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  • 1.
    Berge, Staffan
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nord, Tomas
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University.
    Business models in industrialized building of multi-storey houses2014In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 208-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The business model construct has been widely used during the last decade, partly because of its potential to provide a holistic view of how companies do business. A test of how prefabrication could form the basis of a construction firm’s business model can lead to an understanding of the potential for the competitiveness and profitability of industrialized building. The aim is to adapt a general business model construct and use it to empirically identify the most frequently used and the most viable business model. The theoretical perspective is employed to examine how a company does business and which activities and resources are mobilized through the distinction between strategic and operational effectiveness. The multiple case studies include five major Swedish companies that produce prefabricated timber building systems and the analysis is grounded in pattern-finding. The business model construct includes: market position, offering, and operational platform. The result indicates five business model elements: prefabrication mode, role in the building process, end-user segments, system augmentation and complementary resources. Applying this construct to the five case companies revealed that one out of seven models was found to be viable in terms of both ‘market share’ and decision-makers’ opinions. One important conclusion is to take the prefabrication mode as the starting point for business model design and then adapt the other elements to a good fit

  • 2. Bergström, Max
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Benefits and disadvantages of ERP in industrialised timber frame housing in Sweden2005In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 831-838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialised timber frame housing is successful in the Swedish market for one-family housing. In the manufacturing industry, methods and software systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP) are widespread, demonstrating significant benefits. A survey of the majority of industrialised timber frame housing companies in Sweden demonstrates low ERP use with a low degree of strategic importance, but with operational and managerial benefits. The ERP approach has potential for industrialised housing and its use is favoured by an increased maturity in IT.

  • 3. Bergström, Max
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Ett effektivt stombyggande i trä2005In: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 5, p. 42-44, 46Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Industriellt trähusbyggande i Sverige.

  • 4. Bergström, Max
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Integrated design and production of multi-storey timber frame houses: production effects caused by customer-oriented design2002In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 259-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results from an ongoing R and D project aiming for an industrialised development of a multi-storey timber frame house system. The development was conducted systematically using methods from concurrent engineering (CE) focusing on the customer satisfaction and production-design problems/possibilities. A Swedish SME building company was investigated from the viewpoint of customer orientation, production and design of multi-storey timber frame houses. The company uses industrial fabrication of volumes. The aim was to analyse how the production can benefit from an integration of a customer-oriented design and production. First, a model based on the QFD method is proposed on how requirements from customers, i.e., tenants, can be taken into account in the design process and how CE can be adapted to a SME design process. Second, a preliminary model is proposed considering disturbances and relative cost effects on the production due to changes in the design solutions. The presented model aims to predict the total cost for a customer affected design on the used building system to forecast the costs for the main contractor and building owner for a similar integrated design in the future. All observations are based on case studies of the design process and the industrialised production of a three-storey timber frame house with three different floor designs.

  • 5. Bergström, Max
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Manufacturing resource planning in industrialized timber frame house construction in Sweden2003In: Construction economics and organization: proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization, 24-24 April 2003, Lund, Sweden / [ed] Bengt Hansson; Anne Landin, Lund: Lund Institute of Technology , 2003, p. 81-90Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. Bergström, Max
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Matching industrialised timber frame housing needs and enterprise resource planning: a change process2005In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 97, no 2, p. 172-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for improvements in industrialised housing through the adoption of concepts like enterprise resource planning (ERP) from the manufacturing industry, as applied to small and medium-sized enterprises, is evaluated in this paper. Four single, consecutive case studies were performed at a Swedish medium-sized industrialised housing company. The findings suggest that ERP can meet industrialised housing needs as well as promote an organisation to be re-engineered through comprehensive change and act as a driver for a more efficient internal and external supply chain.

  • 7. Björnfot, Anders
    et al.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Lindbäck, Hans
    Lindbäcks Bygg, Sverige.
    Projekt: Installationssamordning2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet syftar till att arbeta fram en modell för hur modularisering kan utnyttjas praktiskt i byggsammanhang. Specifikt handlar det om att definiera och avgränsa moduler samt att redogöra för hur en teknisk plattform kan skapas som stöds av en individuell utveckling av moduler för tekniska installationer. Medverkande parter Universitet: Luleå tekniska universitet (LTU) Företag: Lindbäcks Bygg AB Norvag Byggsystem AB Moelven ByggModul AB Setra Group AB Martinsons Byggsystem AB

  • 8.
    Björnfot, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    A design structural matrix approach displaying structural and assembly requirements in construction: a timber case study2007In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 113-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental demand of construction design is human safety from structural failure. As a consequence, buildings generally tend to be structurally optimized with cost as the main target parameter. However, a cost-suboptimized structural design often leads to poor constructability decisions with subsequent waste. This paper presents initial research in the development of a design structural matrix (DSM) method able to identify constructability obstacles between structural design and assembly and thus eliminate waste. Empirical data based on a case study of long-span timber structures is used in the development and analysis of the method. The DSM was found to be a holistic tool for systematic consideration of structural design and constructability requirements by providing a standardized system view, a detailed element view, and physical and functional interactions among elements and modules. The DSM was also shown to aid in detailed design and production management through the use of simple matrix tools.

