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  • 1.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Gong, Guan
    RISE SICOMP AB, Fibervägen 2, 943 33 Öjebyn, Sweden.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mechanical Performance of PE Reinforced with Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs): Effect of Composition and Processing ParametersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Gong, Guan
    Rise Sicomp AB, Fibervägen 2, SE-941 26 Öjebyn, Sweden.
    Nyström, Birgitha
    Podcomp AB, Skylvägen 1, SE-943 33 Öjebyn, Sweden.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Characterization of Wood and Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) Reinforced Polymer Composites2020In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 9, article id 2089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the utilization of commercial masterbatches of graphene nanoplatelets to improve the properties of neat polymer and wood fiber composites manufactured by conventional processing methods. The effect of aspect ratio of the graphene platelets (represented by the different number of layers in the nanoplatelet) on the properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is discussed. The composites were characterized for their mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, impact) and physical characteristics (morphology, crystallization, and thermal stability). The effect of the addition of nanoplatelets on the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the reinforced polymer with different contents of reinforcement was also investigated. In general, the mechanical performance of the polymer was enhanced at the presence of either of the reinforcements (graphene or wood fiber). The improvement in mechanical properties of the nanocomposite was notable considering that no compatibilizer was used in the manufacturing. The use of a masterbatch can promote utilization of nano-modified polymer composites on an industrial scale without modification of the currently employed processing methods and facilities.

  • 3.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Gong, Guan
    Swerea SICOMP AB, Box 271, SE 941 26, Piteå, SWEDEN.
    Nyström, Birgitha
    Swerea SICOMP AB, Box 271, SE 941 26, Piteå, SWEDEN.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Swerea SICOMP AB, Box 271, SE 941 26, Piteå, SWEDEN.
    Wood Fiber Composites With Added Multi-Functionality2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) are used to enhance the mechanical properties and functionality of wood plastic composite (WPC) targeting applications such as de-icing or anti-icing and fast thermal diffusivity. The GNPs are integrated into neat polymer using a masterbatch containing functionalized graphene by melt compounding through a twin-screw extruder without the use of any coupling agent or compatibilizer. The same manufacturing process (melt compounding) but with the use of compatibilizer is employed to produce WPC with nano-doped matrix. The effect of different GNP loadings (up to 15 wt.%) on morphology, crystallinity, mechanical and thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites and the WPCs was investigated. It was found that both strength and modulus of nanocomposites, in tension and bending, were increased with the addition of GNPs. With the aid of MAPE compatibilizer WPCs show higher flexural strength and modulus than neat polymer. GNP has marginal effect on the flexural stress but further increases flexural modulus of WPC. The preliminary results related to the thermal conductivity of studied materials indicate that the incorporation of GNP may be beneficial for faster and more uniform heat distribution in WPC.

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    WOOD FIBER COMPOSITES WITH ADDED MULTI-FUNCTIONALITY
  • 4.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Hajlane, Abdelghani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Materials Science and Nano-engineering, Mohammed VI Polytechnic University, Benguerir, Morocco.
    Renbi, Abdelghani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ouarga, Ayoub
    Materials Science and Nano-engineering, Mohammed VI Polytechnic University, Benguerir, Morocco.
    Chouhan, Shailesh Singh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Conductive Regenerated Cellulose Fibers by Electroless Plating2019In: Fibers, ISSN 2079-6439, Vol. 7, no 5, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous metallized regenerated cellulose fibers for advanced applications (e.g. multi-functional composites) are produced by electroless copper plating. Copper is successfully deposited on the surface of cellulose fibers using commercial cyanide-free electroless copper plating package commonly available for manufacturing of printed wiring boards. The deposited copper is found to enhance the thermal stability, electrical conductivity and resistance to moisture uptake of the fibers. On the other hand, involved chemistry results in altering the molecular structure of the fibers as is indicated by the degradation of their mechanical performance (tensile strength and modulus).

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  • 5.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Jantel, Ugo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Tribological Study on Wood and Graphene Reinforced High Density Polyethylene2022In: ECCM 2022 - Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Composite Materials: Composites Meet Sustainability / [ed] Vassilopoulos, Anastasios; Michaud, Véronique, Lausanne: EPFL Lausanne, Composite Construction Laboratory , 2022, Vol. 1, p. 585-592Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wear rate (WR) and coefficient of friction (COF) for high-density polyethylene (HDPE)and its composites of wood flour (WF) and/or graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) are studied. Theinvestigation is performed by pin-on-disc test configuration on samples with different moisturecontents (dry, and samples saturated at RH of 33% and 79% in room temperature). The effect ofthe different scales of reinforcement (GNPs and WF) on these properties is discussed. Themorphological/microstructural changes in the materials induced by the motion in contact and/ormoisture content are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results show thatreinforcing the polymer with WF or GNPs reduces the WR significantly, compared to neat HDPE.The hybrid reinforcements contribute to maximum improvement in wear resistance (>98%) andin the reduction of COF (>11%). The improvement in the tribological behavior of bio-basedmaterials has a significant impact on sustainable development through the improved design,durability, and environmental impact.

