have been voiced that implementing climate change mitigation measures could come at the cost of employment, especially in the context of the US coal sector. However, repurposing US coal plants presents an opportunity to address emission mitigation and job creation, if the right technology change is adopted. In this study, the transformation of the US coal sector until 2050 is modeled to achieve ambitious climate targets. Results show that the cost-optimal strategy for meeting 2050 emission reductions consistent with 2°C stabilization pathways is through the early deployment of BECCS and by replacing 50% of aging coal plants with natural gas plants. This strategy addresses the concerns surrounding employment for coal workers by retaining 40,000 jobs, and creating 22,000 additional jobs by mid-century. Climate change mitigation does not have to come at the cost of employment, and policymakers could seek to take advantage of the social co-benefits of mitigation.

  • 36.
    Patrizio, Piera
    et al.
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Kraxner, Florian
    Fuss, Sabine
    Kindermann, Georg
    Spokas, Kasparas
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Yowargana, Ping
    Obersteiner, Michael
    Chapter 11 - Killing two birds with one stone: a negative emissions strategy for a soft landing of the US coal sector2019In: Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage: Using Natural Resources for Sustainable Development / [ed] José Carlos Magalhães Pires and Ana Luísa Da Cunha Gonçalves, Elsevier, 2019, p. 219-236Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a modeling study, optimizing the transformation of the US coal sector to achieve emissions reductions consistent with the 2°C target, we include all current coal-fired power plants of the US fleet, a large part of which will need to be replaced due to their high age. Coal-fired power plants can either be (1) replaced by higher efficiency coal plants or (2) natural gas plants while units are not yet at the end of their lifetime and can be (3) retrofitted with carbon capture and storage (CCS) or (4) retrofitted to cofire coal and biomass coupled with CCS (BECCS) thereby achieving negative emissions. Our results show that if the 2°C emissions mitigation target should be achieved, the cost-optimal way of doing so is through an early implementation of BECCS. This strategy also helps to address the US Administrations’ concern for coal workers: there is a more gradual phaseout of coal, which allows to retain 40,000 jobs that would be loss due to the fleet retirement for aging. In addition, 22,000 new workers would be permanently employed in the coal sector by the end of midcentury, especially in areas where the deployments of BECCS would start already by 2030. Our modeling results indicate the Great Lakes area and the southeast United States as the greatest winners of this negative emissions strategy. If planned in an integrated and forward-looking way, climate change mitigation can boost employment and competitiveness.

  • 37.
    Pettersson, Karin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology , Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ehn, Christian
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Berglin, Niklas
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Integration of next-generation biofuel production in the Swedish forest industry – A geographically explicit approach2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 154, p. 317-332Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Schmidt, Johannes
    et al.
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Gruber, Katharina
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Klingler, Michael
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.Department of Geography, University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    Klöckl, Claude
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Camargo, Luis Ramirez
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Regner, Peter
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Turkovska, Olga
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Wehrle, Sebastian
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    A new perspective on global renewable energy systems: why trade in energy carriers matters2019In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 2022-2029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent global modelling studies suggest a decline of long-distance trade in energy carriers in future global renewable energy systems, compared to today's fossil fuel based system. In contrast, we identify four drivers that facilitate trade of renewable energy carriers. These drivers may lead to trade volumes remaining at current levels or even to an increase during the transition to an energy system with very high shares of renewables. First, new land-efficient technologies for renewable fuel production become increasingly available and technically allow for long-distance trade in renewables. Second, regional differences in social acceptance and land availability for energy infrastructure support the development of renewable fuel import and export streams. Third, the economics of renewable energy systems, i.e. the different production conditions globally and the high costs of fully renewable regional electricity systems, will create opportunities for spatial arbitrage. Fourth, a reduction of stranded investments in the fossil fuel sector is possible by switching from fossil fuels to renewable fuel trade. The impact of these drivers on trade in renewable energy carriers is currently under-investigated by the global energy systems research community. The importance of the topic, in particular as trade can redistribute profits and losses of decarbonization and may hence support finding new partners in climate change mitigation negotiations, warrants further research efforts in this area therefore.