  • 9.
    Björnfot, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    A systematic framework for long-span timber structures2004In: Proceedings, The 8th World Conference on Timber Engineering: WCTE 2004, 2004, Vol. 1, p. 93-98Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Björnfot, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Industrialization of construction: a lean modular approach2004In: 12th Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction: proceedings of IGLC-12 : Helsingør, Denmark, August, 3-5, 2004 / [ed] Sven Bertelsen; Carlos T. Formoso, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Björnfot, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Product design for improved material flow: a multi-storey timber housing project2005In: Proceedings: 13th Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction / [ed] Russell Kenely, Sydney: International group for lean construction , 2005, p. 297-306Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding of construction has evolved to include a deeper understanding of its mechanics; in addition to traditional on-site work involving the manufacturing of building products - industrial construction. One of the most important aspects of any industrial process is flow of materials and resources. Using empirical data from a unique multi-storey timber housing project, this paper aims at building a better understanding of how product design affects flow of materials in housing construction. Even though a high degree of prefabrication was used in the project, the amount of complementary site work caused delays, complaints, and a slow learning cycle. A standardization process was used to shift product 'know-how' from person to product, resulting in increased flow and a reduction of errors. Prefabrication was not the sole solution to the encountered problems, but the controlled and ordered environment in prefabrication provided solutions at early stages. Instead of working towards solving the main production issues, the management was instead observed working with minor changes (first-aid solutions) to control flow. If industrialized multistorey timber housing construction is to be successful, product design decisions should be thought through, thoroughly, from start to finish using standardization as a guiding star

  • 12.
    Björnfot, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Value delivery through product offers: a lean leap in multi-storey timber housing construction2007In: Lean Construction Journal, ISSN 1555-1369, E-ISSN 1555-1369, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 33-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among large Swedish contractors there is currently a specialization trend towards an increased use of prefabrication and complete systems in housing construction. The Lean Construction development up to date has focused on the management of value delivery for complex construction projects. Typical Swedish housing projects do not experience this broad complexity; instead the main challenge seems to be to better specify and deliver customer value. Currently, the Lean Construction methods available are not by themselves enough for the generation of value in Swedish multi-storey housing construction. The aim of this paper is to examine the potential of the product offer (a well-defined and highly standardized building system developed from the value views of specific customers) as an aid in the generation and delivery of value for multi-storey timber housing construction.From the point of view of manufacturing and customer value, the product offer is considered a Lean strategy for integrated consideration of internal and external value. Case study experiences indicate that the product offer strategy provides stability and continuity for producers that in turn provides with Lean practices in marketing, design and manufacturing. Approaching Lean, small- to medium-sized Swedish producers should focus on improvements through Lean Manufacturing. However, since an emerging demand from the Swedish construction industry forces these producers to take a larger role in the construction process, more construction related Lean improvements must also be considered. In this regard, the product offer is demonstrated to be a promising Lean strategy for the Swedish housing industry.

  • 13.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Industrial Marketing, Management and Engineering, Linkping University.
    Nord, Tomas
    Industrial Marketing, Management and Engineering, Linkping University.
    Sjöström, Roland
    Industrial Marketing, Management and Engineering, Linkping University.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Value-added strategies and forward integration in the Swedish sawmill industry: positioning and profitability in the high-volume segment2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 482-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The changing market conditions for the Swedish sawmill industry place a focus on a better understanding of the pros and cons of value-added and forward integration strategies. The purpose of this article is to describe and explain recent value-added strategies in the Swedish sawmill industry. The study includes strategies from 13 of the 15 largest sawmill companies for the period between 2002 and 2005, describing a differentiation between value added in primary sawmill production and forward integration into secondary production. It also aims to relate some basic conditions, such as company size, company growth and corporate strategy, to value added and forward integration to profitability. The results show strong positive and significant correlations between forward integration, value added in primary production (somewhat weaker) and unit revenue, and profitability measured as return on investment. There were no strong or significant correlations between size and profitability, playing down the importance of economies of scale (among these already large companies). An interesting result is the much higher profitability of the buying sawmill companies compared with the forest corporations, stressing the importance of both a long-term strategy when investing in value-added activities and ultimately the priorities of ownership.