  • 6.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Synergistic Effect of Multiscale Reinforcement on Wear of Wood Polymer Composites2022In: PolyTrib 2022, 2022, p. 34-35Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Ouarga, Ayoub
    High Throughput Multidisciplinary Research Laboratory, Mohammed VI Polytechnic University (UM6P), Lot 660—Hay Moulay Rachid, 43150 Benguerir, Morocco.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Chouhan, Shailesh Singh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Landström, Anton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Hajlane, Abdelghani
    Laboratory of Crystallography and Materials Sciences, National Graduate School of Engineering of Caen, 6 Boulevard Maréchal Juin, 14000 Caen, France.
    Conductive Regenerated Cellulose Fibers for Multi-Functional Composites: Mechanical and Structural Investigation2021In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 7, article id 1746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regenerated cellulose fibers coated with copper via electroless plating process are investigated for their mechanical properties, molecular structure changes, and suitability for use in sensing applications. Mechanical properties are evaluated in terms of tensile stiffness and strength of fiber tows before, during and after the plating process. The effect of the treatment on the molecular structure of fibers is investigated by measuring their thermal stability with differential scanning calorimetry and obtaining Raman spectra of fibers at different stages of the treatment. Results show that the last stage in the electroless process (the plating step) is the most detrimental, causing changes in fibers’ properties. Fibers seem to lose their structural integrity and develop surface defects that result in a substantial loss in their mechanical strength. However, repeating the process more than once or elongating the residence time in the plating bath does not show a further negative effect on the strength but contributes to the increase in the copper coating thickness, and, subsequently, the final stiffness of the tows. Monitoring the changes in resistance values with applied strain on a model composite made of these conductive tows show an excellent correlation between the increase in strain and increase in electrical resistance. These results indicate that these fibers show potential when combined with conventional composites of glass or carbon fibers as structure monitoring devices without largely affecting their mechanical performance.

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  • 8.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Pupure, Liva
    Riga Technical University, Kalnciema Iela 6, Rīga, LV-1048, Latvia.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Analysis of long-term performance of wood polymer composites with added multifunctionality2022In: 80th International Scientific Conference of the University of Latvia - Advanced Composites and Applications: Book of Abstracts, Riga: University of Latvia , 2022, p. 9-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Pupure, Liva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Time-dependent properties of graphene reinforced HDPE2019In: Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Composite Testing and Model Identification: Book of Abstracts / [ed] R. Joffe; L. Pupure; J. Varna; L. Wallström, 2019, article id 163Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Pupure, Liva
    Department of Structural Engineering,Riga Technical University, Rīga, Latvia.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Time-dependent properties of high-density polyethylene with wood/graphene nanoplatelets reinforcement2023In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 465-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on the long-term performance of wood fiber/high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composite is investigated by using short-term creep tests with an efficient, faster data analysis approach. Previously, it was shown that the addition of GNPs at 15 wt% into HDPE reduces the viscoplastic (VP) strain developed during 2 h creep by ~50%. The current study shows that 25 and 40 wt% wood content in HDPE reduce the VP strains developed during 2 h creep time by >75% with no noticeable effect of the increased wood content. However, further addition of GNPs results in more than 90% total reduction in the VP strains. The current study shows that the development of the VP strains in the hybrid composites follows Zapas model. Viscoelastic (VE) response of these composites is nonlinear and thus is described by Schapery's model. Parameters for VP and VE models are obtained from the creep experiments and were validated in a separate loading-unloading test sequence. Results show a very good agreement between experiments and predictions for the studied materials as long as the micro-damage is not present.

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  • 11.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Pupure, Liva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Riga Technical University, Institute of Construction and Reconstruction, Riga, Latvia.
    Gong, Guan
    RISE SICOMP AB, Composite materials and product development, Piteå, Sweden.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Time‐dependent properties of graphene nanoplatelets reinforced high‐density polyethylene2021In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 138, no 30, article id 50783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deformation of polymers at constant applied stress is one of their major drawbacks, limiting their use in advanced applications. The study of this property using classical techniques requires extensive testing over long periods of time. It is well known that reinforced polymers show improved behavior over time compared to their neat counterparts. In this study, the effect of adding different amounts of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on the time‐dependent properties of high‐density polyethylene (HDPE) is investigated using short‐term creep tests and load/unload recovery tests. The results are discussed in terms of the test profile and the influence of loading history. Viscoplasticity/viscoelasticity analysis is performed using Zapas model and by comparing creep, creep compliance and pure viscoelasticity curves. The results show that the reinforcement of 15 wt% GNP have the most significant effect on the time‐dependent behavior, reducing the strain by more than 50%. The creep compliance curves show that nano‐reinforced HDPE behaves nonlinearly viscoelastically even at very low stresses. In addition to demonstrating the effect of nano‐reinforcement, the discussion of the results concludes that the influence of loading history can be quite significant and should not be neglected in the design and evaluation of material behavior.

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  • 12.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sott, Richard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Mölndal, 431 22, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Mölndal, 431 22, Sweden.
    André, Alann
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Mölndal, 431 22, Sweden.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Performance of recycled glass fibers from composite parts by different treatments2022In: ECCM 2022 - Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Composite Materials: Composites Meet Sustainability / [ed] Vassilopoulos, Anastasios; Michaud, Véronique, Lausanne: EPFL Lausanne, Composite Construction Laboratory , 2022, Vol. 6, p. 77-84Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, glass fibers have been retrieved from decommissioned composite parts by three different methods. Namely, (i) pyrolysis, (ii) a novel solvolysis and (iii) a combination of solvolysis followed by pyrolysis. The techniques allowed successful recovering of sufficiently long fiber bundles (> 30 mm) that enabled separating single fibers for manual handling and testing. Single fiber tensile tests were performed to evaluate the efficiency of different recovery methods to preserve properties in comparison to the virgin fibers. The mechanical test results revealed that the stiffness of the recovered fibers has not been affected by the treatments. On the other hand, around 45% of the fiber’s strength was retained after the solvolysis process which is a comparable value to that found in literature. 

