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  • 1.
    Abid, Fahim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Intermodulation due to interaction of photovoltaic inverter and electric vehicle at supraharmonic range2016In: 2016 17th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, Piscataway. NJ, 2016, p. 685-690, article id 7783471Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advent of power electronic switching is introducing more and more non-linear loads in the low voltage grid. Besides harmonic current generation in the frequency range below 2 kHz, these non-linear loads are also responsible for current emission in the range of 2 kHz to 150 kHz, commonly known as supraharmonic emission. Supraharmonic currents mainly flow between nearby appliances and heavily influence the overall emission of neighboring devices. This paper presents an analysis of supraharmonic interaction between a photovoltaic inverter and an electric vehicle. It has been noticed that intermodulation distortion arises as a result of interaction between different switching frequencies used by the devices. Later, additional household equipment were added to photovoltaic and electric vehicle to observe their effect on intermodulation distortion. All the measurements were conducted in a controlled laboratory environment imitating a domestic customer.

  • 2.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Zhong, Jin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    University of Cordoba, Electronics and Electronic Technology Area, University of Cordoba.
    A Smart Distribution Toolbox for Distribution System Planning2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution system planner should be able to coordinate smart grid solutions in order to find cost effective expansions plans. These plans should be able to deal with new added system uncertainties from renewable production and consumers while guaranteeing power quality and availability of supply. This paper proposes a structure for distribution systems planning oriented to help the planner in deciding how to make use of smart solutions for achieving the described task. Here, the concept of a system planning toolbox is introduced and supported with a review of relevant works implementing smart solutions. These are colligated in a way that the system planner can foresee what to expect with their combined implementation. Future developments in this subject should attempt to theorize a practical algorithm in an optimization and decision making context.

  • 3.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Frías, Pablo
    Comillas Pontifical University, Madrid, Spain.
    Cossent, Rafael
    Comillas Pontifical University, Madrid, Spain.
    Jabr, Rabih
    American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Zhong, Jin
    The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    A Capacity Mechanism Design for Distribution Network Expansion Planning2018In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2018 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I&CPS Europe), 2018, article id 8493874Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capacity remuneration mechanisms have been originally oriented to ensure availability and continuity of supply on the power generation pool. Equivalent generation-based capacity mechanisms could be implemented to enhance and prolong the usability of the distribution grid. In particular, such capacity mechanisms would provide an alternative to traditional expansion options leading to investment deferral. In this work, a distribution capacity mechanism to fit within a distribution network planning methodology will be proposed and discussed. The capacity mechanism will be outlined following similar guidelines as for the design of capacity mechanisms used in the energy only market. The result of the design is a volume based capacity auction for a capacity-constrained system, oriented to both the active and the reactive power provision.

  • 4.
    Alvarez Perez, Manuel Alejandro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bermúdez, Juan
    Universidad Simón Bolívar.
    Zhong, Jin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. The University of Hong Kong.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    A Generic Storage Model Based on a Future Cost Piecewise-Linear Approximation2019In: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 878-888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a generic storage model (GSM) inspired by the scheduling of hydraulic reservoirs. The model for steady state short-term (ST) operational studies interlaces with the long-term (LT) energy scheduling through a piecewise-linear Future Cost Function (FCF). Under the assumption that a Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) approach has been used to solve the energy schedule for the LT, the FCF output from that study will be processed to obtain an equivalent marginal opportunity cost for the storage unit. The linear characteristic of a segment of the future cost function (FCF) will allow a linear modeling of the storage unit production cost. This formulation will help to coordinate the renewable resource along with storage facilities in order to find the optimal operation cost while meeting end-point conditions for the long-term plan of the energy storage. The generic model will be implemented to represent a battery storage and a pumped-hydro storage. A stochastic unit commitment (SUC) with the GSM will be formulated and tested to assess the day-ahead scheduling strategy of a Virtual Power Plant (VPP) facing uncertainties from production, consumption, and market prices.

  • 5.
    Alvarez Perez, Manuel Alejandro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bermúdez, Juan
    Universidad Simón Bolívar.
    Zhong, Jin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    A Hydro-Reservoir Generic Storage Model for Short-Term Hydrothermal Coordination2017In: IEEE PES PowerTech Manchester 2017: towards and beyond sustainable energy systems, 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, article id 7980882Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a linear solution for the short-term hydro-thermal scheduling problem linked to long-term conditions through a piecewise-linear Future Cost Function (FCF). Given end-point conditions to conform long-term water releases, and given actual reservoir conditions, a segment of a pre-built piecewise future cost function will be chosen. The linear characteristic of the FCF segment will allow a linear modeling of the hydro-power plant, in a similar fashion as a thermal unit with an equivalent marginal opportunity cost. A short-term hydro thermal coordination problem will be formulated considering parallel and cascaded hydro-reservoirs. Three study cases involving different reservoir configurations and scenarios will be computed to test the model. The results of this model mimics coherently the future-cost hydro-thermal coordination problem for the different configurations tested. Given similarities with other forms of energy storage, a new theoretical model for generic storage will be proposed and discussed.