  • 14. Croon, Ingemar
    et al.
    Apleberger, Lennart
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Trämekaniska industrin måste lyfta sig i håret2002In: Svensk papperstidning, ISSN 1403-9605, no 12, p. 10-12Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sardén, Ylva
    Stehn, Lars
    Towards improving client-contractor communication in industrialised building2009In: Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference, 2009, September 7-9, Albert Hall, Nottingham / [ed] Andrew Dainty, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2009, p. 21-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Criticism of the building sector in Sweden, concerning for example high cost and poor quality, has lead to a growing interest in industrialised building. However, the effect on the sector and the overall building market is still quite insignificant. One business challenge for industrialised building companies to face in order to become more competitive is to further improve client/market interaction, improve mutual understanding and to reduce uncertainties in client relations. In this ongoing work the communication between industrialised building companies and building clients is examined. The aim is to identify important points of client-contractor communication that affect project outcome and present barriers to effective communication. In addition to a literature review, with the aim to define effective communication , the client-contractor communication in different building projects has been studied. Empirical data was collected through interviews and workshops, observations and project-specific documentation, addressing both clients and contractors. The results indicate that, in order to improve client-contractor communication, it seems important to assess if a barrier to effective communication is client uncertainty, and concerned with lack of information, or if it is client equivocality, which requires richer information rather than more information. The barrier must then be addressed accordingly. In the industrialised building context, client-contractor communication is probably distorted by lack of market/client knowledge concerning the industrialised building process, but also by previous experiences from traditional building.

  • 16.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Barriers to client-contractor communication: Implementing process innovation in a building project in Sweden2016In: International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, ISSN 1740-2891, E-ISSN 1740-2905, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 151-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Client-contractor communication is vital for achieving project goals but also for adopting innovations. However, this type of communication does not take place across just one interface but across several. In the present study, barriers to client-contractor communication were addressed with the intention of specifically highlighting the potential impact of the project-based setting. A case study of a building project where process innovation was to be implemented provided the data. The analysis focused on meaning-making by different participants during progression of the project until its completion. Although the project was successfully completed, some of the aims of the process innovation were not realised as planned due to emerging meaning-making problems. A main suggestion from the reported findings was that the predominant project logic in construction may be a key barrier to client-contractor communication in implementing innovations presented by actors on the supply-side

  • 17.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sardén, Ylva
    Competitive impact of industrialised building: in search for explanations to the current state2009In: Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference, 2009, September 7-9, Albert Hall, Nottingham / [ed] Andrew Dainty, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2009, p. 413-424Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialised building has been proposed as a means of satisfying changes needed in the Swedish building sector. Over the last decade industrialised building has also developed as a niche within this sector. Given its potential, however, some stakeholders think that industrialised building has not yet had the impact they expected, and that the building sector is still in need of change to meet demands for cost reduction, quality improvement and longer managerial time-spans. Consequently, questions arise regarding the competitive position of industrialised building today, and the underlying causes for its present state. This study is based on a literature review, assessing industrialised building over recent decades, and on complementary interviews with researchers and practitioners. The findings are summarised in a conceptual model that outlines the sought effects of industrialised building, as well as the forces that drive and restrain change towards industrialised building. The demands on the building sector are the main drivers of change for the industry. However, the market itself is not actively driving change towards industrialised building, and the information and understanding required to support clients' decision on whether to enforce market power in one or the other direction is not readily available. How building clients value different building possibilities is also unclear. Suggested future challenges are to reduce client uncertainty, to improve client power and to facilitate the comparison of performance between traditional and industrialised building alternatives.

  • 18.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Discrete event simulation enhanced value stream mapping: an industrialized construction case study2013In: Lean Construction Journal, ISSN 1555-1369, E-ISSN 1555-1369, Vol. 10, p. 47-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research Question/Hypothesis: Can a production process design framework created by integrating Value Stream Mapping (VSM) and Discrete Event Simulation (DES) be used to assess the production system performance, as predicted by a future state design of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) working in industrialized construction?Purpose: To explore a production process design framework in which VSM is used to identify doable improvements and DES provides analytical evaluation of them.Research Method: The demonstration was carried out at a Swedish SME industrialized construction component manufacturerFindings: VSM is unable to evaluate analytically the performance of the future state design. This inability leads to unnecessary implementation iterations. VSM assumes a deterministic model and cannot describe the dynamic behaviors of a system. The dynamic behavior of the construction processes will result in the future state design not performing as expected. However, by analytically evaluating the future state with DES helped the case company to implement a new production process design.Limitations: DES modeling is still time-consuming and needs skilled professionals, the cost of whom can be prohibitive for SMEs and demonstrated in one case study.Implications: The integration of DES and VSM provides a framework to evaluate and communicate the outcome, hence enhancing the application of VSM.Value for practitioners: A lean framework, which can be used, for industrialized construction processes especially by SMEs with very limited resources, to validate changes before implementing them.

