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  • 1.
    Alexander, Jimenez
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Engström, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Why (Not) Measuring Productivity In House-building Companies?2019In: Proceedings 35th Annual ARCOM Conference / [ed] C Gorse, C J Neilson, Leeds, UK: Association of Researchers in Construction Management (ARCOM), 2019, p. 194-203Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for improved productivity in construction, and the continuous tendency of lagging behind manufacturing industries in this respect, is a longstanding theme in the general debate in Sweden. However, there is a lack of consensus in how to understand and measure productivity, as well as in how to assess and compare productivity properly over time, between tasks, projects, companies and industries. This paper presents initial findings from the first step of an ongoing R&D study. The purpose of the R&D study is to develop frameworks for comparisons between productivity in different projects and suggest how these can be used for operational development. In this first step and by lending from two concepts proposed for measuring productivity at different levels in construction, understandings of productivity are identified and problematized together with findings collected during a one-day project-initiation workshop. Results indicate that different stakeholders understand productivity differently and have separate purposes for measuring productivity. The findings also point out that measuring productivity does not seem to be common practice in house-building companies. Furthermore, to measure productivity in ways that allows for relevant comparing of performance between subprocesses and projects seems especially problematic. Findings suggest that further research on how one can tackle differences between house-building projects is needed to understand better how to enable for assessments and comparisons of progress both in and between house-building sub-processes and projects. In addition, further investigation is required to understand how and where to set boundaries for productivity measurement frameworks to enable for meaningful measures without hampering value-adding activities.

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  • 2. Bergström, Max
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Benefits and disadvantages of ERP in industrialised timber frame housing in Sweden2005In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 831-838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialised timber frame housing is successful in the Swedish market for one-family housing. In the manufacturing industry, methods and software systems such as enterprise resource planning (ERP) are widespread, demonstrating significant benefits. A survey of the majority of industrialised timber frame housing companies in Sweden demonstrates low ERP use with a low degree of strategic importance, but with operational and managerial benefits. The ERP approach has potential for industrialised housing and its use is favoured by an increased maturity in IT.

  • 3. Bergström, Max
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Ett effektivt stombyggande i trä2005In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, no 5, p. 42-44, 46Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Industriellt trähusbyggande i Sverige.

  • 4. Bergström, Max
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Manufacturing resource planning in industrialized timber frame house construction in Sweden2003In: Construction economics and organization: proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization, 24-24 April 2003, Lund, Sweden / [ed] Bengt Hansson; Anne Landin, Lund: Lund Institute of Technology , 2003, p. 81-90Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5. Bergström, Max
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Matching industrialised timber frame housing needs and enterprise resource planning: a change process2005In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 97, no 2, p. 172-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for improvements in industrialised housing through the adoption of concepts like enterprise resource planning (ERP) from the manufacturing industry, as applied to small and medium-sized enterprises, is evaluated in this paper. Four single, consecutive case studies were performed at a Swedish medium-sized industrialised housing company. The findings suggest that ERP can meet industrialised housing needs as well as promote an organisation to be re-engineered through comprehensive change and act as a driver for a more efficient internal and external supply chain.

  • 6. Björnfot, Anders
    et al.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Lindbäck, Hans
    Lindbäcks Bygg, Sverige.
    Projekt: Installationssamordning2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet syftar till att arbeta fram en modell för hur modularisering kan utnyttjas praktiskt i byggsammanhang. Specifikt handlar det om att definiera och avgränsa moduler samt att redogöra för hur en teknisk plattform kan skapas som stöds av en individuell utveckling av moduler för tekniska installationer. Medverkande parter Universitet: Luleå tekniska universitet (LTU) Företag: Lindbäcks Bygg AB Norvag Byggsystem AB Moelven ByggModul AB Setra Group AB Martinsons Byggsystem AB

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  • 7.
    Björnfot, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    A design structural matrix approach displaying structural and assembly requirements in construction: a timber case study2007In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 113-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental demand of construction design is human safety from structural failure. As a consequence, buildings generally tend to be structurally optimized with cost as the main target parameter. However, a cost-suboptimized structural design often leads to poor constructability decisions with subsequent waste. This paper presents initial research in the development of a design structural matrix (DSM) method able to identify constructability obstacles between structural design and assembly and thus eliminate waste. Empirical data based on a case study of long-span timber structures is used in the development and analysis of the method. The DSM was found to be a holistic tool for systematic consideration of structural design and constructability requirements by providing a standardized system view, a detailed element view, and physical and functional interactions among elements and modules. The DSM was also shown to aid in detailed design and production management through the use of simple matrix tools.

