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  • 1.
    Alem, Yonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    The persistence of subjective poverty in urban Ethiopia2014In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 51-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data spanning 15 years, we study subjective and consumption poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite rapid economic growth and declining consumption poverty, subjective poverty remains largely unchanged. We find that households with a history of poverty continue to perceive themselves as poor even if their material consumption improves. The relative economic position of households is a strong determinant of subjective poverty. Having some type of employment makes households less likely to perceive themselves as poor, even if they remain in objective poverty. We argue that any analysis to measure the impact of growth on welfare should also encompass subjective measures.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Andréa
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Holmgren, Erik
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    The HIPC initiative and free trade in tobacco: a comparison of effetcs on the Malawi economy using a CGE model2004In: Journal of Development Alternatives and Area Studies, ISSN 1651-9728, Vol. 23, no 3-4, p. 66-83Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Dalin, Torbjörn
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    MacGregor, James
    International Institute for Environment and Development.
    The socio-economic impacts of opium eradication in South East Asia2006In: Impact Assessment of Crop Eradication in Afghanistan and Lessons Learned from Latin America and South East Asia, Senlis Council , 2006, p. 85-110Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Holmgren, Erik
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    MacGregor, James
    International Institute for Environment and Development.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Formal microlending and adverse (or non-existent) selection: A case study of shrimp farmers in Bangladesh2011In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, no 28, p. 4203-4213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microcredit schemes have become a popular means of improving smallholders’ access to credit and making long term investment possible. However, it remains to be explored whether the current microcredit schemes are more successful than earlier formal small scale lending in identifying successful borrowers. We studied shrimp farming in a rural region in Bangladesh where formal microlending is well established, but where more expensive informal microlending coexists with the formal schemes. Farmers – both those who exclusively use formal loans and those who also use informal loans – remain credit-constrained; both types overutilize labour in order to reduce the need for working capital. However, the credit constraint is actually milder for the informal borrowers: the implicit shadow price of working capital is substantially higher in the group that only takes formal loans than in the group that also uses informal loans. These results suggest that informal lenders – with their closer ties to the individual farmers – remain more successful in identifying those smallholder farmers that are most likely to use the borrowed funds successfully. Informal lenders have an information advantage that formal microlenders lack: the latter need to find routes to access this information in order for formal microcredit schemes to succeed.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Mekonnen, Alemu
    Department of Economics, Addis Ababa University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Impacts of the Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia on livestock and tree holdings of rural households2011In: Journal of Development Economics, ISSN 0304-3878, E-ISSN 1872-6089, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Direct and indirect effects of waste management policies on household waste behaviour: The case of Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
  • 7. Andersson, Georg
    et al.
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå universitet.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Umeå universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Umeå universitet.
    Konkurrensneutralt ransportbidrag: Betänkande från Transportbidragsutredningen (SOU 1997:94)1997Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Croné, Sara
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jørn
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Potential monopoly rents from international wildlife tourism: An example from Uganda’s gorilla tourism2005In: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review, ISSN 1027-1775, E-ISSN 1684-4173, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Arvidsson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Technology-neutral green procurement in practice: an example from Swedish waste management2012In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 519-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green public procurement has been criticized for its excessive reliance on detailed technology specifications, which can distort incentives in the short term and discourage innovation in the longer term. Economists therefore tend to prefer technology-neutral procurement, which rewards outcomes rather than technologies. However, technology-neutral procurement can also be problematic in practice. The present study investigated green public procurement of waste management, a rapidly growing field. In one of the most sophisticated models for technology-neutral procurement applied in Sweden in recent years, different environmental impacts were assigned weights, but no weight was given to the particular technology employed. Even here, however, potential inefficiencies were found where the scoring rule could have led to arbitrary, and presumably unwanted, outcomes. Explicitly assigning monetary surcharges to desirable and undesirable environmental effects may be a better way to reach environmental targets.

  • 10.
    Arvidsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sjöstrand, James
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The economics of the Swedish online gambling market2017In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 24, no 16, p. 1135-1137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study how the Swedish online gambling market has developed and how the availability of foreign-based online gambling has affected the domestic state-owned gambling monopoly, AB Svenska Spel. We find that online gambling and the traditional state-managed gambling are relatively weak substitutes. Thus, concerns about the availability of online gambling being able to undercut domestic gambling policies may be overstated.

  • 11.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Effects of Migration on Tax Policy in the EU Countries: An Empirical Analysis2011In: China - USA Business Review, ISSN 1555-7901, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 508-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study whether migration affects taxes on labor and capital income. The analysis is based on panel data for 14 European countries. The results indicate that migration does affect subsequent tax rates, and taxes on labor income increase with increased migration, especially in countries with large public sectors. However, this effect is reduced for countries with large foreign trade and/or large shares of elderly in the population.