  • 6.
    Alvarez Perez, Manuel Alejandro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bermúdez, Juan
    Department of Energy Conversion and Transport, Simón Bolívar University.
    Zhong, Jin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Reservoir-Type Hydropower Equivalent Model Based on a Future Cost Piecewise Approximation2018In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 155, p. 184-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term (LT) scheduling of reservoir-type hydropower plants is a multistage stochastic dynamic problem that has been traditionally solved using the stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) approach. This LT schedule of releases should be met through short-term (ST) scheduling decisions obtained from a hydro-thermal scheduling that considers uncertainties. Both time scales can be linked if the ST problem considers as input the future cost function (FCF) obtained from LT studies. Known the piecewise-linear FCF, the hydro-scheduling can be solved as a one-stage problem. Under certain considerations a single segment of the FCF can be used to solve the schedule. From this formulation an equivalent model for the hydropower plant can be derived and used in ST studies. This model behaves accordingly to LT conditions to be met, and provides a marginal cost for dispatching the plant. A generation company (GENCO) owning a mix of hydro, wind, and thermal power will be the subject of study where the model will be implemented. The GENCO faces the problem of scheduling the hydraulic resource under uncertainties from e.g. wind and load while determining the market bids that maximize its profit under uncertainties from market prices. A two-stage stochastic unit commitment (SUC) for the ST scheduling implementing the equivalent hydro model will be solved.

  • 7.
    Alvarez Perez, Manuel Alejandro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Cossent, Rafael
    Universidad Pontificia de Comillas.
    Zhong, Jin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Regulatory Matters Affecting Distribution Planning With Distributed Generation2017In: CIRED - Open Access Proceedings Journal, E-ISSN 2515-0855, Vol. 2017, no 1, p. 2869-2873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under the present European directive concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity, distribution companies are not allowed to own distributed generation (DG) but encouraged to include it as a planning option to defer investment in traditional grid reinforcements. Distribution system operators (DSOs) have used the provision of capacity contracted to DG as a viable alternative under current regulatory arrangements. Here, the topics bonding DSOs and DG owners under the present regulation will be explored and a planning structure that considers distribution capacity contracts as a planning option will be proposed. This will serve as a road map for DSOs to implement its preferred planning tools in an optimisation context, considering costs of investment, reliability, operation, and capacity provision while complying with current regulation.

  • 8.
    Alvarez Perez, Manuel Alejandro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Cossent, Rafael
    Universidad Pontificia de Comillas.
    Zhong, Jin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Remuneration Assessment of a VPP Providing Distribution Capacity Services2017In: IEEE PES PowerTech Manchester 2017: towards and beyond sustainable energy systems, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, article id 7980881Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Distribution System Operator (DSO) might consider a capacity contract as a planning alternative to defer grid investments. A Virtual Power Plant (VPP) might be able to provide such capacity and change its production as requested by the DSO. This article presents an assessment of the impact of this type of distribution capacity contract (DCC) on VPP's remuneration. This assessment is done by comparing the optimal production / bidding strategy which maximize its profit, under presence or absence of these contracts. The impact of intermittent generation and storage while evaluating these scenarios will be investigated as well. A stochastic unit commitment will be used to determine the VPP's strategy under uncertainties from wind power, load, market prices, and the requested power by the DSO. The model showed that the VPP involvement in distribution capacity contracts can improve its remuneration when certain types of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) are used to provide the service.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Larsson, Anders
    Wahlberg, Mats
    Bollen, Math
    Interfering signals and attenuation: potential problems with communication via the power grid2006In: Proceedings of Nordic Distribution and Asset Management Conference: NORDAC 2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will give a general overview of the potential problems associated with remote-meter reading via the power grid and describe some of the technologies available. A comparison will be made between the power grid as a communication channel and other, dedicated and shared, channels. Examples will be given of practical cases in which the communication channel does not function in the intended way.