  • 8.
    Björnfot, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    A systematic framework for long-span timber structures2004In: Proceedings, The 8th World Conference on Timber Engineering: WCTE 2004, 2004, Vol. 1, p. 93-98Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 9.
    Björnfot, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Industrialization of construction: a lean modular approach2004In: 12th Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction: proceedings of IGLC-12 : Helsingør, Denmark, August, 3-5, 2004 / [ed] Sven Bertelsen; Carlos T. Formoso, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 10.
    Björnfot, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Product design for improved material flow: a multi-storey timber housing project2005In: Proceedings: 13th Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction / [ed] Russell Kenely, Sydney: International group for lean construction , 2005, p. 297-306Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding of construction has evolved to include a deeper understanding of its mechanics; in addition to traditional on-site work involving the manufacturing of building products - industrial construction. One of the most important aspects of any industrial process is flow of materials and resources. Using empirical data from a unique multi-storey timber housing project, this paper aims at building a better understanding of how product design affects flow of materials in housing construction. Even though a high degree of prefabrication was used in the project, the amount of complementary site work caused delays, complaints, and a slow learning cycle. A standardization process was used to shift product 'know-how' from person to product, resulting in increased flow and a reduction of errors. Prefabrication was not the sole solution to the encountered problems, but the controlled and ordered environment in prefabrication provided solutions at early stages. Instead of working towards solving the main production issues, the management was instead observed working with minor changes (first-aid solutions) to control flow. If industrialized multistorey timber housing construction is to be successful, product design decisions should be thought through, thoroughly, from start to finish using standardization as a guiding star

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  • 11.
    Björnfot, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Value delivery through product offers: A lean leap in multi-storey timber housing construction2007In: Lean Construction Journal, ISSN 1555-1369, E-ISSN 1555-1369, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 33-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among large Swedish contractors there is currently a specialization trend towards an increased use of prefabrication and complete systems in housing construction. The Lean Construction development up to date has focused on the management of value delivery for complex construction projects. Typical Swedish housing projects do not experience this broad complexity; instead the main challenge seems to be to better specify and deliver customer value. Currently, the Lean Construction methods available are not by themselves enough for the generation of value in Swedish multi-storey housing construction. The aim of this paper is to examine the potential of the product offer (a well-defined and highly standardized building system developed from the value views of specific customers) as an aid in the generation and delivery of value for multi-storey timber housing construction.From the point of view of manufacturing and customer value, the product offer is considered a Lean strategy for integrated consideration of internal and external value. Case study experiences indicate that the product offer strategy provides stability and continuity for producers that in turn provides with Lean practices in marketing, design and manufacturing. Approaching Lean, small- to medium-sized Swedish producers should focus on improvements through Lean Manufacturing. However, since an emerging demand from the Swedish construction industry forces these producers to take a larger role in the construction process, more construction related Lean improvements must also be considered. In this regard, the product offer is demonstrated to be a promising Lean strategy for the Swedish housing industry.

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  • 12.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Industrial Marketing, Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, SE-581 83, Sweden.
    Nord, Tomas
    Industrial Marketing, Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, SE-581 83, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Roland
    Industrial Marketing, Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, SE-581 83, Sweden.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Value-added strategies and forward integration in the Swedish sawmill industry: positioning and profitability in the high-volume segment2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 482-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The changing market conditions for the Swedish sawmill industry place a focus on a better understanding of the pros and cons of value-added and forward integration strategies. The purpose of this article is to describe and explain recent value-added strategies in the Swedish sawmill industry. The study includes strategies from 13 of the 15 largest sawmill companies for the period between 2002 and 2005, describing a differentiation between value added in primary sawmill production and forward integration into secondary production. It also aims to relate some basic conditions, such as company size, company growth and corporate strategy, to value added and forward integration to profitability. The results show strong positive and significant correlations between forward integration, value added in primary production (somewhat weaker) and unit revenue, and profitability measured as return on investment. There were no strong or significant correlations between size and profitability, playing down the importance of economies of scale (among these already large companies). An interesting result is the much higher profitability of the buying sawmill companies compared with the forest corporations, stressing the importance of both a long-term strategy when investing in value-added activities and ultimately the priorities of ownership.