  • 19.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Ökad samverkan i försörjningskedjan genom sälj- och verksamhetsplanering: En analys av ett SME sågverks metod och process2016In: PLANs Forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2016: Logistik – teori möter praktik / [ed] Peter Bergling, Helen Forslund, 2016, p. 65-75Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ökad videraförädling för små och medelstora (SME) sågverk innebär att ett ensidigt fokus på produktionsprocessen och sågutbyte bör kompletteras med ökad kundfokus. Sälj- och verksamhetsplanering (SVP) är en planeringsmetod som balanserar kundkrav med övriga operativa processer på medellång sikt. Syftet med denna artikel är att beskriva en anpassad SVP-metod och en SVP-process som möter sågverkets specifika behov av ökad effektivitet i försörjningskedjan samt beskriva faktorer som kan undersökas vidare för att skapa en ökad förståelse av SVP tillämpningen inom sågverkets kontext. Data som analyserats är från en longitudinell fallstudie på ett svenskt SME sågverk och processen för införandet av en SVP-metod. Sågverket sågar cirka 100000 kubikmeter per år av både gran och tall. Forskningen visar att SVP-metoden bör utvecklas så att den kan balansera i två nivåer; både för sågat färdigvarulager och lager för vidareförädling med hänsyn tagen till divergent och konvergent produktflöde. Den utvecklade metoden visar på sågverkets behov av balanserat råmateriallager, men också behovet av att lösa konflikter mellan sågutbyte och olika marknadskrav. Identifierade faktorer för vidare forskning av SVP, som en tillämpad metod och process, är sågverkets förmåga att linjera interna ekonomiska mål, sågverkets behov av ökad kommunikation i försörjningskedjan, tydligare marknadskrav och engagemang från företagsledningen.

  • 20.
    Fransson, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    Omstedt, Anders
    Stehn, Lars
    Sea ice properties studied from the icebreaker Tor during BEPERS-881990Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report presents sea ice data taken during BEPERS-88 experiment in the Bothnian Bay. Several physical properties are presented and analysed. In general, the data illustrate that sea ice is a most complex medium with horizontal and vertical variations. Any analysis of remotely sensed data must therefore carefully consider the ground truth data.

  • 21.
    Fransson, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Porosity effects on measured strength of warm ice1993In: POAC 93: the 12th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, 17. - 20. August 1993, Hamburg. Proceedings, HSVA , 1993, p. 23-26Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Fransson, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Åström, Lars
    Håkansson, B.
    Omstedt, A.
    Variations of ice properties in an ice area of 1x2 km in the Gulf of Bothnia March 19881989In: POAC '89: 10th International conference on port and ocean engineering under arctic conditions / [ed] Kenneth B.E. Axelsson; Lennart Fransson, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 1989, Vol. 3, p. 1348-1357Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23. Fredriksson, Ylva
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Industrial difficulties and strategies for timber building system development in Sweden2003In: Construction economics and organization: proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization, 24-24 April 2003, Lund, Sweden / [ed] Bengt Hansson; Anne Landin, Lund: Lund Institute of Technology , 2003, p. 149-158Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Haller, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    An indicator for superfluous iteration in offsite building design processes2015In: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 360-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhancement of iteration management in the design phase is important for successful offsite building projects. Design iteration has two aspects. Although iteration is necessary to deal with design requirements when solving complex problems (i.e. increasing quality through iteration), it has also been identified in numerous studies to be one of the main causes of design errors and time and cost overruns (i.e. superfluous iteration), as it increases scheduling and design complexity. Current building project management tools do not provide a means to control the reduction of superfluous iteration. One problem is that existing research has difficulty precisely relating the effects of specific management actions to superfluous iteration. The idea of this study is to develop an indicator, the sequence deviation quotient (SDQ), which reflects the amount of superfluous design iteration in a project. It can be thought of as a tool supporting project managers to make systematic and continuous (from project to project) design process improvement. A premise is that the impact of varying project conditions on the process structure of design processes, i.e. the precedence relationships between the design activities, is only small. In this paper, we provide a definition of superfluous iteration. We tested the feasibility of the SDQ by subjecting it to project variation and input perturbation by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. The simulations are based on the data from a real offsite design building process, the designing of a 1100 m2 residential building in Sweden.

  • 25.
    Haller, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Evaluation of efficiency in housing construction design2012In: ARCOM, twenty-seventh annual conference 2011, September 5-7, Bristol / [ed] Charles Egbu ; Eric Choen Weng Lou, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2012, Vol. 2, p. 797-806Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In housing projects a lot of time is spent for rework, entailing the risk of additional costs, time and deficient quality. As much as 50% or more of rework is originated in faulty output from the design phase. Activities within this phase are strongly interrelated and are carried out by several design consultants. Once the sequence of work in an ongoing project is interrupted the risk for loosing control is high. This results in, e.g., poor coordination of project participants, necessary changes in schedules, possible time pressure and about all a higher risk for making errors. The goal with this study is to reduce the risk of work sequence interruptions in the design phase of housing projects, or in terms of Lean, to make activities in the design phase flow. A timber housing multi dwelling building project in Sweden has been mapped in detail. In total 212 activities have been observed and recorded, spanning from the sales to the erection phase. Iterations (rework) have been identified by using process mining techniques in combination with supplemental interviews. A map of the complete design process consisting of 112 activities (exclusive of iteration) has been derived. A measurement model to detect process regions with a high share of iteration has been proposed that, together with the process map, serves as a starting point for further process optimisation. The efficiency of an activity is assessed by comparing the working hours, ignoring the time used for negative iteration (waste), with the working hours actually used to execute this activity. A Pareto-analysis of the occurring iteration with negative impact on quality then provides an indication of a suitable order for process optimisation.