  • 10.
    Blanco, Ana Maria
    et al.
    Institute for Electrical Power Systems and High Voltage Engineering, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Gupta, Manish
    Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur .
    Gil de Castro, Aurora
    Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores, El ectrónica y Tecnología Electrónica, Universidad de Córdoba.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Meyer, Jan
    Institute for Electrical Power Systems and High Voltage Engineering, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Impact of flat-top voltage waveform distortion on harmonic current emission and summation of electronic household appliances2018In: Renewable Energy and Power Quality Journal, ISSN 2172-038X, Vol. 1, no 16, p. 698-703, article id 437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic household appliances are non-linearloads and emit harmonics into the low voltage networks.Usually, these loads are simply modelled by constantcurrent source models, which only represent the harmonicemission of the appliances for a single supply voltagedistortion, mostly sinusoidal conditions.Measurements have shown that the harmonic currentsemitted by electronic devices can significantly depend onthe circuit topology and the existing supply voltagedistortion. This paper studies the impact of supply voltagedistortion, which can be typically found in public lowvoltage networks (so-called flat-top voltage waveform), onthe harmonic current emission of individual devices withdifferent circuit topologies as well as the impact of supplyvoltage distortion on the harmonic summation of thesedevices.

  • 11.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Cundeva, S.
    University Sts. Cyrill and Methodias, Skopje.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wahlberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Yang, Kai
    Yao, L
    Areva T and D, Technology Centre, Stafford.
    A wind park emitting characteristic and non-characteristic harmonics2010In: 2010 14th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE/PEMC 2010): Ohrid, Macedonia, 6 - 8 September 2010, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2010, p. S14-22-S14-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows measurements of the emission of harmonics by a small windpark. The spectrum consists of the characteristic harmonics associated with six-pulse converters and a broadband spectrum covering frequencies at which emission normally is not present. These frequencies are caused by the switching pattern of the power-electronics converters. Similar spectra have been reported by other authors and for other types of modern converters. Whereas the actual emission is small, the presence of emission at non-characteristic frequencies could result in voltage distortion limits being exceeded.

  • 12.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Das, Ratan
    IcaPower LLC, Dover, DE.
    Djokic, Sasa Z.
    University of Edinburgh, School of Engineering and Electronics, University of Edinburgh.
    Ciufo, Phil
    University of Wollongong.
    Meyer, Jan
    Institute of Electrical Power Systems and High Voltage Engineering, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Technical University Dresden, Dresden University of Technology.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Zavoda, Francisc
    IREQ, IREQ/HQ, Hydro-Québec Research’s Institute.
    Power Quality Concerns in Implementing Smart Distribution-Grid Applications2017In: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 391-399, article id 7527692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper maps the expected and possible adverse consequences for power quality of introducing several smart distribution-grid technologies and applications. The material presented in this paper is the result of discussions in an international CIGRE-CIRED joint working group. The following technologies and applications are discussed: microgrids; advanced voltage control; feeder reconfiguration; and demand-side management. Recommendations are given based on the mapping.

  • 13.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Hooshyar, Hossein
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Spread of high frequency current emission2013In: 22nd International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2013): Stockholm, Sweden, 10 - 13 June 2013, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2013, article id 209Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the spread of the high frequency current emission between devices of different size and the grid. The impact of the EMC filter, either LCL or CLC configuration, has been considered from a simplified model. The high frequency current emission, produced by a large device, can potentially cause a relatively large current flowing through a nearby small device. An important conclusion from the study is that current amplification can occur due to harmonic resonances between different types of filters.

  • 14.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Meyer, Jan
    Dresden University of Technology.
    Amaris, Hortensia
    University Carlos III, Madrid.
    Blanco, Ana María
    Technical University Dresden.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    University of Cordoba.
    Desmet, Jan
    Ghent University.
    Klatt, Mattias
    Technical University Dresden.
    Kocewiak, Lukasz
    DONG Energy Wind Power, Fredericia.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Yang, Kai
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Future work on harmonics: some expert opinions part I – wind and solar power2014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A workshop on power system harmonics was organized in Stockholm in January 2014. On the agenda was among others a discussion on what are the main issues on harmonics at the moment and in the near future. The results of this discussion are summarized in this paper and some of the issues are discussed in more detail in this paper and in its companion paper. This paper discusses emission from wind and solar power as well as advantages and disadvantages of active and passive filters.

  • 15.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Mulenga, Enock
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Hosting Capacity of the Grid for Photovoltaic Installations: a Stochastic Approach Applied to Single-phase Connections2018In: 8th Solar Integration Workshop, 2018, p. 1-7, article id 6A_1_SIW18_046Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the voltage rise due to PV installations connected to a low-voltage network. The connection of individual installations is studies for both single-phase and three-phase connection. A stochastic method is presented to estimate the hosting capacity. This method is illustrated for random and coordinated connection of single-phase installations. It is shown, in a number of ways, that the installation of large (e.g. 6 kW) single-phase connected units can easily result in unacceptable overvoltages.