  • 13.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres J.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Institute of Technology / Baghdad, Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Numerical analysis of stresses in double-lap adhesive joint under thermo-mechanical load2021In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 233, article id 111863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical study for the double-lap adhesive joint made of similar adherends subjected to tensile and thermal loads is presented. A novel displacement coupling conditions which are able to correctly represent monoclinic materials (off-axis layers of composite laminates) are used to build a comprehensive numerical model. Two types of double-lap joints are considered in this study: metal–metal and composite-composite. In case of composite laminates, four lay-ups are evaluated: unidirectional ([08]T and [908]T) and quasi-isotropic laminates ([0/45/90/−45]S and [90/45/0/−45]S). The effect of different parameters (adherend stiffness, ply stacking sequence, adherend thickness, one-step or two-step manufacturing of the joint) on peel and shear stress distribution in the middle of the adhesive is studied. The comparison of the behaviour of single-lap and double-lap joint in relation to these parameters is made. The maximum peel and shear stress at the ends of the overlap with respect to the axial modulus of the adherends are presented in a form of the master curves. The analyses of results show that: the maximum peel and shear stress concentration at the overlap ends is reduced with the increase of the axial modulus of the adherend; the stress distribution in the adhesive layer can be improved (lower stress concentrations and level-out the curve) by changing the fibre orientation (which affect the stiffness) in plies connected to the adhesive layer.

  • 14.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres J.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Institute of Technology / Baghdad, Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Numerical stress analysis for single-lap adhesive joint under thermo-mechanical load using non-linear material2020In: The 3rd International Conference on Sustainable Engineering Techniques (ICSET20), Institute of Physics (IOP), 2020, article id 012070Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comprehensive stress analysis by means of Finite Element Method (FEM) for single-lap joint subjected to thermal and mechanical loads is presented in this paper. Simulation is used to predict the effect of residual thermal stresses (caused by difference of temperature of use and elevated temperature during the assembly of the joint) on stress distribution within adhesive layer. The residual thermal stresses are assigned to joint members as initial condition before the mechanical load is applied. The FEM model employs linear and nonlinear material model and accounts for geometrical nonlinearity. It is confirmed that the difference between the manufacturing and the ambient temperature results in high residual thermal stresses, especially in axial and lateral directions of the joint. The calculation of total stress as superposition of thermal and mechanical stresses works only for linear materials. Moreover, simultaneous application of temperature and mechanical load (applied strain in case of displacement controlled test) in FEM produces inaccurate results, since in real situation the strain is applied to already thermally loaded structure. It is also found that the residual thermal stresses may reduce the peel and shear stress concentration in the adhesive at the ends of overlap and the shear stress within the overlap.

  • 15.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres J
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Institute of Technology, Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Numerical stress analysis in adhesively bonded joints under thermo-mechanical loading2020In: Advances in Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 1687-8132, E-ISSN 1687-8140, Vol. 12, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of residual thermal stresses, arising after assembling a single-lap joint at elevated temperature, on the inelastic thermo-mechanical stress state in the adhesive layer. The numerical analysis (FEM) employing linear and non-linear material models, with geometrical nonlinearity accounted for, is carried out. Simulating the mechanical response, the calculated thermal stresses are assigned as initial conditions to polymeric, composite and metallic joint members to reflect the loading sequence where the mechanical strain is applied to cooled-down structure. It is shown that the sequence of application matters and simulations with simultaneous application of temperature and strain give different result. Two scenarios for adhesive joints with composites are studied: joining by adhesive curing of already cured composite parts (two-step process) and curing the adhesive and the composite simultaneously in one-step (co-curing). Results show that while in-plane stresses in the adhesive are higher, the peaks of out-of-plane shear stress and peel stress (most responsible for the joint failure) at the end of the overlap are reduced due to thermal effects. In joints containing composite parts, the one-step joining scenario is more favorable than the two-step. The ply stacking sequence in the composite has significant effect on stress concentrations as well as on the plateau value of the shear stress in the adhesive.

  • 16.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Institute of Technology / Baghdad, Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Criteria for crack path deviation in adhesive layer of bi-material DCB specimen2021In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 147, article id 106408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An alternative to traditional fracture mechanics methodology to predict direction for crack propagation in the adhesive layer of bonded stiff materials is demonstrated. The approach is based on the analysis of the location of maximum of the hoop stress in relation to the existing crack tip. Such method is very convenient and fast as it does not require a lot of computational resources and is easy to implement compared to other known numerical methods dealing with similar problems (e.g. X-FEM). The method is validated by fracture mechanics approach using energy release rate to predict crack propagation direction. The verification is done by using bi-material DCB specimen with relatively thick adhesive layer as an example.

    After proving the applicability of the maximum hoop stress criterion the parametric study on factors affecting crack propagation in the adhesive layer is carried out. Such parameters as bending stiffness of beams, thickness of the adhesive layer, distance to the bond-line, length of the initial pre-crack are analyzed.

  • 17.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Institute of Technology, Middle Technical University, Baghdad.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Swerea SICOMP AB.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    FEM analysis of stresses in adhesive single-lap joints with non-linear materials under thermo-mechanical loading2018In: ECCM18, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents comprehensive numerical stress analysis in the adhesive layer of a single-lap joint subjected to various loading scenarios (mechanical and thermal loading). For this purpose numerical model (finite element method) with novel displacement coupling conditions able to correctly represent monoclinic materials (off-axis layers of composite laminates) has been developed. This model includes nonlinear material model and geometrical nonlinearity is also accounted for. The effect of thermal residual stresses (in adhesive) is analysed for various methods of manufacturing of single lap joint. The sequences of application of thermal and mechanical loads for the analysis of the thermal residual stresses in joints are proposed. It is shown that the most common approach used in many studies of linear superposition of thermal and mechanical stresses works well only for linear materials and produces wrong results if material is non-linear. The present study demonstrates suitable method to apply combined thermal and mechanical loads to get accurate stress distributions. Based on the analysis of these stress distributions the conclusions concerning the effect of the thermal residual stresses on peel and shear stress concentrations are made. The comparison between effect of thermal stresses in case of the one-step and two-step joint manufacturing techniques is made.