  • 26.
    Haller, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Increasing the Accuracy of a Prefab Building Design Process Simulation Using Simulated Annealing2014In: Automation and robotics for construction: proceedings : CC2014 / [ed] Miklós Hajdu ; Mirosław J. Skibniewski, Budapest: Diamond Congress Ltd , 2014, p. 408-413Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Haller, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Increasing the Accuracy of a Prefab Building Design Process Simulation Using Simulated Annealing2014In: Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058, E-ISSN 1877-7058, Vol. 85, p. 214-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monte-Carlo simulation analysis has been discussed in project management literature as tool for proactive scheduling and to gain better insights into projects which are characterized by a high level of complexity and uncertainty, such as the design phase of prefab building projects. The application of simulation as proactive scheduling tool in construction projects is hampered by limited accessibility of proper input data, though, because of long project duration, the often temporary organization and multidisciplinary nature of such projects. In this study we use simulated annealing to adjust parameters of a simulation model for which the simulation outcome is sensitive to data perturbation by making use of data from related parameters which is easier to estimate. The applicability of the approach was demonstrated on a real life project, the construction of a 1100 m2 residential building in Sweden. More precisely, we used Design Structure Matrix simulation, i.e. an activity network based Monte-Carlo simulation technique with which stochastic project evolution (deviations from the planned activity sequence due to unexpected iteration of sub-processes) can be simulated, to model the workflow of the design process of the observed project. Then, by means of the simulated annealing approach, we adjusted the rework probabilities (model parameter) such that the frequencies of executed activities in simulated activity sequences fitted the frequencies as observed in the real project. Adjusting input data by using prior knowledge of the dependencies of the project activities and cross analysis with related data that is easy to estimate would help to increase the accuracy of simulations when access to statistical data of the input variable in question is limited. The suggested approach is interesting for practitioners who work with standardized design processes (e.g. as part of standardized building systems) and continuous improvement

  • 28.
    Haller, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Standardizing the pre-design-phase for improved efficiency in off-site housing projects2010In: ARCOM twenty-Sixth Annual Conference 2010, September 6-8, Leeds / [ed] Charles O. Egbu; Eric Lou, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2010, Vol. 2, p. 1259-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long erection times on-site and project-specific design work, performed by consultants, generally accounts for a large part of correction and building costs in construction projects. In a typical Swedish housing project, the pre- and design phase accounts for about 10-12 % of the total costs. Due to a lack of standardized conceptualization procedures, much of the design work is reiterated in each project, and thus avoidable costs are incurred. In order to minimize these problems an open building system, called MFB, which exploits standardized technical solutions, design and construction processes for off-site prefabricated housing is under development. The MFB system developer will provide a process manual that describes, in detail, standardized design, construction, and erection processes. The open building system relies on close cooperation with local, often small to medium-sized, enterprises that can efficiently undertake “local” building projects. Here, we present and analyse a standard procedure for the pre-design-phase to incorporate in a MFB-process manual. The pre-design-phase of a MFB-building project was recorded and analysed in terms of efficiency. A detailed process map is presented, showing that 122 process steps were logged from the first contact with the client until the generation of the tender. By standardizing the pre-design-phase, the number of essential activities could be reduced by 47%. An improvement in time efficiency of the pre-design-phase with co-instantaneous generation of effective cost estimates should lead to lower building costs in general. Furthermore, by tightly standardizing and controlling the process, it should be possible to repeat projects (or many aspects of projects), without repeating much of the pre-design-phase, even if the actors change.

  • 29.
    Hedgren, Erika
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    The impact of clients’ decision-making on their adoption of industrialized building2014In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 126-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that client organizations’ decision-making about new-build creates individual-level and organizational-level barriers to the adoption of Swedish industrialized building (IB). However, it has been proposed that clients may overcome barriers on both levels by allowing multiple meanings and conflicting interpretations to surface and interact with their decision-making. The aim is to test this proposition. Based on the theoretical fields of decision-making and organizational information processing, a framework for analysis has been developed. In the framework, three decision-making approaches are operationalized: rational, judgments and managing multiple meanings. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with key decision-makers from four Swedish professional clients differing on when and if they adopted IB: one early-adopter, two late-adopters and one non-adopter. The empirical findings support the proposition and show a relationship between how clients manage multiple meanings in their decision-making and their adoption of IB. The research adds to the understanding of how clients may overcome barriers to the adoption of IB on both individual and organizational levels. Moreover, it increases understanding about how clients might better cope with radical changes and innovations.