  • 16.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Olofsson, Magnus
    Elforsk.
    Larsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Standards for supraharmonics (2 to 150 kHz)2014In: IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Magazine, ISSN 2162-2264, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 114-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a serious interest from the international standard-setting community in knowledge about voltage and current distortion in the frequency range 2 to 150 kHz, referred to as supraharmonics. At the same time, research is ongoing at a number of locations, but the knowledge about supraharmonics remains limited. This paper compares some of the properties of harmonics and supraharmonics. An increase in supraharmonics for individual devices is observed in association with a decrease in harmonic emission (i.e. below 2 kHz). A proposal is made for setting limits in this frequency range. The proposal is based on existing standards and is meant to be for discussion. The authors strongly encourage an open discussion about the proposed limits. There are a number of differences between harmonics and supraharmonics that are not covered by the proposed set of limits. A substantial amount of further research is needed to extend the standard framework for supraharmonics such that this can be covered by standards

  • 17.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Hosting Capacity of the Power Grid for Renewable Electricity Production and New Large Consumption Equipment2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After a brief historical introduction to the hosting-capacity approach, the hosting capacity is presented in this paper as a tool for distribution-system planning under uncertainty. This tool is illustrated by evaluating the readiness of two low-voltage networks for increasing amounts of customers with PV panels or with EV chargers. Both undervoltage and overvoltage are considered in the studies presented here. Probability distribution functions are calculated for the worst-case overvoltage and undervoltage as a function of the number of customers with PV or EV chargers. These distributions are used to obtain 90th percentile values that act as a performance index. This index is compared with an overvoltage or undervoltage limit to get the hosting capacity. General aspects of the hosting-capacity calculations (performance indices, limits, and calculation methods) are discussed for a number of other phenomena: overcurrent; fast voltage magnitude variations; voltage unbalance; harmonics and supraharmonics. The need for gathering data and further development of models for existing demand is emphasised in the discussion and conclusions

  • 18.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Modelling and simulation issues resulting from extended measurements2015In: 2015 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting: 26-30 July 2015, Denver CO, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, article id 7285961Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presents a collection slides covering the following topics: supraharmonics propagation; measurement modeling; grid supply terminals; device terminals; secondary emission; primary emission; voltage measurement and capacitor

  • 19.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Nya lågspänningslaster och störningar i frekvensområdet 2 till 150 kHz: resultat från forskningsprojektet vid Luleå tekniska universitet, samt en kartläggning av behovet på ytterligare forskning2011Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Primary and Secondary Harmonics Emission: Harmonic interaction - A set of definitions2016In: 2016 17th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 703-708, article id 7783333Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a set of definitions to simplify the discussion about the different contributions to the harmonic currents at the terminals of a device or an installation. Definitions are given, and explained, for 'primary harmonic emission', 'secondary harmonic emission', and 'harmonic interaction'

  • 21.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Larsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wahlberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Harmonic emission from installations with energy-efficient lighting2011In: Proceeding of the International Conference on Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation, EPQU, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, p. 797-802Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results from a number of measurements of the harmonic emission from installations that contain a large number of energy-efficient lamps. Two of the measurements concern the replacement of incandescent lamps with CFL and LED; the other measurement concerns an installation with up to 48 fluorescent lamps with high-frequency ballasts. The paper also contains a discussion on why the (total) power factor is not a good measure to quantify the performance of lamps or installations containing large numbers of lamps

  • 22.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wahlberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Laboratory and field measurements of the power factor and the harmonic emission from energy-efficient lamps2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Zavoda, Francisc
    IREQ, IREQ/HQ, Hydro-Québec Research’s Institute.
    CIGRE/CIRED C4.24 – power quality in the future grid – first introduction2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Zavoda, Francisc
    IREQ (HQ), Varennes.
    Langella, Roberto
    Second University of Naples.
    Djokic, Sasa
    University of Edinburgh.
    Cuifo, Philip
    University of Wollongong.
    Meyer, Jan Christian
    Technische Universitaet Dresden.
    Cuk, Vladimir
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Consequences of Smart Grids for Power Quality Overview of the Results from CIGRE Joint Working Group C4.24/CIRED2018In: 2017 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe, ISGT-Europe 2017: proceedings, New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an overview of the expected unintended (negative) consequences for power quality of several on-going developments in the power system. Four developments directly related to smart-grid technology are covered: microgrids; advanced voltage control; feeder reconfiguration; and demand-side management. Four developments indirectly related are also covered: new sources of electricity production; increased used of active power-electronic converters; shift from overhead lines to cables; and new types of lighting. The paper summarizes the discussions in an international working group and presents the main findings are recommendations.

  • 25.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Zavoda, Francisc
    IREQ.
    Zhong, Jin
    University of Hongkong.
    Djokic, Sasa
    University of Edinburgh.
    Das, Ratan
    ABB.
    Halpin, Mark
    Auburn University Montgomery, Alabama.
    CIGRE/CIRED working group C4.24 – power quality and EMC issues associated with future electricity networks – status report2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a status report of joint working group C4.24. Next to an overview of the different activities started, more details are given of the work done on voltage dips, new sources of emission, feeder reconfiguration, demand side management and power quality and economics.