  • 39. Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    System studies of forest-based biomass gasification2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy will play an important role in reaching the EU targets for renewable energy. Sweden, with abundant forest resources and a well-established forest industry, has a key position regarding modern biomass use. Biomass gasification (BMG) offers several advantages compared to biomass combustion-based processes, the most prominent being the possibility for downstream conversion to motor fuels (biofuels), and the potential for higher electrical efficiency if used for electricity generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC). BMG-based processes in general have a considerable surplus of heat, which facilitates integration with district heating or industrial processes. In this thesis integration of large-scale BMG, for biofuel or electricity production, with other parts of the energy system is analysed. Focus is on forest-based biomass, with the analysis including techno-economic aspects as well as considerations regarding effects on global fossil CO2 emissions. The analysis has been done using two approaches – bottom-up with detailed case studies of BMG integrated with local systems, and top-down with BMG studied on a European scale. The results show that BMG-based biofuel or electricity production can constitute economically interesting alternatives for integration with district heating or pulp and paper production. However, due to uncertainties concerning future energy market conditions and due to the large capital commitment of investment in BMG technology, forceful economic support policies will be needed if BMG is a desired route for the future energy system, unless oil and electricity prices are high enough to provide sufficient incentives for BMG-based biofuel or electricity production. While BMG-based biofuel production could make integration with either district heating or pulp and paper production economically attractive, BIGCC shows considerably more promise if integrated with pulp and paper production than with district heating. Bioenergy use is often considered CO2-neutral, because uptake in growing plants is assumed to fully balance the CO2 released when the biomass is combusted. As one of the alternatives in this thesis, biomass is viewed as limited. This means that increased use of bioenergy in one part of the energy system limits the amount of biomass available for other applications, thus increasing the CO2 emissions for those applications. The results show that when such marginal effects of increased biomass use are acknowledged, the CO2 mitigation potential for BMG-based biofuel production becomes highly uncertain. In fact, most of the BMG-based biofuel cases studied in this thesis would lead to an increase rather than the desired decrease of global CO2 emissions, when considering biomass as limited.

  • 40. Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Energy Systems, Linköping University.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology.
    Biomass gasification integrated with a pulp and paper mill - the need for economic policies promoting biofuels2010In: Chemical Engineering Transactions, ISSN 1974-9791, E-ISSN 2283-9216, Vol. 21, p. 1207-1212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyse economic policy support for biofuels, with the aim to determine the amount of support necessary to make investments in a gasification based biorefinery producing DME (dimethyl ether) profitable for a pulp and paper mill. As a case the integrated Swedish pulp and paper mill of Billerud Karlsborg is studied, using mixed integer linear programming and different future energy market scenarios. The results show that the required support is strongly connected to the price ratio of oil to biomass, with the support ranging from 10 EUR/MWh biofuel (lower than the present tax exemption of 14 EUR/MWh) to 61 EUR/MWh. The required support is shown to be sensitive to changes of the capital cost, but not to the pulp and paper production rate of the host mill. It is concluded that strong policy instruments will be required for forest industry based biorefineries to be desirable for the future.

  • 41. Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Optimal localisation of biofuel production on a European scale2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 462-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development and use of an optimisation model suitable for analysis of biofuel production scenarios in the EU, with the aim of examining second generation biofuel production. Two policy instruments are considered – targeted biofuel support and a CO2 cost. The results show that over 3% of the total transport fuel demand can be met by second generation biofuels at a cost of approximately 65-73 EUR/MWh. With current energy prices, this demands biofuel support comparable to existing tax exemptions (around 30 EUR/MWh), or a CO2 cost of around 60 EUR/tCO2. Parameters having large effect on biofuel production include feedstock availability, fossil fuel price and capital costs. It is concluded that in order to avoid suboptimal energy systems, heat and electricity applications should also be included when evaluating optimal bioenergy use. It is also concluded that while forceful policies promoting biofuels may lead to a high biofuel share at reasonable costs, this is not a certain path towards maximised CO2 emission mitigation. Policies aiming to promote the use of bioenergy thus need to be carefully designed in order to avoid conflicts between different parts of the EU targets for renewable energy and CO2 emission mitigation.

  • 42. Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Optimal use of forest residues in Europe under different policies: Second generation biofuels versus combined heat and power2013In: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6815, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has set a 10 % target for the share of renewable energy in the transportation sector for 2020. To reach this target, second generation biofuels from, for example, forest residues are expected to replace around 3 % of the transport fossil fuel consumption. However, forest residues could also be utilised in the heat and electricity sectors where large amounts of fossil fuels can be replaced, thus reducing global fossil CO2 emissions. This study investigates the use of forest residues for second generation biofuel (ethanol or methanol) or combined heat and power (CHP) production at the European level, with focus on the influence of different economic policy instruments, such as carbon cost or biofuel policy support. A techno-economic, geographically explicit optimisation model is used. The model determines the optimal locations of bioenergy conversion plants by minimising the cost of the entire supply chain. The results show that in order to reach a 3 % second generation biofuel share, a biofuel support comparable to today’s tax exemptions would be needed. With a carbon cost applied, most available forest residues would be allocated to CHP production, with a substantial resulting CO2 emission reduction potential. The major potential for woody biomass and biofuel production is found in the region around the Baltic Sea, with Italy as one of the main biofuel importers.