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  • 18.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Institute of Technology / Baghdad, Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Swerea SICOMP AB, Piteå, Sweden.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Investigation of end and edge effects on results of numerical simulation of single lap adhesive joint with non-linear materials2018In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 87, p. 191-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents systematic numerical study of stresses in the adhesive of a single-lap joint with the objective to improve understanding of the main material and geometrical parameters determining performance of adhesive joints. For this purpose a 3D model as well as 2D model, optimized with respect to the computational efficiency by use of novel displacement coupling conditions able to correctly represent monoclinic materials (off-axis layers of composite laminates), are employed. The model accounts for non-linearity of materials (adherend and adhesive) as well as geometrical non-linearity. The parameters of geometry of the joint are normalized with respect to the dimensions of adhesive (e.g. thickness) thus making analysis of results more general and applicable to wide range of different joints. Optimal geometry of the single-lap joint allowing to separate edge effect from end effects is selected based on results of the parametric analysis by using peel and shear stress distributions in the adhesive layer as a criterion. Three different types of single lap joint with similar and dissimilar (hybrid) materials are considered in this study: a) metal-metal; b) composite-composite; c) composite-metal. In case of composite laminates, four lay-ups are evaluated: uni-directional ([08]T and [908]T) and quasi-isotropic laminates ([0/45/90/-45]S and [90/45/0/-45]S). The influence of the abovementioned parameters on peel and shear stress distributions in the adhesive layer is examined carefully and mechanical parameters governing the stress concentrations in the joint have been identified, this dependence can be described by simple but accurate fitting function. The effect of the used material model (linear vs non-linear) on results is also demonstrated.

  • 19.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Model for numerical simulation and parametric analysis of composite adhesive joints under thermo-mechanical loading2017In: ICCS20: Proceedings : 20th International Conference on Composite Structures / [ed] Antonio J.M. Ferreira, W. Larbi, J.F. Deu, F. Tornabene, N. Fantuzzi, Paris: Società Editrice Esculapio, 2017 , 2017, , p. 662p. 234-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The current investigation focuses on development and verification of a modelfor numerical simulation of performance of adhesive joints under tensile loading. Differentcombination of materials in joints is considered: metal-metal, composite-composite andcomposite-metal. The objective of this paper is to present simulation results of joints usingan accurate finite element model including non-linear behaviour and large deformation.Moreover, several loading scenarios are analysed, including simultaneous application oftemperature and mechanical load. Not only the effect of temperature on mechanicalperformance of materials (adhesive as well as adherents) is analysed but also built up ofresidual thermal stresses during the manufacturing of joints are taken into account. Thisapproach is demonstrated by simulation of tensile tests of joints at several temperatures.Two scenarios of application of temperature and mechanical load using large deformationtheory are considered: 1) the thermal and mechanical loads are applied simultaneously (theproperties of the materials are adjusted accordingly to their performance at differenttemperatures); 2) temperature is applied on specimen which is not macroscopicallyconstrained and the obtained stress distribution is used as initial state for the nextsimulation of mechanical loaded joint. The influence of edge effects (due to limited widthof the joint) on the stress distribution within the joint are studied. In order to eliminatethese effects the periodic boundary conditions (BC) are used in the numerical model.These BC are adjusted to optimize numerical model and obtain efficient calculation routinefor analysis of stresses within interior part of the structure. The validity of these BCs isevaluated and verified by analysing number of case studies. The comparison between full3D FEM model and simplified 2D model is carried out. The resulting stress distributions inthe overlap region of joints are presented for different joints (the parameters are: materialcombinations, material models, geometry of adhesive layer, constraints and BCs) withcomprehensive analysis and recommendations for optimal numerical model that can beused in joint design.

  • 20.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Numerical stress analysis in adhesive joints under thermo-mechanical load using model with special boundary conditions2019In: 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Engineering Techniques (ICSET 2019)6–7 March 2019, Baghdad, Iraq, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019, Vol. 3, article id 032061Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical study of the adhesive joint made of similar and dissimilar adherends subjected to thermo-mechanical loading is presented. A comprehensive numerical model was used for this purpose with the novel displacement coupling conditions which are able to correctly represent monoclinic materials (off-axis layers of composite laminates). The geometrical nonlinearity as well as nonlinear material model are also taken into account. Three different types of single-lap and double-lap adhesive joints are considered in this study: a) metal-metal; b) composite-composite; c) composite-metal. In case of composite laminates, four lay-ups are evaluated: uni-directional ([08]T and [908]T) and quasi-isotropic laminates ([0/45/90/-45]S and [90/45/0/-45]S). This paper focuses on the parameters which have the major effect on the peel and shear stress distribution within adhesive layer at the overlap ends. The comparison of behaviour of single- and double- lap joints in relation to these parameters is made. The master curves for maximum stress (peel and shear) at the ends of the overlap with respect to the bending stiffness and axial modulus of the adherends are constructed by analysing stress distributions in the middle of the adhesive. The main conclusions of this paper are: the maximum peel stress value for SLJ is reduced with increase of the adherend bending stiffness and for DLJ, similar behaviour was observed at the end next to the inner plate corner, while, at the end next to the outer plate corner peel stress is reduced with increase of adherend axial modulus.

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  • 21.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Estimation of the tensile strength of an oriented flax fiber-reinforced polymer composite2011In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 42, no 9, p. 1229-1235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unidirectional orientation of natural fibers in a polymer composite ensures the highest efficiency of reinforcement. Flax fiber reinforcement is discontinuous due to limited fiber length and heterogeneous due to the presence of elementary fibers and their bundles. In order to assess the upper limit of tensile strength of such slightly misoriented, nominally UD natural fiber composite, a statistical strength model of continuous UD fiber reinforced composites is applied. It is found that the experimental strength of UD flax composites, produced from rovings or manually aligned fibers, approaches the theoretical limit only at relatively low fiber volume fraction ca. 0.2, being markedly below it at higher fiber content.