  • 30.
    Häggström, Marwin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Thiger, Ingvar
    Televerket Radio, Luleå.
    Atmospheric icing of masts1989In: POAC '89: 10th International conference on port and ocean engineering under arctic conditions / [ed] Kenneth B.E. Axelsson; Lennart Fransson, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 1989, Vol. 2, p. 705-711Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31. Höök, Matilda
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Applicability of lean principles and practices in industrialized housing production2008In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 1091-1100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The applicability of lean principles and practices to industrialized housing in Sweden are examined, taking the production culture into consideration. The factory production of industrialized housing shows apparent similarities to manufacturing, but areas related to fully integrated lean production practices, such as error proofing and standardized work floor and equipment maintenance, are scarce. Hence, applicability of lean principles and practices to industrialized housing production is clearly influenced by a production culture that has similarities to a traditional construction culture. Setting up industrialized housing production thus requires careful implementation of lean principles if workers from traditional building are moved into factories, and managers still adhere to the prevailing site-based production mentality. However, the influence of the traditional construction project culture is not solely a constraint; flexible teams that take their own responsibility are also important in a lean culture. Hence, retaining parts of the existing construction mentality, context and way of working is also central when discussing lean applicability in industrialized housing.

  • 32. Höök, Matilda
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Connecting lean construction to prefabrication complexity in Swedish volume element housing2005In: Proceedings: 13th Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction / [ed] Russell Kenley, Sydney: International group for lean construction , 2005, p. 317-325Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean is about waste elimination and value creation and prefabrication of houses seems to be one way to create structure and decreased complexity and waste generated by variation. However, prefabrication decreases some types of complexity and waste but introduces other ones through new roles of the actors and a shift of focus to manufacturing. The aim of this paper is to develop an understanding of a prefabrication strategy and to show the increased need for a novel comprehension in lean construction regarding different types of prefabrication deliveries and thus different types of complexity. Complexity as such, in this paper used in a contingency context, cannot be generalized and this study explores the differences in peculiarities of on-site construction, element prefabrication and volume element prefabrication. Peculiarities in volume element prefabrication are found to consist of two connected parts; Product complexity including building element design and product design (built-in knowledge) and process complexity including internal logistics, breadth of required knowledge and integration between product and process design. The sources of complexity in volume element prefabrication are thus connected to the in-house production system, differing from on-site construction and element prefabrication peculiarities connected to fragmentation and uncertainty among actors in the value chain.

  • 33.
    Höök, Matilda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Exploring the management of multiple business models in one company2014In: Proceedings 30th Annual Association of Researchers in Construction Management Conference, Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2014, p. 1315-1324Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased demands for responsiveness and efficiency have led specialized Swedish manufacturing firms and contractors to adopt new production and product strategies. Some firms have adopted multiple business models (BMs) concurrently in order to be competitive in the modern market. A BM can be seen as a conceptual blueprint of a company's money earning logic, and can act as a guiding instrument towards competitiveness. It is known that companies trying to compete with both low-cost and differentiation BMs face challenges such as conflicting value chains and straddling costs. However, further understanding of various aspects of BMs, their implementation and effects (particularly in the construction industry) is required. Thus, the aim of this paper is to explore BM management in a manufacturing firm in the Swedish construction industry, which has adopted evolving BMs (some concurrently) in recent years. The results, based on analysis of long-term (15 years) process data, indicate that strategic events and decisions influence the management of parallel BMs, and that strategic events are important for competitiveness. They also show that successful balancing of concurrent BMs can yield synergistic benefits, such as resource flexibility and lower vulnerability in the construction market. Due to its exploratory nature, this work serves as a first step towards a wider and more general understanding of the management of multiple BMs in construction firms.

  • 34. Höök, Matilda
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Berge, Staffan
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University.
    The development of a portfolio of business models: a longitudinal case study of a building material company2015In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 33, no 5-6, p. 334-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic aspects of intended company change can be related to the development and management of a portfolio of business models with regard to competence deployment and to performance. A portfolio of business models is seen as a reflection of the realized strategy of a company, and the dynamics aspects of company change are connected to internal and external critical strategic incidents. The business model elements considered in this research are market position, offering, and operational platform enabling a differentiation between strategic and operational effectiveness. The evolution of a Swedish supplier of building components and systems during a 15-year period is examined. The process data consists of temporal phases where a shift of phase is defined as a change of a specific portfolio of business models. The concept of a portfolio of business models helped to discover new and conflicting standardized or customized business models that were not always intended by the company. The findings indicate that unawareness of intended actions led to unintended allocation of resources or integration mechanisms that negatively affected company performance. On the other hand gains can be achieved if a strategy is deliberately managed as a portfolio of business models which then also can be a tool for managing change in a company