  • 43.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Torén, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Optimal localisation of second generation biofuel production in Sweden2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44. Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology.
    Systems analysis of integrating biomass gasification with pulp and paper production - Effects on economic performance, CO2 emissions and energy use2011In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 932-941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates system aspects of biorefineries based on biomass gasification integrated with pulp and paper production. As a case the Billerud Karlsborg mill is used. Two biomass gasification concepts are considered: BIGDME (biomass integrated gasification dimethyl ether production) and BIGCC (biomass integrated gasification combined cycle). The systems analysis is made with respect to economic performance, global CO2 emissions and primary energy use. As reference cases, BIGDME and BIGCC integrated with district heating are considered. Biomass gasification is shown to be potentially profitable for the mill. The results are highly dependent on assumed energy market parameters, particularly policy support. With strong policies promoting biofuels or renewable electricity, the calculated opportunity to invest in a gasification-based biorefinery exceeds investment cost estimates from the literature. When integrated with district heating the BIGDME case performs better than the BIGCC case, which shows high sensitivity to heat price and annual operating time. The BIGCC cases show potential to contribute to decreased global CO2 emissions and energy use, which the BIGDME cases do not, mainly due to high biomass demand. As biomass is a limited resource, increased biomass use due to investments in gasification plants will lead to increased use of fossil fuels elsewhere in the system.

  • 45.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Torén, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Optimal localisation of second generation biofuel production: the role of process integration in system studies2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology , Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Optimal localisation of next-generation biofuel production integrated in Swedish forest industry2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Torén, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Schenck, Anna von
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berglin, Niklas
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Optimal localisation of next generation biofuel production in Sweden - part II2013Report (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Torén, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schenck, Anna von
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berglin, Niklas
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Optimal localisation of next generation biofuel production in Sweden2013Report (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology.
    Magnusson, Mimmi
    Energy Processes, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology).
    Implications of system expansion for the assessment of well-to-wheel CO2 emissions from biomass based transportation2010In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 34, no 13, p. 1136-1154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we show the effects of expanding the system when evaluating well-to-wheel (WTW) CO2 emissions for biomass-based transportation, to include the systems surrounding the biomass conversion system. Four different cases are considered: DME via black liquor gasification (BLG), methanol via gasification of solid biomass, lignocellulosic ethanol and electricity from a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) used in a battery-powered electric vehicle (BPEV). All four cases are considered with as well as without carbon capture and storage (CCS). System expansion is used consistently for all flows. The results are compared with results from a conventional WTW study that only uses system expansion for certain co-product flows.It is shown that when expanding the system, biomass-based transportation does not necessarily contribute to decreased CO2 emissions and the results from this study in general indicate considerably lower CO2 mitigation potential than do the results from the conventional study used for comparison. It is shown that of particular importance are assumptions regarding future biomass use, as by expanding the system, future competition for biomass feedstock can be taken into account by assuming an alternative biomass usage. Assumptions regarding other surrounding systems, such as the transportation and the electricity systems are also shown to be of significance.Of the four studied cases without CCS, BIGCC with the electricity used in a BPEV is the only case that consistently shows a potential for CO2 reduction when alternative use of biomass is considered. Inclusion of CCS is not a guarantee for achieving CO2 reduction, and in general the system effects are equivalent or larger than the effects of CCS. DME from BLG generally shows the highest CO2 emission reduction potential for the biofuel cases. However, neither of these options for biomass-based transportation can alone meet the needs of the transport sector. Therefore, a broader palette of solutions, including different production routes, different fuels and possibly also CCS, will be needed.

  • 50. Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Söderström, Mats
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linköping Institute of Technology.
    Biomass gasification in district heating systems - the effect of economic energy policies2010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 9, p. 2914-2922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass gasification is considered a key technology in reaching targets for renewable energy and CO2 emissions reduction. This study evaluates policy instruments affecting the profitability of biomass gasification applications integrated in a Swedish district heating (DH) system for the medium-term future (around year 2025). Two polygeneration applications based on gasification technology are considered in this paper: (1) a biorefinery plant co-producing synthetic natural gas (SNG) and district heat; (2) a combined heat and power (CHP) plant using integrated gasification combined cycle technology. Using an optimisation model we identify the levels of policy support, here assumed to be in the form of tradable certificates, required to make biofuel production competitive to biomass based electricity generation under various energy market conditions. Similarly, the tradable green electricity certificate levels necessary to make gasification based electricity generation competitive to conventional steam cycle technology, are identified. The results show that in order for investment in the SNG biorefinery to be competitive to investment in electricity production in the DH system, biofuel certificates in the range of 24–42 EUR/MWh are needed. Electricity certificates are not a prerequisite for investment in gasification based CHP to be competitive to investment in conventional steam cycle CHP, given sufficiently high electricity prices. While the required biofuel policy support is relatively insensitive to variations in capital cost, the required electricity certificates show high sensitivity to variations in investment costs. It is concluded that the large capital commitment and strong dependency on policy instruments makes it necessary that DH suppliers believe in the long-sightedness of future support policies, in order for investments in large-scale biomass gasification in DH systems to be realised.

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