  • 22.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Hojo, M.
    Ochiai, S.
    Kyoto University.
    Fibre fragment distribution in a single-fibre composite tension test2001In: Composites Part B: Engineering, ISSN 1359-8368, E-ISSN 1879-1069, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 323-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single fibre fragmentation tests are performed for brittle fibres with Weibull strength distribution and different surface treatments. The fragmentation process is modelled and closed-form expressions for break spacing distribution are obtained. The model accounts for the effect of finite fibre length on the initial fragmentation as well as for break interaction on the advanced fragmentation stage. It is assumed that the exclusion zone due to fibre-matrix interface failure and stress recovery in the fibre is linearly dependent on the applied load. This assumption is validated experimentally. The derived theoretical average fragment length dependence on applied load is used to determine the fibre strength distribution parameters and the effective interfacial shear stress for carbon/epoxy single fibre composites with different fibre surface treatment and for glass/vinylester single fibre composite. Fragment length distribution is predicted for several load levels. Predictions are in good agreement with experimental data

  • 23.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Hojo, M.
    Mesoscopic Materials Research Center, Kyoto University.
    Ochiai, S.
    Mesoscopic Materials Research Center, Kyoto University.
    Glass fibre strength distribution determined by common experimental methods2002In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 131-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tensile strength of brittle fibres is routinely described by the Weibull distribution. The parameters of the distribution can be obtained from tests on single fibres and fibre bundles or from model composite tests. However, there is growing evidence that the distribution parameters obtained by different experimental techniques differ systematically. In order to investigate the possible causes of such discrepancies, single-fibre tension, fibre bundle, and single-fibre fragmentation tests are employed in this study to obtain strength distribution of commercial E-glass fibres. The results reveal parameter dependence on the approach used to extract the distribution parameters from experimental data. Particularly, in the case of single-fibre tension tests, the shape parameter obtained from average fibre strength vs. length data is larger than that obtained at a fixed gauge length. It is assumed that the apparent fibre strength scatter is caused by both the inherent flaw structure along a fibre and by the fibre-to-fibre strength variability within a batch, due to slightly differing processing and handling history of the fibres. Fibre fragmentation test results are used to derive the Weibull distribution parameters applicable to the fibre batch. The strength distribution obtained is compared with strength data for the single fibres, and reasonably good agreement is observed.

  • 24.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Sandmark, R.
    Materials division, SINTEF SI, Russia.
    Constrained fragmentation of composites under uniaxial loading1995In: Mechanics of composite materials, ISSN 0191-5665, E-ISSN 1573-8922, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Weichert, D.
    Institute of General Mechanics, RWTH-Aachen University.
    Modeling the effect of reinforcement discontinuity on the tensile strength of UD flax fiber composites2011In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 46, no 15, p. 5104-5110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To exploit the potential of natural fibers as reinforcement of polymer matrix composites, aligned bast fiber composite materials are being produced and studied. Bast fiber reinforcement is discontinuous due to the limited length of natural fibers, which needs to be reflected in predictive models of mechanical properties of composites. The strength in tension in the fiber direction of an aligned flax fiber-reinforced composite is modeled assuming that a cluster of adjacent fiber discontinuities is the origin of fracture. A probabilistic model of tensile strength, developed for UD composites containing a microdefect, is applied. It follows from the theoretical analysis that the experimental tensile strength as a function the fiber volume fraction can be described with acceptable accuracy assuming the presence of a cluster of ca. 4 × 4 elementary fiber discontinuities

  • 26.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Leterrier, Y.
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Statistical model of coating fragmentation under equibiaxial load1998In: Materials and Manufacturing Processes, ISSN 1042-6914, E-ISSN 1532-2475, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 597-602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A statistical model of coating cracking under equibiaxial tension is proposed based on a Weibull strength distribution for the coating. Crack length and spacing distributions are derived assuming that cracks initiate in random locations and propagate straight till stopping upon encountering a geometiical obstacle (another crack). The theoretical distributions are verified by comparing with simulated cracking patterns obtained by the Monte-Carlo method. An analysis of crack patterns of SiO2 coatings on a PET film under biaxial tension is performed. Qualitative agreement with the theoretical crack spacing distribution is observed.

  • 27.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, 23 Aizkraukles iela, LV-1006 Rīga, Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Luleå University of Technology. Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, 23 Aizkraukles iela, LV-1006 Rīga, Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Prediction of crack onset strain in composite laminates at mixed mode cracking2009In: 5th International EEIGM/AMASE/FORGEMAT Conference on Advanced Materials Research, Bristol: IOP Publishing Ltd , 2009, Vol. 5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Failure process of continuous fiber reinforced composite laminates in tension usually starts with appearance of intralaminar cracks. In composite laminates with complex lay-ups and/or under combined loading, intralaminar cracks may develop in plies with different reinforcement directions. A necessary part of mixed mode cracking models is the criterion of failure. For propagation-controlled fracture it is usually formulated in terms of energy release rates and their critical values of the particular composite material. Intralaminar fracture toughness of unidirectionally reinforced glass/epoxy composite was experimentally determined at several mode I and mode II ratios. It is found that the crack propagation criterion, linear in terms of the energy release rates, reasonably well approximates the test results. The determined mixed mode cracking criterion was applied to predict intralaminar crack onset in cross-ply glass/epoxy composite under tensile loading. The predicted crack onset strain values agree with test results at small off-axes angles of the cracking ply (on-axis and 15° off-axis loading), but underestimate crack onset at larger reinforcement angles with respect to the loading direction. The discrepancy is likely to be caused by the deviation of linearity in laminate response before cracking onset in these laminates, related to non-linear shear characteristics of unidirectional plies. The applicability of strength-based fracture criterion for initiation-controlled cracking is discussed.