  • 26.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Yao, Liangzhong
    Areva T and D, Technology Centre, Stafford.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Wahlberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Harmonic and interharmonic distortion due to a windpark2010In: IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses two aspects of the impact of windparks on the waveform distortion in the power system: emission and resonances. The paper gives a general overview of the emission and shows measurement results from a small but modern windpark connected to a 10-kV feeder and estimates the need for network strength to limit the resulting voltage distortion. The paper also gives a general overview of harmonic resonances associated with windparks and illustrates this by means of two numerical examples. Important conclusions from this paper are than harmonic resonances are more likely to be a concern that the emission from windparks, and that the interharmonic emission and the emission at non-characteristic harmonics are more prominent than with existing installations.

  • 27.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Larsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Including Uncertainties from Customer Connections in Calculating Low-Voltage Harmonic Impedance2019In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 606-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is proposed in this paper to determine the harmonic impedances in low-voltage networks in a stochastic way. The consequences of resonances for harmonic propagation and stability of power converters are summarized. By using Monte Carlo simulation, the method includes the uncertainties in customer impedances, specifically due to electronic loads and local generation. The uncertainty in customer impedance is included by considering probability distribution for the resistive, inductive and capacitive parts of the impedance. The concept of transfer impedance is used for phase-to-neutral connections. A method is developed and applied to two existing low-voltage networks in Sweden. Results show that, for these two networks, the resonant frequencies decrease around 28 % once PV panels are installed. The paper includes a discussion of some of the practical aspects of applying the proposed method.

  • 28.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Larsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Supraharmonics Emission Assessment of Multi-level Converters Applied for Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Inverters2017In: The Renewable Energies and Power Quality Journal (RE&PQJ), ISSN 2172-038X, E-ISSN 2172-038X, Vol. 1, no 15, p. 143-148, article id 252Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Gil de Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    Departamento de Ingeniería Electrónica y de Computadores, Universidad de Córdoba.
    Medina-Gracia, R.
    Departamento de Ingeniería Electrónica y de Computadores, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Leonardo da Vinci, E-14071 Córdoba, España.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Blanco, A.M.
    Institut für elektrische Energieversorgung und Hochspannungstechnik, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Meyer, Jan Christian
    Institut für elektrische Energieversorgung und Hochspannungstechnik, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Differences in the performance between CFL and LED lamps under different voltage distortions2018In: Proceedings of International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, ICHQP, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements have shown that the harmonic currents emitted by lamps with electronic ballast depend on the circuit topology and the existing supply voltage distortion. This paper quantifies the impact of supply voltage distortion on the harmonic and supraharmonic current emission of individual Light Emitting Diode (LED) lamps and compact fluorescent lamps (CFL). It also characterizes several Power Quality (PQ) parameters when those lamps are connected to pure sinusoidal waveform.

  • 30.
    Gil de Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    Electronics Technology, University of Cordoba.
    Moreno-Muñoz, Antonio
    University of Cordoba.
    Garrido, Joaquin
    University of Cordoba.
    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J.
    University of Cordoba.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Morales, Tomás
    University of Cordoba.
    Supraharmonics reduction in NPC inverter with random PWM2017In: 2017 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 1792-1797, article id 8001520Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The international standardization community is currently reviewing the harmonic distortion limits in the frequency range 2 to 150 kHz, referred to as supraharmonics. Power electronics has emerged as a ubiquitous technology, which also plays a critical role in this subject. Broadly speaking, the reduction of emission in the lower-frequency ranges appears to result in an increase in supraharmonic emission by equipment. The paper presents measurements of waveform distortion from several illustrative facilities and loads. Until now, power electronics converter has been an important source of waveform distortion, even in this frequency range, but, as stated in this paper, can also be the key to mitigate distortion, when technologies like multilevel converter and random pulse with modulation are properly employed.

  • 31.
    Gil de Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    Electronics Technology, University of Cordoba.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Light intensity variation (flicker) and harmonic emission related to LED lamps2017In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 146, p. 107-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses two power-quality aspects of LED lamps: harmonics and flicker. Measurements have been performed of 24 different LED lamps: the harmonic current spectrum and light intensity variations have been measured. To enable an objective comparison, the light intensity variations were measured for all the lamps when exposed to the same voltage magnitude variations. Results show a large variety in harmonic emission between different LED lamps indicating that different technologies or different components are being used within the LED lamps. Moreover the results show a large variety in light intensity variations when different LED lamps are subjected to the same voltage fluctuations. A clear correlation was found between harmonic emission and sensitivity to voltage magnitude variations. Lamps with low light intensity variations are also the ones with the highest harmonic current emission. No clear relation between active power or price and sensitivity to voltage magnitude variations was found.