  • 35.
    Janols, Henrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Utilizing 3D-computer visualization for communicating aesthetics of long-span timber structures2004In: Proceedings, The 8th World Conference on Timber Engineering: WCTE 2004, 2004, Vol. 3, p. 223-226Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Johnsson, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Janols, Henrik
    Stehn, Lars
    3D computer visualisation in timber construction: some important parameters2006In: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 161-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Timber building structures are seldom considered because of a lack of timber construction knowledge among many clients and professionals. 3D computer visualization (3D VIZ) is a possible way of communicating the aesthetics of a visible timber structure and visualizing complex timber connections. This paper investigates the potential for 3D VIZ to communicate visible timber structures during the different phases of the construction process. Furthermore, important parameters (controllable in 3D VIZ) for communicating a timber structure are identified. Through an Internet-based Delphi study, the usefulness of 3D VIZ for timber structures has been evaluated by professionals representing different competencies in the construction process. The results show that structural complexity, intended beholder (professional or non-professional) and current construction phase influence the benefit of 3D VIZ. The level of detail in the visualization is heavily dependent on whether the communication is internal (between professionals) or external (between professionals and clients/users). The impact of parameters needed, such as textures, surface structures and realistic lighting, have been described.

  • 37. Johnsson, Helena
    et al.
    Lukaszewska, Elzbieta
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nailed timber joints with a thick interlayer2004In: 8th World Conference on Timber Engineering: WCTE 2004. Proceedings, 2004, p. 281-284Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Johnsson, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    A linear fracture mechanics evaluation of plug shear failure2004In: Proceedings, The 8th World Conference on Timber Engineering: WCTE 2004, 2004, Vol. 1, p. 253-258Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Johnsson, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Effect of joint geometry on the shear-plug failure in nailed timber connections2002In: 7th World conference on timber engineering: WCTE 2002, Penerbitan Publications , 2002, Vol. 2, p. 320-327Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Johnsson, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Plug shear failure in nailed timber connections: load distribution and failure initiation2004In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 455-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brittle failures in mechanical timber joints should be avoided, because this often results in low capacity and brittle failure of the structure. Nailed joints experience three ultimate failure modes: embedding, splitting or plug stear failure. To avoid plug shear failure, short and wide joints are preferred, limiting the number of fasteners in line with the load and grain direction. Plug shear failure was examined in short-term experiments on nailed steel-to-timber joints in glulam loaded in tension parallel to the grain with five different joint geometries. The aim of the study was to examine if the fastener group layout can be adjusted to avoid plug shear failure and to gain an insight into the causes of failure initiation. Using spring models, it is shown that the load distribution creates pronounced stresses at the last nail in the joint, which probably initiates the plug shear failure. Test results are compared with prediction models found in the literature. It was found that fasteners placed in groups can be a successful way of reducing the risk of plug shear failure. The failure is probably initiated at the nail farthest from the free end, where tensile stresses perpendicular to grain occur.

  • 41. Johnsson, Helena
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Säkra våtrumsgolv2004In: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 8, p. 51-52Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Badrumsgolv av kompositmaterial, ett projekt i samarbete mellan Lindbäcks Bygg, APC Composite, Tirsén & Aili Arkitekter och Luleå tekniska högskola.

  • 42.
    Johnsson, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Lukaszewska, Elzbieta
    Connections for prefabricated timber-concrete composite systems2006In: 9th World Conference on Timber Engineering: WCTE 2006. Proceedings, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43. Lennartsson, Martin
    et al.
    Björnfot, Anders
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lean modular design: value-based progress of industrialised housing2008In: IGLC 16 Proceedings: 16th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction / [ed] Patricia Tzortzopoulos; Mike Kagioglou, University of Salford, U.K. , 2008, p. 541-551Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the core ideas of Lean Construction is that the process of designing and producing a construction product should progress continuously and create value for both the customer and the delivery team. The hypothesis in this paper is that modularisation has potential as a method for value management. The aim is to describe how modularisation, in a lean context, can be used as a tool to facilitate the management of internal and external values in industrialised housing. The paper will explore the theory of modularisation and its drivers and examine how the method can promote value management. Modularisation is then explored in practice, using empirical knowledge from the building service systems (HVAC, electricity, etc.) development process at five Swedish multi-storey timber housing producers. The analysis point out the importance of decomposing the modularisation process into a jointly performed industry phase where modules are designed, followed by a company internal product development process that complies to the modules. This paper concludes that it is not the product decomposition into modules that is of importance, rather the process that strives to balance internal and external values.

  • 44.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Björnfot, Anders
    Stehn, Lars
    Production control through modularisation2009In: Proceedings IGLC 17: 17th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction, 2009, p. 453-464Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the industrial housing trade has developed for many years with the salient idea of improving production control through an increased level of prefabrication. However, production variability is a consistent issue as work is still sub-optimised, resulting in a fragmented production process. Consequently, problems arise when prefabricated parts and components are assembled. The building services are often a source of high variability (many different components and subcontractors), leading to reduced production control. The aim of this paper is to present how modularisations can provide prerequisites for production control in service system design.So far, modularisation has only rendered little attention in Lean construction. In this paper, a modularisation development effort of five Swedish industrial housing ompanies is reported. To generate a relevant set of modules, several workshops were held together with company representatives and building service consultants. The Design Structure Matrix (DSM) was used to detect the lowest common geometrical denominator of the building service systems as well as crucial connection points and interfaces. Combining the DSM with qualitative module drivers generates a design for service system modules facilitating improved production control.