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  • 28.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    University of Latvia, Riga.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Stiffness and strength of flax fiber/polymer matrix composites2006In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 221-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flax fiber composites with thermoset and thermoplastic polymer matrices have been manufactured and tested for stiffness and strength under uniaxial tension. Flax/polypropylene and flax/maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene composites are produced from compound obtained by coextrusion of granulated polypropylene and flax fibers, while flax fiber mat/vinylester and modified acrylic resin composites are manufactured by resin transfer molding. The applicability of rule-of-mixtures and orientational averaging based models, developed for short fiber composites, to flax reinforced polymers is considered.

  • 29.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Initiation and propagation controlled intralaminar cracking in cross-ply laminates: Chapter 102010In: Encyclopedia of Polymer Composites: Properties, Performance and Applications / [ed] Mikhail Lechkov; Sergej Prandzheva, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2010, p. 477-510Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mechanical damage characteristics of elementary hemp fibers and scale effect of fiber strength2012In: High Performance Structure and Materials VI: papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Performance Structures and Materials held at the Wessex Institute of Technology in the New Forest, UK] / [ed] W.P. De Wilde; C.A. Brebbia; S. Hernandez, Southampton: WIT Press, 2012, p. 157-167Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ecological and economical considerations foster replacement of man-made fibers by natural renewable fibers in various industrial applications. Bast fibers of such plants as, e.g., flax, hemp, jute etc., are particularly attractive as a reinforcement of polymer-matrix composites due to their high specific stiffness and strength in the axial direction. The elementary bast fibers exhibit pronounced scatter of strength. It necessitates probabilistic description of their strength via a distribution function that reflects damage morphology and severity in fibers. Fiber fracture is shown to originate from mechanical defects of the bast cell wall, the most prominent of them being kink bands. While the number of kink bands in a fiber is easily determined by optical microscopy, direct experimental measurement of their strength is complicated. Therefore, alternative approaches are sought, enabling extraction of strength characteristics of the kink bands from fiber tests via appropriate probabilistic models. Analytical distribution function of bast fiber strength has been derived, allowing for the effect of mechanical damage in the form of kink bands. The fiber characteristics measured have been used to evaluate the kink band density and strength distributions. The theoretical distribution is verified against experimental tensile strength data of elementary hemp fibers at several gauge lengths and found to provide acceptable accuracy in predicting the scale effect of strength.

  • 31. Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Evaluation of interfacial shear strength by tensile tests of impregnated flax fiber yarns2012In: Journal of composite materials, ISSN 0021-9983, E-ISSN 1530-793X, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 351-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesion of flax fibers and polymer matrix as well as mutual bonding of elementary fibers in a technical fiber are among the principal factors governing the mechanical response of flax fiber reinforced polymer-matrix composites. A method for evaluation of adhesion is proposed based on tension tests of impregnated fiber yarns, with subsequent characterization by optical microscopy of length distribution of fibers pulled out of the yarn fracture surfaces. An elementary probabilistic model is derived relating aspect ratio distribution of the pulled out fibers to the fiber tensile strength distribution and the effective interfacial shear strength. The method was applied to flax fiber/vinylester resin yarns and an estimate of interfacial shear strength at 17 MPa was obtained.

  • 32.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Statistical model of the transverse ply cracking in cross-ply laminates by strength and fracture toughness based failure criteria2008In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 75, no 9, p. 2651-2665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-ply laminate subjected to tensile loading provides a relatively well understood and widely used model system for studying progressive cracking of the transverse ply. This test allows to identify material strength and/or toughness characteristics as well as to establish relation between damage level and the composite stiffness reduction. The transverse ply cracking is an inherently stochastic process due to the random variability of local material properties of the plies. The variability affects both crack initiation (governed by the local strength) and propagation (governed by the local fracture toughness). The primary aim of the present study is elucidation of the relative importance of these phenomena in the fragmentation process at different transverse and longitudinal ply thickness ratios. The effect of the random crack distribution on the mechanical properties reduction of the laminate is also considered. Transverse ply cracking in glass fiber/epoxy cross-ply laminates of the lay-ups [02/902]s, [0/902]s, and [0/904]s is studied. Several specimens of each lay-up were subjected to uniaxial quasistatic tension to obtain crack density as a function of applied strain. Crack spacing distributions at the edge of the specimen also were determined at a predefined applied strain. Statistical model of the cracking process is derived, calibrated using crack density vs. strain data, and verified against the measured crack spacing distributions.

  • 33.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Luleå University of Technology. Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Rubenis, Oskars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Progressive cracking mastercurves of the transverse ply in a laminate2009In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 1175-1182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, progressive cracking of a transverse layer in a cross-ply composite laminate subjected to tensile loading is considered. Using the results of a probabilistic cracking model, approximate relations for crack density as a function of stress are derived for initiation-controlled and propagation-controlled cracking. It is shown that the crack density evolution in the transverse ply can be represented by a mastercurve in suitably normalized coordinates. The mastercurve approach is applied to progressive cracking in glass/epoxy laminates.

  • 34.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Modniks, Janis
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    An Improved Method For Identification Of The Interfacial Shear Strength By Tensile Tests Of Short-Fiber Composites2015In: Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Composites Testing and Model Identification / [ed] C. González; C. López; J. LLorca, Madrid, Spain: IMDEA, Madrid (SPAIN) , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 35.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Modniks, Janis
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Madsen, Bo
    Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, Materials Research Division, Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark.
    Nättinen, Kalle
    Bemis Flexible Packaging Europe, Bemis Valkeakoski Oy.
    Apparent interfacial shear strength of short-flax-fiber/starch acetate composites2016In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 64, p. 78-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with an indirect industry-friendly method for identification of the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) in a fully bio-based composite. The IFSS of flax fiber/starch acetate is evaluated by a modified Bowyer and Bader method based on an analysis of the stress-strain curve of a short-fiber-reinforced composite in tension. A shear lag model is developed for the tensile stress-strain response of short-fiber-reinforced composites allowing for an elasticperfectly plastic stress transfer. Composites with different fiber volume fractions and a variable content of plasticizer have been analyzed. The apparent IFSS of flax /starch acetate is within the range of 5.5 to 20.5 MPa, depending on composition of the material. The IFSS is found to be greater for composites with a higher fiber loading and to decrease with increasing content of plasticizer. The IFSS is equal or greater than the yield strength of the neat polymer, suggesting good adhesion, as expected for the chemically compatible constituents.