  • 12.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Optimal Tax and Expenditure Policy in the Presence of Emigration: Are Credit Restrictions Important?2014In: Indian Growth and Development Review, ISSN 1753-8254, E-ISSN 1753-8262, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 98-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Empirical studies have found an inverted-U curve relationship between emigration and per capita income. In this paper, a theoretical underpinning for this phenomenon is presented based on credit restrictions. The implications for tax policy are also analyzed.Design/methodology/approach - Using an intertemporal general equilibrium model, the authors characterize how the presence of an 'inverted U-curve'relationship between emigration and per capita income will in?uence the optimal tax and expenditure policy in a country where agents have the option to move abroad.Findings - Among the results it is shown that if age dependent taxes are available, the presence of an inverted-U curve provides an incentive to tax young labor harder, but old labor less hard, than otherwise.Originality/value - Our migration model fits the empirical facts of migration better than most of the migration models previously used in the optimal taxation literature.

  • 13.
    Bergsten, Peter
    et al.
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Nicolin, Stéphanie
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Frisk, Anders
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Rydgren, Bernt
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Björklund, Inger Poveda
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Miljöförbättrande åtgärder i Mörrumsån och Ångermanälven, med fokus på havsvandrande arter2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapports syfte är att sammanställa resultaten från en utredning av förutsättningar för miljöförbättrande åtgärder i de utbyggda vattendragen Ångermanälven och Mörrumsån. Förutsättningar för de geografiska områdena är sammanställda och effekter av möjliga åtgärder har analyserats; dels hydrauliska flödessimuleringar, dels en populationsmodell för laxfisk. Fokus har lagts på åtgärder för havsvandrande fisk.ÅngermanälvenÅngermanälven är Sveriges tredje största älv i fråga om vattenföring, med en medelvattenföring på knappt 500 m3/s. Det finns ett fyrtiotal större vattenkraftverk, samt ett antal mindre, fördelade i de tre huvudgrenarna Åsele-, Fax- och Fjällsjöälven. Studien omfattar nedre delarna av Åseleälven (upp till Nämforsen) och Faxälven (upp till Storfinnforsen). Bland de inom uppdraget aktuella kraftverken finns gamla åfåror i anslutning till de fyra stationerna i Faxälven, Hjälta, Forsse, Edsele och Ramsele.Idag når havsvandrande arter upp till Sollefteå kraftverk, ca 3 mil uppströms mynningen. Lax och havsöring fiskas enbart nedströms Sollefteå kraftverk, och utsättningar görs från två kompensationsodlingar, vid Forsmo och strax nedströms Hjälta.Resultaten för Ångermanälven visar på en potential för att etablera ett svagt men livskraftigt laxbestånd uppströms Sollefteå kraftverk. Förutsättningarna utgörs av en kombination av åtgärder, fiskväg vid Sollefteå samt minimitappning av ca 8 m3/s vid Hjälta kraftstation. Detta skulle enligt modellförsök resultera i ett bestånd av i medeltal ca 150 återvändande laxar per år, med en uppskattad kostnad på ca 26 MSEK/år (exklusive kostnad för fiskvandringsväg vid Sollefteå), p.g.a. produktionsbortfall.Möjligheterna för åtgärder riktade mot havsvandrande fisk längre upp i Faxälven är mycket små. Mindre arealer potentiella reproduktionsområden, i kombination med dödlighet vid passage av kraftverk, gör att bara några 10-tal honor tar sig upp per år. Ramsele gamla fåra skulle kunna erbjuda förhållandevis stora reproduktionsområden, men en nödvändig passage av fyra kraftverk gör det mycket svårt att tillgängliggöra sträckan, även om fiskvägar installeras.MörrumsånMörrumsån mynnar i Pukavikbukten vid Mörrum, och har en medelvattenföring på knappt 30 m3/s. Inom hela systemet Mörrumsån finns 24 vattenkraftverk, varav de sju som omfattas av denna utredning ligger belägna i den nedre delen av ån, nedströms sjön Åsnen. Genom denna avgränsning omfattar studien samtliga E.ONs anläggningar i Mörrumsån. Av de aktuella kraftverken finns gamla åfåror i anslutning till Granö, Hemsjö övre, Hemsjö nedre samt Fridafors nedre.Mörrumsån anses utgöra södra Sveriges viktigaste laxälv och idag når havsvandrande fisk upp till Fridafors nedre, ca 3 mil från mynningen. Fiskvägar finns installerade