  • 32.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    University of Cordoba.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Moreno-Muñoz, Antonio
    University of Cordoba.
    Harmonic phase angles for a domestic customer with different types of lighting2015In: International Studies in Religion and Society, ISSN 1530-1311, E-ISSN 2050-7038, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1281-1296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents measurements of the changes in phase angle of the harmonic current for a domestic costumer due to the introduction of energy-efficient lamps (compact fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes lamps). Those results are then compared with the aggregation rules according to standard IEC 61000-3-6 and with a mathematical model, in order to highlight the importance of using phase angles in the harmonic estimations. The paper presents both the emission from individual household devices and the variations in the complex harmonic current from a group of devices. Cancellation because of phase-angle difference plays an important role in the emission from a group of different devices. This explains why the increase in emission after changing to energy-efficient lamps is much smaller than expected. Some other power-quality parameters are also considered such as total harmonic distortion, total power factor, and displacement power factor. It is concluded that the complex plane presentation is a useful tool to estimate the harmonic emission from a group of domestic appliances.

  • 33.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    Universidad de Córdoba, Area de Electrónica, Dpto. Arquitectura de Computadores, Electrónica y Tecnología Electrónica, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Campus de Rabanales.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Moreno-Muñoz, Antonio
    Universidad de Córdoba, Area de Electrónica, Dpto. Arquitectura de Computadores, Electrónica y Tecnología Electrónica, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Campus de Rabanales.
    Study on harmonic emission of domestic equipment combined with different types of lighting2014In: International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, ISSN 0142-0615, E-ISSN 1879-3517, Vol. 55, p. 116-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a set of measurements to study changes in harmonic emission from domestic equipment due to the introduction of energy-efficient lamps. During this study measurements have been performed of the emission from different combinations of domestic devices in combination with different kind of lamps. Those results are then compared with standards, with a mathematical aggregation model and with results from field experiments in order to give recommendations to different stakeholders. The measurements clearly show that the total emission depends on the lamps that are connected as a background. It is however not possible to draw the general conclusion that the introduction of CFLs and LED lamps will result in an increase or decrease of emission. It is also concluded in this work that the IEC aggregation model does not give useful estimations of changes in emission from domestic installations due to the introduction of CFLs and LED lamps. The measurement results further indicate that emission levels at higher frequencies might increase due to the large-scale introduction of such lamps.

  • 34.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    University of Cordoba.
    Larsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    LED lamps under different EMC environnments2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More and more loads are currently connected at the same connection point in industrial, commercial and residential sectors. This paper studies the interaction between a certain LED lamp connected to different industrial environments, and how different LED lamps behave in the same industrial environment. Harmonic emission as well as supraharmonic emission have been considered in the study.

  • 35.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    University of Cordoba.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    A study about harmonic interaction between devices2014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analysis of current emission from low-voltage appliances in the frequency range from 2 to 150 kHz. The current to an electric vehicle is measured for different connection of other devices (LED lamp, microwave oven, TV) showing the presence of primary and secondary emission. The paper shows that the presence of a neighboring device can have a strong influence on the emission.

  • 36.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    University of Cordoba, Electronics and Electronic Technology Area, University of Cordoba.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Harmonic interaction between an electric vehicle and different domestic equipment2014In: 2014 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility - EMC Europe 2014: Swedish Exhibition and Congress Centre, Gothenburg, Sweden : 1 - 4 September, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, p. 991-996, article id 6931047Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analysis of current emission from low-voltage appliances in the frequency range from 2 to 150 kHz. The current to an electric vehicle is measured for different connection of other devices (LED lamps, microwave oven, TV) showing the presence of primary and secondary emission. The paper shows that the presence of a neighboring device can have a strong influence on the emission.

  • 37.
    Gil-De-Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    Electronics and Electronic Technology Area, University of Cordoba.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Moreno-Munoz, Antonio
    Electronics and Electronic Technology Area, University of Cordoba.
    Harmonics from household equipment and different lamp technologies2013In: CPE 2013: conference proceedings, Piscataway. NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, p. 1-6, article id 6601119Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a set of measurements to study changes in harmonic emission from a domestic customer due to the introduction of energy-efficient lamps (CFLs and LED lamps). During this study, measurements have been performed of the emission from different combinations of domestic devices in combination with different kind of lamps. To study harmonic emission, three different states has been deeply studied, likely, high consumption and lamps-only states, where different household device combination together with lamps were connected. Overall, the measurements confirm the conclusion that there is some increase in harmonic emission due to the replacement of incandescent lamps by CFLs and LED lamps, but that there is no reason for concern