  • 36.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    The onset of mixed mode intralaminar cracking in a cross-ply composite laminate2008In: Mechanics of composite materials, ISSN 0191-5665, E-ISSN 1573-8922, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 549-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intralaminar fracture toughness of a unidirectionally reinforced glass/epoxy composite is determined experimentally at several mode I and mode II loading ratios. The crack propagation criterion, expressed as a quadratic form in terms of single-mode stress intensity factors (alternatively, linear in terms of energy release rates), approximates the test results reasonably well. The mixed-mode cracking criterion obtained is used to predict the intralaminar crack on set in a cross-ply glass/epoxy composite under off-axis tensile loading.

  • 37.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Aizkraukles iela 23, Rīga, 1006, Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Luleå University of Technology. Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Aizkraukles iela 23, Rīga, 1006, Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Uniformity of filament strength within a flax fiber batch2009In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 685-687Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Wallström, Lennart
    Strength distribution of elementary flax fibres2005In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 65, no 3-4, p. 693-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flax fibres, along with a number of other natural fibres, are being considered as an environmentally friendly alternative of synthetic fibres in fibre-reinforced polymer composites. A common feature of natural fibres is a much higher variability of mechanical properties. This necessitates study of the flax fibre strength distribution and efficient experimental methods for its determination. Elementary flax fibres of different gauge lengths are tested by single fibre tension in order to obtain the stress-strain response and strength and failure strain distributions. The applicability of single fibre fragmentation test for flax fibre failure strain and strength characterization is considered. It is shown that fibre fragmentation test can be used to determine the fibre length effect on mean fibre strength and limit strain.

  • 39.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Nyström, Birgitha
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Scale effect of the tensile strength of flax-fabric-reinforced polymer composites2011In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 30, no 23, p. 1969-1974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of UD natural fiber composites, considered for application as structural materials, necessitates evaluation of the scale effect of their strength. Alignment of the fibers in flax bast fiber composites can be achieved by employing textile reinforcement, such as yarns and fabrics. Cutting specimens for mechanical tests out of such textile-reinforced composite plates results in a complex non-uniform reinforcement structure at their edges, which may affect the strength of specimens. Scale effect of the tensile strength in the fiber direction of flax fabric reinforced composites is studied in the current work. A model accounting for both volume and edge effect of the specimens on their tensile strength is proposed.

  • 40.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Porike, Evija
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Strength distribution of elementary flax fibres due to mechanical defects2008In: 11th International Inorganic-Bonded Fiber Composites Conference (IIBCC): Madrid, Nov. 4 - 7, 2008. Proceedings / [ed] Blanco Suárez; Maria Ángeles, Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Rubenis, Ojars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Estimation of laminate stiffness reduction due to cracking of a transverse ply by employing crack initiation- and propagation-based master curves2008In: Mechanics of composite materials, ISSN 0191-5665, E-ISSN 1573-8922, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 441-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The applicability range of toughness-and strength-based criteria for progressive cracking of a transverse layer in a cross-ply composite laminate subjected to tensile loading is considered. Using a deterministic cracking model, approximate relations for the crack density as a function of stress are derived for initiation-and propagation-controlled types of cracking. The master-curve approach is applied to progressive cracking in glass/epoxy laminates. The accuracy of estimation of laminate stiffness reduction by using crack density master curves is evaluated.

  • 42.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Granda, Luis A.
    Laboratory of Paper Engineering and Polymer Materials (LEPAMAP) Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Girona.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Vilaseca, Fabiola
    Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Experimental evaluation of anisotropy in injection molded polypropylene/wood fiber biocomposites2017In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 96, p. 147-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the anisotropy of wood fibers is reasonably well established, the anisotropy of injection molded wood fiber composites is not well understood. This work focuses on chemo-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP) reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. A kinetic mixer (Gelimat) is used for compounding CTMP/PP composites, followed by injection molding. Effects from processing induced orientation on mechanical properties are investigated. For this purpose, a film gate mold was designed to inject composites in the shape of plates so that specimens in different directions to the flow could be evaluated in tensile tests. Observations from tensile tests were complemented by performing flexural tests (in different directions) on discs cut from the injected plates. SEM was used to qualitatively observe the fiber orientation in the composites. At high fiber content, both modulus and tensile strength could differ by as much as 40% along the flow and transverse to the flow. The fiber orientation was strongly increased at the highest fiber content, as concluded from theoretical analysis.

  • 43.
    Basso, Margherita
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering “G. Natta”, Milan, Italy. Research Hub by Electrolux Professional, Pordenone, Italy.
    Piselli, Agnese
    Research Hub by Electrolux Professional, Pordenone, Italy. Politecnico di Milano, Department of Design, Milan, Italy.
    Simonato, Michele
    Research Hub by Electrolux Professional, Pordenone, Italy.
    Furlanetto, Riccardo
    Research Hub by Electrolux Professional, Pordenone, Italy.
    Pupure, Liva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    De Nardo, Luigi
    Politecnico di Milano, Department of Design, Milan. INSTM—National Interuniversity Consortium of Materials Science and Technology, Firenze, Italy.
    Effect of food chemicals and temperature on mechanical reliability of bio-based glass fibers reinforced polyamide2019In: Composites Part B: Engineering, ISSN 1359-8368, E-ISSN 1879-1069, Vol. 157, p. 140-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental study to assess the effects of food chemicals and temperature on the mechanical performance of glass fiber reinforced bio-based polyamide. The diffusion of food chemicals was mainly driven by thermal energy, following Arrhenius law in all tested environments. Degradation of mechanical properties and decrease in reliability were assessed, due to the plasticization of polymer matrix. Secondary but not negligible effect on flexural strength degradation is given by the different chemical interaction between polymeric chains and molecules of food chemicals. Colour change was measured and resulted to be positively correlated to diffusion.