vid de tre nedströms kraftstationerna, Marieberg och Hemsjö nedre och övre. Utsättningar av smolt och yngel från havsöring sker årligen i de nedre delarna av ån, smolt i Kungsforsen vid Mörrum, och yngel i flera av de tillrinnande bäckarna.Med utgångspunkt i potentiella reproduktionsområden i Granö gamla fåra har möjligheten att etablera lax- och öringbestånd uppströms Fridafors studerats. Åtgärderna utgörs av fiskvägar i Fridafors samt minimitappning i Granö, ev. i kombination med biotopvårdsåtgärder. Resultaten visar att för att uppnå ett livskraftigt bestånd uppströms Fridafors ställs höga krav på funktion av de fem fiskvägarna. Om ett antagande görs att 95% av smolten passerar varje station tack vare spill under utvandringsperioden, måste uppströmspassage ske med en genomsnittlig effektivitet av 90% per station. Vid 80% klarar bara ett par tiotal honor sig upp till fåran för lek, medan populationen balanserar på gränsen till livskraftighet vid 90%. Eftersom det är så många fiskvägar får passagerna stort utslag på överlevnaden, och det ger t.ex. större effekt att öka fiskvägarnas effektivitet från 80 till 90% jämfört med att dubblera mängden reproduktionsområdena från 3,5 till 7 ha . Att maximera den gamla fårans potential genom biotopvårdsåtgärder är relevant, men bör därför ha lägre prioritet jämfört med att säkerställa fiskvägarnas funktion.Den föreslagna minimitappningen i Granö på 2,3 m3/s baseras på resultaten från flödessimuleringarna för att på ett kostnadseffektivt sätt nå goda förhållanden för reproduktion i fåran. Den totala årliga kostnaden uppskattas till ca 2 MSEK, om flödet ökas till 9,5 m3/s ger det ett ca 4 gånger så stort produktionsbortfall, medan den ekologiska effekten endast ökar med ca 10 %.En tänkbar åtgärd för att uppnå en positiv effekt på laxfisk i Mörrumsån vore en utrivning av Mariebergs kraftstation, en åtgärd som enligt modellen har potential att fördubbla laxbeståndet uppströms Marieberg. En utrivning av Marieberg skulle, utöver kostnader för återställning och utrivning, innebära ett produktionsbortfall bestående av hela kraftstationens kapacitet (3,2 GWh), motsvarande ca 1 MSEK per år (inräknad nuvarande kostnader för drift och underhåll, men exklusive utrivningskostnader).Frånsett utrivning är potentialen ur ett ekologiskt perspektiv, räknat i antal återvändande laxfisk, likvärdig i Ångermanälven, med en fiskväg i Sollefteå kombinerat med minimitappning i Hjälta, jämfört med Granö i Mörrumsån. Ur ett kostnadsperspektiv vore det ca 4 gånger så dyrt (ca 26 MSEK/år exklusive fiskväg i Sollefteå) som att genomföra åtgärderna vid Fridafors/Granö. Skillnaden ligger bland annat i att i Mörrumsån innebär studerade åtgärder ett tillskott till en befintlig population i vattendraget, medan det i Ångermanälven idag inte finns ett bestånd med naturlig reproduktion.Utifrån den samhällsekonomiska analysen ger ingen åtgärd med minimitappningar och/eller fiskvägar ett positivt resultat. Beroende på vilka scenarier som används blir den samhällsekonomiska förlusten av åtgärder i Granö från 10 MSEK och uppåt (nuvärde), medan förlusten i Ångermanälven blir drygt 200 MSEK och uppåt.

  • 14.
    Bezabih, Mintewab
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Portsmouth.
    Chambwera, Muyeye
    International Institute for Environment and Development.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Climate change and total factor productivity in the Tanzanian economy2011In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 1289-1302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The economic impacts of climate-change-induced adjustments on the performance of the Tanzanian economy are analysed, using a countrywide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The effect of overall climate change on agricultural productivity (modelled as reduced land productivity) is projected to be relatively limited until about 2030, thereafter becoming worse. The simulation results indicate that despite the projected reduction in agricultural productivity, the negative impacts can potentially be quite limited. This is because the timescales involved, as well as the low starting point of the economy, leave ample room for factor substitutability and increased overall productivity. This indicates that policies that give farmers the opportunity to invest in autonomous climate adaptation, as well as those that improve the overall performance of the economy, can be as important in reducing the impacts of climate change in the economy as direct government policies for adaptation.