  • 13.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nord, Tomas
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Business models in industrialized building of multi-storey houses2014In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 208-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The business model construct has been widely used during the last decade, partly because of its potential to provide a holistic view of how companies do business. A test of how prefabrication could form the basis of a construction firm’s business model can lead to an understanding of the potential for the competitiveness and profitability of industrialized building. The aim is to adapt a general business model construct and use it to empirically identify the most frequently used and the most viable business model. The theoretical perspective is employed to examine how a company does business and which activities and resources are mobilized through the distinction between strategic and operational effectiveness. The multiple case studies include five major Swedish companies that produce prefabricated timber building systems and the analysis is grounded in pattern-finding. The business model construct includes: market position, offering, and operational platform. The result indicates five business model elements: prefabrication mode, role in the building process, end-user segments, system augmentation and complementary resources. Applying this construct to the five case companies revealed that one out of seven models was found to be viable in terms of both ‘market share’ and decision-makers’ opinions. One important conclusion is to take the prefabrication mode as the starting point for business model design and then adapt the other elements to a good fit

  • 14. Croon, Ingemar
    et al.
    Apleberger, Lennart
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Trämekaniska industrin måste lyfta sig i håret2002In: Svensk papperstidning, ISSN 1403-9605, no 12, p. 10-12Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sardén, Ylva
    Stehn, Lars
    Towards improving client-contractor communication in industrialised building2009In: Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference, 2009, September 7-9, Albert Hall, Nottingham / [ed] Andrew Dainty, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2009, p. 21-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Criticism of the building sector in Sweden, concerning for example high cost and poor quality, has lead to a growing interest in industrialised building. However, the effect on the sector and the overall building market is still quite insignificant. One business challenge for industrialised building companies to face in order to become more competitive is to further improve client/market interaction, improve mutual understanding and to reduce uncertainties in client relations. In this ongoing work the communication between industrialised building companies and building clients is examined. The aim is to identify important points of client-contractor communication that affect project outcome and present barriers to effective communication. In addition to a literature review, with the aim to define effective communication , the client-contractor communication in different building projects has been studied. Empirical data was collected through interviews and workshops, observations and project-specific documentation, addressing both clients and contractors. The results indicate that, in order to improve client-contractor communication, it seems important to assess if a barrier to effective communication is client uncertainty, and concerned with lack of information, or if it is client equivocality, which requires richer information rather than more information. The barrier must then be addressed accordingly. In the industrialised building context, client-contractor communication is probably distorted by lack of market/client knowledge concerning the industrialised building process, but also by previous experiences from traditional building.

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  • 16.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Barriers to client-contractor communication: Implementing process innovation in a building project in Sweden2016In: International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, ISSN 1740-2891, E-ISSN 1740-2905, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 151-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Client-contractor communication is vital for achieving project goals but also for adopting innovations. However, this type of communication does not take place across just one interface but across several. In the present study, barriers to client-contractor communication were addressed with the intention of specifically highlighting the potential impact of the project-based setting. A case study of a building project where process innovation was to be implemented provided the data. The analysis focused on meaning-making by different participants during progression of the project until its completion. Although the project was successfully completed, some of the aims of the process innovation were not realised as planned due to emerging meaning-making problems. A main suggestion from the reported findings was that the predominant project logic in construction may be a key barrier to client-contractor communication in implementing innovations presented by actors on the supply-side

  • 17.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sardén, Ylva
    Competitive impact of industrialised building: in search for explanations to the current state2009In: Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference, 2009, September 7-9, Albert Hall, Nottingham / [ed] Andrew Dainty, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2009, p. 413-424Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialised building has been proposed as a means of satisfying changes needed in the Swedish building sector. Over the last decade industrialised building has also developed as a niche within this sector. Given its potential, however, some stakeholders think that industrialised building has not yet had the impact they expected, and that the building sector is still in need of change to meet demands for cost reduction, quality improvement and longer managerial time-spans. Consequently, questions arise regarding the competitive position of industrialised building today, and the underlying causes for its present state. This study is based on a literature review, assessing industrialised building over recent decades, and on complementary interviews with researchers and practitioners. The findings are summarised in a conceptual model that outlines the sought effects of industrialised building, as well as the forces that drive and restrain change towards industrialised building. The demands on the building sector are the main drivers of change for the industry. However, the market itself is not actively driving change towards industrialised building, and the information and understanding required to support clients' decision on whether to enforce market power in one or the other direction is not readily available. How building clients value different building possibilities is also unclear. Suggested future challenges are to reduce client uncertainty, to improve client power and to facilitate the comparison of performance between traditional and industrialised building alternatives.