  • 44.
    Basso, Margherita
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering, Milan, Italy;The Research Hub by Electrolux Professional, Pordenone, Italy.
    Pupure, Liva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Simonato, Michele
    The Research Hub by Electrolux Professional, Pordenone, Italy.
    Furlanetto, Riccardo
    The Research Hub by Electrolux Professional, Pordenone, Italy.
    De Nardo, Luigi
    Politecnico di Milano, Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering, Milan, Italy;INSTM—National Interuniversity Consortium of Materials Science and Technology, Firenze, Italy.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Nonlinear creep behaviour of glass fiber reinforced polypropylene: Impact of aging on stiffness degradation2019In: Composites Part B: Engineering, ISSN 1359-8368, E-ISSN 1879-1069, Vol. 163, p. 702-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonlinear creep behavior of one commercial short glass fiber reinforced polypropylene was investigated using tensile creep tests and stiffness degradation measurements. The impact of thermal aging and following quenching was evaluated on the latter mechanical property. Experimental results were modeled applying nonlinear viscoelastic model used by Pupure et al. (2013) and developed by Lou and Schapery [1,2]. Results showed that this model can describe nonlinear behavior of short glass fiber reinforced polymer composites, where microdamage is given by debonding of fiber-matrix interfaces already at low strains, where cracks propagate and lead to tensile creep fracture.

  • 45.
    Berglund, Lars
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Effects of voids on failure mechanisms in RTM laminates1994Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Bianchi, Otávio
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Materials Engineering (DEMAT), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Cruz, Joziel A.
    Department of Materials Engineering (DEMAT), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Paim, Lucas
    Department of Materials Engineering (DEMAT), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Lavoratti, Alessandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Materials Engineering (DEMAT), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Amico, Sandro C.
    Department of Materials Engineering (DEMAT), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Rheology, curing and time-dependent behavior of epoxy/carbon nanoparticles systems2023In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, article id e54821Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Doroudgarian, Newsha
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Anglada, Marc
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
    Mestra, Alvaro
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Bio-based composites with different moisture contents under static and dynamic loading2013In: 6th international conference on composites testing and model identification: held 22-24 April 2013 in Aalborg, Denmark / [ed] O.T. Thomsen; Bent F. Sørensen; Christian Berggreen, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Doroudgarian, Newsha
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Pupure, Liva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mechanical behavior of bio-based composites and their constituents at different humidity levels2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the few past years the development of natural fiber composites for structural applications has gained the momentum. Mainly the efforts in development of these materials were focused on the composites with synthetic matrices. But most recently several bio-based resins (Tribest, EpoBioX etc.) have been introduced, allowing production of whole bio-based composites. The latest results demonstrated that these composites are comparable with glass fiber reinforced polymers in terms of stiffness. However due to variability of fiber properties and limited filament length it is complicated to arrange and control fiber alignment in composites as well as ensure stable, predictable composite properties. Therefore, another type of reinforcement with natural origin has caught attention of researchers – Regenerated Cellulose Fibers (RCF). These fibers are continuous with constant, reproducible cross-section and properties but with one significant disadvantage - they exhibit highly non-linear behavior. Thus, this reinforcement should be treated as material with time-dependent properties. Schepary developed model for time-dependent materials. This model has been successfully applied to short fiber (natural and synthetic) and long synthetic fiber composites. However, in order to apply this model, large number of time-consuming tests on studied composites must be performed. Therefore, our objective is to improve this model in such a way that only input of properties of constituents is required to predict behavior of material with any composition. Visco-elasticity and viscoplasticity has been analyzed by performing creep tests at different time steps and stress levels, and extent of damage is evaluated by performing stiffness degradation tests of fibers, matrix and composite.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 49.
    Doroudgarian, Newsha
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Pupure, Liva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Moisture uptake and resulting mechanical response of biobased composites: II. Composites2015In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 1510-1519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The durability of entirely bio-based composites with respect to the exposure to elevated humidity was evaluated. Different combinations of bio-based resins (Tribest, EpoBioX, Envirez) and cellulosic fibers (flax and regenerated cellulose fiber rovings and fabrics) were used to manufacture unidirectional and cross-ply composite laminates. Water absorption experiments were performed at various humidity levels (41%, 70%, and 98%) to measure apparent diffusion coefficient and moisture content at saturation. Effect of chemical treatment (alkali and silane) of fibers as protection against moisture was also studied. However, fiber treatment did not show any significant improvement and in some cases the performance of the composites with treated fibers was lower than those with untreated reinforcement. The comparison of results for neat resins and composites showed that moisture uptake in the studied composites is primarily due to cellulosic reinforcement. Tensile properties of composites as received (RH = 24%) and conditioned (RH = 41%, 70%, and 98%) were measured in order to estimate the influence of humidity on behavior of these materials. Results were compared with data for glass fiber reinforced composite, as a reference material. Previous results from study of unreinforced polymers showed that resins were resistant to moisture uptake. Knowing that moisture sorption is primarily dominated by natural fibers, the results showed that some of the composites with bio-based resins performed very well and have comparable properties with composites of synthetic epoxy, even at elevated humidity.

  • 50.
    Doroudgarian, Newsha
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Pupure, Liva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sensivity to moisture and its effect on mechanical behavior of bio-based resins reinforced with cellulosic fibers2013In: 21st anniversary of the bio-environmental polymer society, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
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