  • 15.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Nordström, Jonas
    University of Copenhagen.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Svedin, Dick
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Foreign ownership and its effects on employment and wages: the case of Sweden2016In: IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, E-ISSN 2193-9012, Vol. 5, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study how foreign ownership of Swedish companies affects employment and wages. To study these effects we specify a model based on the assumption that the Swedish labour market can be described as one where trade unions and employers bargain over employment and wages. Our hypothesis is that bargaining power is affected by institutional settings and the ownership of the firm. To test our hypothesis we used a panel data set of 242 large Swedish manufacturing firms over the period 1980–2005. The results indicate no significant impact of foreign ownership on employment or wages in Sweden.

  • 16.
    Choumert, Johanna
    et al.
    Université d'Auvergne.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Uwera, Claudine
    University of Gothenburg, University of Rwanda.
    Access to water as determinant of rental values: A housing hedonic analysis in Rwanda2014In: Journal of Housing Economics, ISSN 1051-1377, E-ISSN 1096-0791, Vol. 26, p. 48-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the determinants of rental values in urban housing markets in Kigali, Rwanda. In particular, we study the value of access to piped water; due to the high costs associated with installing new piped connections, renting a property with an existing connection is often the only way for low income households to access piped water. Our results indicate that extending the piped network to a new house will in many cases raise the rental value of the house enough to pay for the cost of installing the new connection in less than two years.

  • 17.
    Dalin, Torbjörn
    et al.
    GS - The Swedish Union of Forestry, Wood and Graphical Workers.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    The effects of capital income taxation on wage formation2011In: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 113, no 2, p. 186-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the effects of capital income taxation on wage formation are studied using OECD data. The results indicate that a rise in the tax rate on capital income will reduce real wages and increase employment.

  • 18.
    Dietzenbacher, Erik
    et al.
    Faculty of Economics, University of Groningen.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Mixing oil and water?: Using hybrid input-output tables in a structural decomposition analysis2006In: Economic Systems Research, ISSN 0953-5314, E-ISSN 1469-5758, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Dikgang, Johane
    et al.
    University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Securing benefits for local communities from international visitors to the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park2017In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1553-1567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article estimates the visitation demand function for Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (KTP) in order to determine the scope for raising fees charged to international tourists in order to fund revenue-sharing schemes for local communities. International and Southern African Development Community tourists account for approximately 25% and 2% of the total number of visitors to South African national parks, with domestic visitors making up the remaining portion. Although small, the South African international tourism market is mature and accounts for a disproportionately large share (around 42%) of net revenue. To estimate visitation demand at the KTP and three other national parks, random effects Tobit Model was used. Using the estimated elasticities, the revenue-maximizing daily conservation fee was computed to be R1 131.94 (US$144.20) for KTP, which can be compared with the R180 (US$22.93) currently charged. Furthermore, the study also demonstrated that there is a possibility of raising fees at the other three parks. Sharing conservation revenue with communities surrounding parks could demonstrate the link between ecotourism and local communities’ economic development and promote a positive view of land restitution involving national parks.

  • 20.
    Edström, Frida
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Nilsson, Hanna
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    The Natural Forest Protection Program in China: A contingent valuation study in Heilongjiang province2012In: Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering A, ISSN 2162-5298, E-ISSN 2162-5301, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 426-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1998, the Chinese Government implemented the NFPP (Natural Forest Protection Program), which included logging restrictions, protected areas, replanting, and a range of other policies aimed at safeguarding the state of the country’s forests and reducing the risk of erosion and flooding. A second phase of this program is currently being discussed. In this paper, contingent valuation is used to estimate the WTP (willingness to pay) for maintaining the program among the inhabitants in Heilongjiang Province in northern China. The results show that, even with fairly conservative assumptions, the aggregated WTP for maintaining the program for another five years is some 3.24 billion yuan per year. This can be compared with the current cost of the Program in the province, which is some 1.57 billion yuan per year.

  • 21.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Goytia, Susana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Carina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderasp, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Challenges in Swedish hydropower: politics, economics and rights2017In: Research Ideas and Outcomes, E-ISSN 2367-7163, Vol. 3, article id e21305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two systems working in parallel have contributed to implementation difficulties in Swedish water governance. While the old system is designed to be predictable and stable over time, the new system is intended to be transparent and holistic, guided by the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management. The paper disentangles the challenges in Swedish water governance and proposes a blueprint for future research. The proposed research project is unique in the sense that it explores the imbalances between the new and the old water governance systems from a multi-disciplinary perspective, elaborating upon the clashes between the traditional, nationally based regulatory system and the new holistic water governance system from legal, political and economic perspectives.