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  • 18.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Haage, Mathias
    Lunds tekniska högskola, 221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, Isak
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Eriksson, Helena
    Lunds tekniska högskola, 221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Dynamiska layouter i den tillfälliga fabriken2023In: PLANs Forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2023: Logistik och Produktion – hållbar, ansvarsfull och uthållig framtid, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2023, p. 222-238Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 19.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Discrete Event Simulation Enhanced Value Stream Mapping: An Industrialized Construction Case Study2013In: Lean Construction Journal, ISSN 1555-1369, E-ISSN 1555-1369, Vol. 10, p. 47-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research Question/Hypothesis: Can a production process design framework created by integrating Value Stream Mapping (VSM) and Discrete Event Simulation (DES) be used to assess the production system performance, as predicted by a future state design of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) working in industrialized construction?

    Purpose: To explore a production process design framework in which VSM is used to identify doable improvements and DES provides analytical evaluation of them.

    Research Method: The demonstration was carried out at a Swedish SME industrialized construction component manufacturer

    Findings: VSM is unable to evaluate analytically the performance of the future state design. This inability leads to unnecessary implementation iterations. VSM assumes a deterministic model and cannot describe the dynamic behaviors of a system. The dynamic behavior of the construction processes will result in the future state design not performing as expected. However, by analytically evaluating the future state with DES helped the case company to implement a new production process design.

    Limitations: DES modeling is still time-consuming and needs skilled professionals, the cost of whom can be prohibitive for SMEs and demonstrated in one case study.

    Implications: The integration of DES and VSM provides a framework to evaluate and communicate the outcome, hence enhancing the application of VSM.

    Value for practitioners: A lean framework, which can be used, for industrialized construction processes especially by SMEs with very limited resources, to validate changes before implementing them.

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  • 20.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Agil digital tjänsteutveckling för byggplatser: En metod för anpassning av digitala tjänster för ökad användarvänlighet på byggplatser2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utveckling av produktionsnära digitala tjänster uppfattas ibland som långsam och komplex. Traditionellt kommer det initialt en IT-expert som försöker förstå användarkrav. Därefter försvinner experten och för att komma tillbaka efter en tid med en testbar digital tjänst. I detta läge inser ofta byggplatsen att behoven inte fångats upp helt eller att omvärlden har förändrats. Experten har kanske inte förstått verksamhetsnyttan eller gjort fel prioriteringar. Det kan då uppstå en konflikt mellan byggplatsen som inte upplever att man fått det man efterfrågade och nu innebär en ändring en ökad kostnad. Experten uppfattar som att byggprojektet inte vill stå för de förändringar som man efterfrågar och därefter försöker experten minimera utvecklingskostnader genom att kompromissa funktionalitet för att uppnå kundens behov. Detta skapar ytterligare distans mellan experten och byggarbetsplatsen. Inom mjukvaruutveckling finns olika former av agila utvecklingsmetoder med syftet att just för att minimera dessa konflikter och snabba på processen och därmed öka kundvärdet. En sådan metod, DevOps, har inspirerat tester för agil tjänsteutveckling för byggplatser. Testerna indikerar att metoden skapar möjligheter för snabbare respons. Dock kvarstår att undersöka hur metoden mer systematiskt kan användas inom entreprenadföretag på byggplatser i form av vilka organisatoriska förändringar som behövs och hur individer ska utbildas.