  • 38.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    Universidad Cordoba.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Moreno-Munoz, Antonio
    Universidad Cordoba.
    Pallares-Lopez, V
    Electronics and Electronic Technology Area, University of Cordoba.
    Harmonics from a domestic customer with different lamp technologies2012In: 15th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP), IEEE Communications Society, 2012, p. 585-590Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a set of measurements to study changes in harmonic emission from a domestic customer due to the introduction of energy-efficient lamps (CFL and LED lamps). This emission has been studied through both magnitude and complex harmonic current. We can see that the emission depends on the lamps that are connected as a background. Sometimes adding a new device reduces the harmonic sometimes it increases it. The harmonic current produced by aggregate loads is significantly smaller than the algebraic sum of the harmonic current produced by each one separately. Therefore, it can be some cancellation effect not only between devices, but also among customers. Overall, the measurements confirm the conclusion that there is some increase in harmonic emission due to the replacement of incandescent lamps by CFLs and LED lamps, but that there is no reason for concern.

  • 39.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    Departamento A.C., Electrónica y T.E. Escuela Politécnica Superior, University of Cordoba.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wahlberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Moreno-Munoz, Antonio
    Departamento A.C., Electrónica y T.E. Escuela Politécnica Superior, University of Cordoba.
    Emission on the low voltage grid: measurements in an urban area2014In: The Renewable Energies and Power Quality Journal (RE&PQJ), ISSN 2172-038X, E-ISSN 2172-038X, no 12, article id 472Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Grevener, Anne
    et al.
    TU Dresden.
    Meyer, Jan
    TU Dresden.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Comparison of measurement methods for the frequency range 2 – 150 kHz (supraharmonics)2018In: 2018 IEEE 9th International Workshop on Applied Measurements for Power Systems (AMPS), IEEE, 2018, p. 128-133Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electromagnetic Compatibility in the frequency range 2 −150 kHz (supraharmonics) is an increasing concern. Recently compatibility levels have been finalised and the work on emission limits has started. Up to now no normative method to measure supraharmonics in electricity networks exists in the relevant standards of IEC 61000 series. Due to the lack of a normative method, instrument manufacturers have started to implement individual measurement methods, which differ from each other and do not provide equal results for the same signal. This paper studies commonly implemented frequency domain methods, which are either based on IEC 61000-4-7 or the informative annex of IEC 61000-4-30. The paper identifies parameters, which can influence the measurement results and studies their impact on reproducibility and comparability of the methods. Based on the results the paper provides recommendations, which shall contribute to the ongoing maintenance work on IEC 61000-4-30 regarding a normative measurement method for the frequency range 2 – 150 kHz.

  • 41.
    Larsson, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Wahlberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Measurements of high-frequency (2-150 kHz) distortion in low-voltage networks2010In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 1749-1757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents different methods to describe voltage and current distortion in the frequency range 2 to 150kHz. The time-frequency domain was shown to give additional information next to the time- and frequency-domain representations. Measurements of different devices and at different locations showed remnants of the switching frequency of the power electronics as well as lower frequency oscillations around the current zero crossing to be present in voltage and current. The voltage distortion is shown to vary a lot during the day and between locations.

  • 42.
    Larsson, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Bollen, Math
    Wahlberg, Mats
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Evolution of the harmonic distortion from state-of-the-art computers: 2002 to 20082009In: CIRED 20th International Conference on Electricity Distribution: 8 -11 June 2009, Prague Congress Centre, Prague, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, p. 164-167Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows trends in harmonic emission by large groups of modern computers over a 7-year period. The measurements were obtained at computer tournaments where almost exclusively the newest types of computers are used. The measurements clearly show that the harmonic distortion is decreasing significantly while the power consumption per computer does not change significantly.

  • 43.
    Lennerhag, Oscar
    et al.
    STRI.
    Ackeby, Susanne
    STRI.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Voltage variations due to wind power and solar power at time scales of 10 minutes and less2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Lennerhag, Oscar
    et al.
    STRI.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ackeby, Susanne
    STRI AB.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Spänningsvariationer och intermittent produktion2014Report (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Lennerhag, Oscar
    et al.
    STRI AB.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ackeby, Susanne
    STRI AB.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Very short variations in voltage (timescale less than 10 minutes) due to variations in wind and solar power2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from a study on variations in voltage magnitude at a timescale less than 10 minutes, due to measured variations in wind and solar production. The variations are compared with the measured variations at several low and medium-voltage sites. It is concluded that individual solar panels are not a concern but that several solar panels connected to the same low-voltage feeder may lead to a noticeable increase in voltage variations at this timescale. Individual wind turbines and wind farms are not expected to lead to a significant increase in voltage variations. The voltage variations do change in character by the introduction of wind and solar power.