  • 22.
    Gebreegziabher, Zenebe
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Mekelle University, Adi-Haqui Campus.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Mekonnen, Alemu
    Department of Economics, Addis Ababa University.
    Alemu, Atlaw
    Department of Economics, Addis Ababa University.
    Climate change and the Ethiopian economy: A CGE analysis2016In: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 205-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyzes the economic impacts of climate change-induced fluctuations on the performance of Ethiopia’s agriculture, using a countrywide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model.We model the impacts on agriculture using a Ricardian model, where current agricultural production is modelled as a function of temperature and precipitation, among other things, and where future agriculture is assumed to follow the same climate function. The effect of overall climate change is projected to be relatively benign until approximately 2030, but will become considerably worse thereafter. Our simulation results indicate that, over a 50-year period, the projected reduction in agricultural productivity may lead to reductions in average income of some 20 per cent compared with the outcome that would have prevailed in the absence of climate change. This indicates that adaptation policies – both government planned and those that ease autonomous adaptation by farmers – will be crucial for Ethiopia’s future development.

  • 23.
    Gustafsson, Mia
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Vaasa.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Betalningsviljan för renare havsvatten runt Åland2004In: Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift, ISSN 0013-3183, E-ISSN 2323-1378, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 109-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie används betingad värdering för att undersöka den åländska befolkningens betalningsvilja för renare havsvatten; mer specifiktundersöks betalningsviljan för ett åtgärdsprogram som skulle halvera de åländska näringsutsläppen i havet. Med mycket restriktiva antaganden om betalningsviljan hos bortfallsgruppen pekar analysen på en medianbetalningsviljapå cirka 8,6 euro per invånare och månad, medan mindre restriktiva antagandenpekar på en medianbetalningsvilja på cirka 28,4 euro per invånare och månad. Med de mer restriktiva antagandena skulle det totala belopp som skulle kunna samlas in årligen bli cirka 1,8 miljoner euro.

  • 24.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology (SIK).
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Retail waste of horticultural products in Sweden2011In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 554-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste of food is a topic of considerable policy interest. However, few studies have been done on food waste at the retail level. The aim of this study was to examine how large retail waste is for 16 different horticultural products, selected among typical fruit and vegetables. The levels of retail waste were examined in cooperation with one of the leading Swedish retail companies. The results showed that retail waste of horticultural products amounted between 0.4% and 6.3% of store supplies for different horticultural products. The results did not show that packaging reduced waste of horticultural products.

  • 25.
    Humavindu, Michael Nokokure
    et al.
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Community based wildlife management failing to link conservation and financial viability2015In: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 4-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the considerable popularity of community-based wildlife management as a conservation tool, it is of interest to assess the long-run sustainability of this policy not only in conservation terms, but also in financial terms. In this paper, we use cost–benefit analysis to study the social and financial sustainability of a large set of community conservancies in Namibia, one of the few countries where community-based wildlife management policies have been in place long enough to assess their long-term viability. We find that, although the social sustainability is generally good, the financial sustainability is problematic – especially for the younger conservancies: there is no real link between conservation achievements and financial success. This calls into question the long-term sustainability of many of these conservancies: if they are unable to generate enough revenue to pay for their running expenditure, they will eventually fail – even if they are successful from a conservation point of view. Similar problems, linked to the way in which external funders have pushed for additional conservancies to be established regardless of financial considerations, are likely to be present in other countries that have implemented such programmes.

  • 26.
    Humavindu, Michael Nokokure
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Continuous financial support will be needed2015In: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Humavindu, Michael Nokokure
    et al.
    Namibian Competition Commission, Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Key sector analysis of the Namibian economy2013In: Journal of Economic Structures, ISSN 2193-2409, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper presents key sector research for the Namibian economy, based on input–output and Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) analyzes. The analyses were derived from a Namibian SAM for the 2004 period, using 28 economic sectors. We find that mining and government services are currently key sectors. Some manufacturing and services sectors have important linkages in terms of output effects, whilst for employment and income effects, the agriculture sector is paramount. The results obtained are useful for policy purposes in terms of identifying those sectors where interventions are likely to have the greatest impact on the Namibian economy.

  • 28.
    Kassie, Menale
    et al.
    CIMMYT, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
    Ndiritu, Simon Wagura
    CIMMYT, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Strathmore Business School.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    What determines gender inequality in household food security in Kenya?: Application of exogenous switching treatment regression2014In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 153-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the link between the gender of a household head and food security in rural Kenya. The results show that the food security gap between male-headed households (MHHs) and female-headed households (FHHs) is explained by their differences in observable and unobservable characteristics. FHHs’ food security status would have been higher than it is now if the returns (coefficients) on their observed characteristics had been the same as the returns on the MHHs’ characteristics. Even if that had been the case, however, results indicate that FHHs would still have been less food-secure than the MHHs due to unobservable characteristics.