  • 45.
    Lessing, Jerker
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, Tyréns AB.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Ekholm, Anders
    Department of Construction Sciences, Design Methodology Division, Lund University, Design Methodology, LTH, LTH.
    Industrialised house-building: development and conceptual orientation of the field2015In: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 378-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThis article describes the development of industrialised house-building (IHB) in order to increase the understanding of the field.Design/methodology/approachThe study is based on an extensive literature study and a case study with three companies, studied between 2005 and 2013, which enabled an in-depth knowledge about the companies’ development within industrialised house-building. Interviews, observations and document studies are the main sources of information in the case studies.FindingsIndustrialised house-building is a complex field, consisting of several constructs that need to be integrated and continuously developed. Development of structured technical building systems has been central to the development of IHB along with developed production methods and processes. The interest in organisational fit or adaptation to industrialisation and strategy concerning business, production and products is increasing. This implies that IHB needs to be managed strategically and not on a building project level.Practical implicationsThe article gives an orientation on how leading companies have structured and organised their work within industrialisation, giving valuable advice to practitioners with interest in the field.Originality/valueThis article describes the development of industrialised house-building based on studies of literature and three Swedish IHB companies’ development. This provides an aggregated view of the field’s emergence and unique information about the studied companies’ development

  • 46. Lessing, Jerker
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Ekholm, Anders
    Industrialised housing: definition and categorization of the concept2005In: Proceedings: 13th Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction / [ed] Russell Kenely, Sydney: International group for lean construction , 2005, p. 471-480Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new and developed concept of industrialised housing is emerging in the Swedish building industry today. The general opinion is that industrialised housing contains the answer to many of the problems in the building sector. The paper presents a comprehensive definition of industrialised housing, points at its corner stones and key characteristics and discusses how it relates to the paradigms of lean and agile production. Eight characteristic areas are identified: Planning and control of the processes, Developed technical systems, Off-site manufacturing of building parts, Long-term relations between participants, Supply chain management integrated in the construction process, Customer focus, Use of information and communication technology, Systematic performance measuring and re-use of experiences. A categorization model is developed that allows an assessment of the degrees of implementation and fulfillment for each area. The categorization aims at pointing out the areas of strengths and weaknesses of companies working with industrialised housing. The categorization model is tested on two leading Swedish industrialised housing companies working with different frame systems and different organisational set up.

  • 47.
    Levander, Erika
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Engström, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sardén, Ylva
    Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Construction clients' ability to manage uncertainty and equivocality2011In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 29, no 7, p. 753-764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While risk and uncertainty management have received much attention within construction management research, management of information interpretation remains unexplored. Situations that are generally overlooked are those where increased amounts and flow of information are not the solution to the human problem of managing multiple meanings of information and conflicting interpretations, i.e. ‘equivocality’. The aim is to identify and differentiate between construction clients’ uncertainty and equivocality about industrialized construction in Sweden, and, in the light of those findings, to evaluate clients’ current information processing practice on investment decisions in new-build in order to assess and discuss clients’ ability to manage uncertainty and equivocality. Based on information processing theory, analysis of aggregated data from three previous studies shows that there is a need to manage both uncertainty and equivocality. At the same time, clients’ ability to do this is found to be limited. Consequently, when industrialized construction moves clients beyond their current frame of reference, clients’ information processing practice does not support decision making. It is also proposed that differentiating between uncertainty and equivocality will enable a more profound understanding of the sequential order for information processing, i.e. that one must define questions (reduce equivocality) before one can find answers to the questions (reduce uncertainty).

  • 48.
    Levander, Erika
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Schade, Jutta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Methodological and other uncertainties in life cycle costing2009In: Performance Improvement in Construction Management, London and New York: Spon press, 2009, p. 233-246Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49. Levander, Erika
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Addressing uncertainties about timber housing by whole life costing2007In: Proceedings of 4th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation: Development Processes in Construction Management / [ed] Brian Atkin; Jan Borgbrant, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2007, p. 249-258Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased cost and declining quality has resulted in a growing interest in industrialised construction. During the last twelve years around 20000 apartments have been built in Sweden using industrialized timber housing techniques. Still, potential clients and building owners are uncertain of long-term financial costs and functional performance of timber houses. The idea in this paper is to investigate if the use of whole life costing calculations might become a tool for addressing these uncertainties. For this purpose, a pilot interview study has been performed to obtain uncertainties expressed by Swedish building owners connected to multi-dwelling timber frame houses. In general, the results show that a tool must be able to handle not only economical factors but concurrently the effects of economical, technical, functional, cultural and human factors.

  • 50.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Lindbäck, Hans
    Lindbäcks Bygg AB, Sverige.
    Projekt: Industriell byggprojektering2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
123 1 - 50 of 105
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