  • 46.
    Lundmark, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Wahlberg, Mats
    Larsson, Anders
    Bollen, Math
    EMC filter common mode resonance2009In: 2009 IEEE Bucharest PowerTech: Bucharest, Romania, 28 June - 2 July 2009 / [ed] Lucian Toma, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2009, p. 2312-2317Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the possibility that high common mode voltages occur in low-voltage distribution due to oscillations between parallel connected EMC-filters. It is shown that such oscillations may occur in the frequency range between 2 kHz to 150 kHz. Simulations and measurements have been carried out with different types of parallel connected power inlet filter, a common EMC Filter, and the circumstances giving oscillations have been highlighted.

  • 47.
    Meyer, Jan
    et al.
    TU Dresden, Institute of Electrical Power Systems and High Voltage Engineering.
    Blanco, Ana Maria
    TU Dresden, Institute of Electrical Power Systems and High Voltage Engineering.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Smith, Jeff W.
    Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Power System Studies, Palo Alto, CA.
    CIGRE C4/C6.29: Survey of utilities experiences on power quality issues related to solar power2017In: CIRED - Open Access Proceedings Journal, ISSN 2515-0855, Vol. 2017, no 1, p. 539-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Owing to the energy policies and the consequent transition to renewable energy sources, the amount of photovoltaic (PV) installations is continuously increasing in many countries. As PV inverters utilise power electronics, its impact on power quality is an important concern for manufacturers, planners, solar power operators and utilities/ network operators. The International council on large electric systems (CIGRE) working group C4/C6.29 has studied many aspects related to PV installations and its impact on power quality. To incorporate the existing experiences with power quality issues related to solar power, an international survey has been conducted by the working group. The survey has found that there is a significant lack of information among utilities/network operators with respect to the possible impact of PV installations on power quality. It is recommended to intensify the monitoring of PV installations in order to obtain sufficient information for a reliable assessment of its impact on power quality.

  • 48.
    Meyer, Jan
    et al.
    Technical University Dresden.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Amaris, Hortensia
    University Carlos III, Madrid.
    Blanco, Ana María
    Technical University Dresden.
    Castro, Aurora Gil de
    University of Cordoba.
    Desmet, Jan
    Ghent University, Kortrijk.
    Klatt, Matthias
    Technical University Dresden.
    Kocewiak, Lukasz
    DONG Energy Wind Power, Fredericia.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Yang, Kai
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Future work on harmonics: some expert opinions part II – supraharmonics, standards and measurements2014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A workshop on power system harmonics was organized in Stockholm in January 2014. On the agenda was among others a discussion on what are the main issues on harmonics at the moment and in the near future. Some of the issues discussed at that workshop are presented in this paper and its companion paper. In this paper the following issues will be addressed: the appearance of emission at higher frequencies (supraharmonics); the need for new and improved standards; measurement issues and data analysis

  • 49.
    Moreno-Munoz, Antonio
    et al.
    University of Cordoba.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    University of Cordoba.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Romero-Cadaval, E.
    Supraharmonics (2 to 150 kHz) and multi-level converters2015In: 5th IEEE International Conference on Power Engineering, Energy and Electrical Drives: POWERENG 2015, Riga, Latvia, 11-13 May 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, p. 37-41, article id 7266293Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the state of part of the discussions in CIGRE/CIRED/IEEE joined working group C4.24, especially where it concerns supraharmonics. There is an increasing interest from the international standard-setting community in knowledge about distortion in the frequency range 2 to 150 kHz, referred to as supraharmonics. The reduction of emission in the lower-frequency ranges appears to result in an increase in supraharmonic emission by equipment. Power electronics has emerged as a ubiquitous technology, which plays a critical role in almost any areas. Power electronics converter is an important source of waveform distortion, but, as shown in this paper, power electronics can also be the key to mitigate distortion, when the proper technology is employed.

  • 50.
    Moreno-Munoz, Antonio
    et al.
    University of Cordoba.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    University of Cordoba.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Romero-Cadval, Enrique
    University of Extramadura.
    Ongoing work in CIGRE working groups on supraharmonics from power-electronic converters2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the state of part of the discussions in CIGRE/CIRED joined working group C4.24, especially where it concerns supraharmonics. There is an increasing interest from the international standard-setting community in knowledge about distortion in the frequency range 2 to 150 kHz, referred to as supraharmonics. The reduction of emission in the lower-frequency ranges appears to result in an increase in supraharmonic emission by equipment. Power electronics has emerged as a ubiquitous technology, which plays a critical role in almost any areas. Power electronics converter is an important source of waveform distortion, but, as shown in this paper, power electronics can also be the key to mitigate distortion, when the proper technology is employed.

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