  • 29.
    Kassie, Menale
    et al.
    CIMMYT, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Teklewold, Hailemariam
    CIMMYT, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
    Erenstein, Olaf
    CIMMYT, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
    Gendered food security in rural Malawi: Why is women’s food security status lower?2015In: Food Security, ISSN 1876-4517, E-ISSN 1876-4525, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 1299-1320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gendered food security gaps between female- and male-headed households (FHHs and MHHs) can be decomposed into two sets of components: those explained by observable differences in levels of resource use, and those due to unobserved differences affecting the returns to the resources used. Employing exogenous switching ordered probit and binary probit regression models, this paper examines the gendered food security gap and its causes in rural Malawi. We conducted a counterfactual analysis and found that the food security of FHHs would improve significantly if they had the same levels of resource use as MHHs. However, even if FHHs had the same levels of resource use as MHHs, the gendered food security gap would not be closed because of the differences in the returns to those resources. Such differences in returns to resources explain 40 % (45 %) of the observed gendered chronic (transitory) food insecurity gap and 54 % (19 %) of the food break-even (surplus) gap. Further analysis suggests that the intensity with which sustainable agricultural practices have been adopted has a greater impact on the food security of FHHs than on MHHs.

  • 30.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University.
    Nguyen Thu, Huong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Division of Mathematical Statistics, Department of Mathematics, Stockholm University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Weak support for weak sustainability: Genuine savings and long-term wellbeing in Sweden, 1850 – 20002018In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 145, p. 339-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study genuine savings as an indicator of long-term welfare for Sweden for the period 1850 to 2000. Sweden has developed long series of comprehensive ‘green’ national accounts for this entire period and is, therefore, interesting as a testing ground for the hypotheses linking green accounting and sustainability. We find support for the weakest of the hypotheses in the theoretical literature on weak sustainability and genuine savings, namely that genuine savings are correlated with future economic well-being. However, the stronger hypotheses in this literature are not supported: there is no one-to-one relationship between genuine savings and prosperity, there is no indication that the relationship becomes stronger for longer time horizons, or with more comprehensive savings measures. The findings suggest that genuine savings, at least as currently measured in national accounts and satellite accounts, may not be a good forward-looking indicator of future prosperity.

  • 31.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Economic History, Umeå university, Umeå universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Thu, Huong Nguyen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Weak support for weak sustainability: Genuine savings and long term wellbeing in Sweden, 1850 - 20002016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study genuine savings as an indicator of long term welfare for Sweden for the period 1850 to 2000. Sweden has developed long series of comprehensive “green” national accounts for this entire period and is therefore interesting as a testing ground for the hypotheses linking green accounting and sustainability. We find support for the weakest of the hypotheses in the theoretical literature on weak sustainability and genuine savings, that genuine savings is correlated with future economic well-being. However, we find little support for any of the stronger hypotheses in the literature; there is no one-to-one relationship between genuine savings and prosperity, there is no indication that the relationship becomes stronger for longer time horizons, and other hypotheses linked to this literature are also rejected. The findings suggest that genuine savings, at least as currently measured in national accounts and satellite accounts, may not be a good predictor of future prosperity.

  • 32.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Department of Economics, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Tangerås, Thomas
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning.
    Carlén, Björn
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, VTI.
    Energimarknaden, ägandet och klimatet2013Book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Luyanga, Shadrick
    et al.
    Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Rural Development.
    Miller, Richard
    IPA Energy Consulting.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Index number analysis of Namibian water intensity2006In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 374-381Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    MacGregor, James
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, WorleyParsons, EcoNomics Group.
    Nordin, Åsa
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Strategic alliances in Kenyan smallholder farming2014In: Business Excellence, ISSN 1846-3355, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 49-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implementing and complying with standards and certifi cation oft en increases costs for supply chain actors. These increased costs are caused by upgrading production, logistics and marketing needed to achieve compliance, and can lead to the exclusion of actors from the supply chain. In particular, the exclusion of small-scale growers in developing countries as the result of the expansion and proliferation of private voluntary standards (PVS) used by large procurers has been extensively reported. Costs of PVS are per certification and the unit is usually the individual farm, regardless of its size. In much of the developing world smallholder production dominates domestic food production, and these small farms face proportionately higher costs per unit area for certification and compliance. Benefits of PVS are per production unit, giving benefits to larger farms. Developing world smallholder production tends to be on less than one hectare, giving relatively small production. Compared with the costs per farm, there is an inherent bias in many standards and certification towards larger farms. Standards in export horticulture can, potentially, incentivize a more active role for the private sector in investing in small-scale growers in ways that are mutually benefi cial for growers and exporters. Such co-investment is a feature of trading relationships and business models that are inclusive of small-scale growers. In Kenyan horticulture, donors, exporters and smallholders have in some cases managed to leverage PVS requirements into profitable local agricultural developments. In this paper, we use resource-based strategic alliance theory to explain the patterns that have evolved. We propose greater use of cooperation theory to help make more efficient economic development interventions which are complementary with private-sector investments. We explore how standards might be used to accelerate development initiatives.

  • 35.
    MacGregor, James
    et al.
    Ministry of Environment and Tourism.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Environmental accounting as a tool for policy analysis: examples from Namibia2002In: Environmental Economics and Natural Resource Policy Analysis: Training Manual for the Forum for Economics and the Environment, Forum for Economics and the Environment , 2002, p. 196-203Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    The economic impacts of tourism in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa: Is poverty subsiding?2013In: Natural resources forum (Print), ISSN 0165-0203, E-ISSN 1477-8947, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 80-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism in southern Africa is based on the region’s wildlife and nature assets and is generally environmentally sustainable, but the extent to which it contributes to other aspects of sustainable development — overall income generation or poverty eradication — is less well explored. In this paper, we use social accounting matrices to compare the economic impacts of foreign tourism in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa. Overall impacts on GDP range from 6% (South Africa) to 9% (Namibia). However, South Africa’s economy is more diversified than its neighbours’ and more of the goods and services used by tourists and by the tourism industry are supplied domestically. Consequently, the impact per Rand spent is considerably larger for South Africa than for Botswana or Namibia. The poorer segments of the population appear to receive shares of tourism income that are smaller than their share of overall income in all three countries.

  • 37.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Whereto with institutions and governance challenges in southern African wildlife conservation?2015In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 95013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    African wildlife conservation has been transformed, shifting from a traditional, state-managed government approach to a broader governance approach with a wide range of actors designing and implementing wildlife policy. The most widely popularized approach has been that of community-managed nature conservancies. The knowledge of how institutions function in relation to humans and their use of the environment is critical to the design and implementation of effective conservation. This paper seeks to review the institutional and governance challenges faced in wildlife conservation in southern and eastern Africa. We discuss two different sets of challenges related to the shift in conservation practices: the practical implementation of wildlife governance, and the capacity of current governance structures to capture and distribute economic benefits from wildlife. To some extent, the issues raised by the new policies must be resolved through theoretical and empirical research addressed at wildlife conservation per se. However, many of these issues apply more broadly to a wide range of policy arenas and countries where similar policy shifts have taken place.

  • 38.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lee, Youngsoek
    United Nations Environment Programme.
    Chiramba, Thomas
    United Nations Environment Programme.
    Mungatana, Eric
    Department of Economics, University of Pretoria.
    Kumar, Pushpam
    United Nations Environment Programme.
    Use of Market-based Incentives in Watershed Management: Driving the Green Economy through involving Communities & the Private Sector2016Report (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mungatana, Eric
    Kumar, Pushpam
    Lessons from applying market-based incentives in watershed management2018In: Water Economics and Policy, ISSN 2382-624X, E-ISSN 2382-6258Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Nilsson, Annika
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Sahlén, Linda
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    A net back valuation of irrigation water in the Hardap region in Namibia2003In: Agrekon (English Edition), ISSN 0303-1853, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 252-270Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Nilsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The economics of European eel management2017In: Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics, ISSN 2373-8456, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European eel stock is endangered. The European Union has, therefore, introduced strict policies to try to reverse the eel’s decline and reduce the threats to its survival. However, the European Union’s eel management policy has been implemented on a ‘one-size-fits-all’ basis, where all the affected countries have been given nearly identical targets, regardless of either the individual country’s costs for reducing damages to eels or its importance for the overall eel stock. In this paper, we draw on data from the different national eel management plans as well as from independent studies to compare the cost of measures to reduce eel mortality imposed in different countries. We compare the overall costs to those that could have been incurred with a union-wide, rather than fragmented, abatement program, and find that such a comprehensive management program would have been substantially cheaper and would have affected poorer member countries less.

  • 42.
    Niyonzima, Théophile
    et al.
    Department of Geography, National University of Rwanda.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Uwera, Claudine
    Department of Economics, National University of Rwanda, Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    The value of access to water: livestock farming in the Nyagatare District, Rwanda2013In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 2, article id 644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Rwanda, access to water is seen as a significant constraint to development in both urban and rural areas. The government and foreign donors give priority to improving access to water for agricultural use. In this paper we study whether and, if so, to what extent the revenue generated by livestock farming in the Nyagatare District is affected by the distance that cattle need to go in order to reach the nearest water point. Our findings suggest that this distance does not affect the revenue from livestock farming much, indicating that improved access to water is not a major constraint to livestock farming at present. Therefore, other water needs can be given greater weight.

  • 43.
    Onjala, Joseph
    et al.
    University of Nairobi.
    Ndiritu, Simon Wagura
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Risk perception, choice of drinking water and water treatment: evidence from Kenyan towns2014In: Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, ISSN 2043-9083, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 268-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study used household survey data from four Kenyan towns to examine the effect of households' characteristics and risk perceptions on their decision to treat/filter water as well as on their choice of main drinking water source. Because the two decisions may be jointly made by the household, a seemingly unrelated bivariate probit model was estimated. It turned out that treating non-piped water and using piped water as a main drinking water source were substitutes. The evidence supports the finding that perceived risks significantly correlate with a household's decision to treat non-piped water before drinking it. The study also found that higher connection fees reduced the likelihood of households connecting to the piped network. Because the current connection fee acts as a cost hurdle which deters households from getting a connection, the study recommends a system where households pay the connection fee in instalments, through a prepaid water scheme or through a subsidy scheme.

  • 44.
    Reid, Hannah
    et al.
    International Institute for Environment and Development.
    Sahlén, Linda
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    MacGregor, James
    International Institute for Environment and Development.
    Climate change impacts on Namibia’s natural resources and economy2008In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 452-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is likely to exacerbate the dry conditions already experienced in southern Africa. When rainfall does come, it is likely to be in bursts of greater intensity, leading to erosion and flood damage. However, these predictions have had very little influence on policy in southern African countries. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model simulations for Namibia indicate that over 20 years, annual losses to the Namibian economy could be up to 5% of GDP, due to the impact that climate change will have on its natural resources alone. This will affect the poorest people the most, with resulting constraints on employment opportunities and declining wages, especially for unskilled labour in rural areas. Namibia must take steps to ensure that all its policies and activities are ‘climate proofed’ and that it has a strategy to deal with displaced farmers and farm workers. The need to mainstream climate change into policies and planning is clear, and it is the responsibility of industrialized nations, who have largely created the problem of climate change, to help Namibia and other vulnerable countries cope with climate change impacts and plan for a climate-constrained future.

  • 45.
    Sahlén, Linda
    et al.
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Environmental Fiscal Reform in Namibia: A Potential Approach to Reduce Poverty?2012In: Journal of Environment and Development, ISSN 1070-4965, E-ISSN 1552-5465, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 219-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the likely effects of an environmental fiscal reform in Namibia are examined using a Computable General Equilibrium model. We find that a triple dividend—improving the environment, increasing employment, and reducing poverty at the same time—remains elusive. Subsidizing unskilled labor would give the most favorable result in terms of real GDP and employment, but the worst in terms of environmental effects. Transfers targeted toward poorer households have the best distributional and environmental impacts, but do not lead to increases in GDP or employment. Thus there is scope to create additional benefits for society through the various environmental fiscal reform options studied, but there is no option that clearly outperforms the others in all respects.

  • 46.
    Samuelsson, Emma
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    The size and distribution of the economic impacts of Namibian hunting tourism2007In: South African Journal of Wildlife Research, ISSN 0379-4369, E-ISSN 1996-8477, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 41-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the economic impacts of hunting tourism in Namibia. The economic impacts of hunting that takes place in communal land conservancies and on private lands, respectively, are studied, as well as the distribution of these impacts between different sectors and groups in the country. The study is based on data from a survey of hunters who visited Namibia during a five-year period. The income generated by hunting tourism, and the distribution of this income, are analysed using a recently developed Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). In aggregate, an extra N$ in spending by survey respondents translates into approximately one extra N$ in national income, and an average survey respondent’s spending raised overall national income by an amount corresponding to two to three years’ income for an average Namibian. The additional income generated by hunting tourism and associated tourism benefits rural households and urban wage earners to a greater extent, and capital owners to a lesser extent, than the average income distribution in the economy.

  • 47.
    Selander, Carina
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jørn
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Öberg, Jennie
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    The impacts of microcredits: a case study from Kenyan agriculture2006In: Journal of Development Alternatives and Area Studies, ISSN 1651-9728, Vol. 25, no 1-2, p. 5-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Aktivitet: Annual International Symposium on Economic Theory, Policy and Applications2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Aktivitet: Annual International Symposium on Economic Theory, Policy and Applications2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Aktivitet: Annual Meeting of the Environment for Development (EfD) Initiative2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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