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  • 21.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Kanban i utvecklingsprojekt2022Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Utveckling av digitala tjänster och produkter är en utmaning i pågående byggprojekt, då det finns få färdiga produkter och tjänster på marknaden. Metoder för traditionell byggprojektledning med tydliga ansvarsområden och gränssnitt i form av kontrakt lämpar sig förmodligen mindre bra för utvecklingsprojekt, där vägen är delvis okänd. Byggarbetsplatsens uppfattning är ibland att utvecklingsarbetet av digitala produkter och tjänster är långsam och komplex. Inom mjukvaruutveckling har det utvecklats olika former av agila utvecklingsmetoder för att prioritera mot förändrade behov och genom iterationer röra sig mot slutmålet. En sådan metod, Kanban, har inspirerat tester för agil utveckling inom projektet Digital transformation av byggplatser (DigiTransform). Testerna indikerar att den digitala och agila metoden, som används på distans, skapar möjligheter för snabbare respons och prioritering av byggplatsen. Det kvarstår att undersöka hur metoden mer systematiskt kan användas på byggarbetsplatser.

  • 22.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Kundvärden genom PropTech: Ett processperspektiv2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommersiella fastigheter står inför stora utmaningar post Covid-19. Nyttjandegrad av ytor, klimatkrav och resurseffektivitet, samt behovet av att skapa nya kundvärden för att behålla hyresgäster när deras anställda stannar hemma. Datadriven verksamhets- och affärsutveckling för kommersiella fastigheter kan skapa nya kundvärden i byggprocessens sena skeden, men också i fastighetens hela livscykel. Data som skapas och fångas i byggprocessens initiala faser möjliggör nya datadrivna tjänster och affärsmodeller i hela livscykeln och ökar därmed konkurrenskraften. Datadrivna kundvärden operationaliseras genom att använda digitala tvillingar för att utveckla intäktsmodeller och processer genom att samla, bearbeta, lagra och dela data i öppna plattformar.

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  • 23.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Ökad samverkan i försörjningskedjan genom sälj- och verksamhetsplanering: En analys av ett SME sågverks metod och process2016In: PLANs Forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2016: Logistik – teori möter praktik / [ed] Peter Bergling, Helen Forslund, 2016, p. 65-75Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ökad videraförädling för små och medelstora (SME) sågverk innebär att ett ensidigt fokus på produktionsprocessen och sågutbyte bör kompletteras med ökad kundfokus. Sälj- och verksamhetsplanering (SVP) är en planeringsmetod som balanserar kundkrav med övriga operativa processer på medellång sikt. Syftet med denna artikel är att beskriva en anpassad SVP-metod och en SVP-process som möter sågverkets specifika behov av ökad effektivitet i försörjningskedjan samt beskriva faktorer som kan undersökas vidare för att skapa en ökad förståelse av SVP tillämpningen inom sågverkets kontext. Data som analyserats är från en longitudinell fallstudie på ett svenskt SME sågverk och processen för införandet av en SVP-metod. Sågverket sågar cirka 100000 kubikmeter per år av både gran och tall. Forskningen visar att SVP-metoden bör utvecklas så att den kan balansera i två nivåer; både för sågat färdigvarulager och lager för vidareförädling med hänsyn tagen till divergent och konvergent produktflöde. Den utvecklade metoden visar på sågverkets behov av balanserat råmateriallager, men också behovet av att lösa konflikter mellan sågutbyte och olika marknadskrav. Identifierade faktorer för vidare forskning av SVP, som en tillämpad metod och process, är sågverkets förmåga att linjera interna ekonomiska mål, sågverkets behov av ökad kommunikation i försörjningskedjan, tydligare marknadskrav och engagemang från företagsledningen.

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    Ökad samverkan i försörjningskedjan
  • 24.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Assessing Digital Information Management Between Design and Production in Industrialised House-Building – A Case Study2019In: Proceedings of the 36th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC 2019), The International Association for Automation and Robotics in Construction (I.A.A.R.C.) , 2019, p. 340-347Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing digital information in construction is commonly described through Building Information Modelling (BIM), which advocates seamless chains of information, increased coordination between different actors and a life-cycle perspective on information management. However, low adoption outside the design phase entails that handling information in production is in many cases manual and paper-based, which increases vulnerability for upstream errors materialising downstream in production. Furthermore, issues with interoperability surround many areas when managing digital information. For industrialised house-builders, the transmitter and receiver of information are in many cases integrated within the same company or based on long-term collaboration. This affects their ability to manage information and utilise design information, which implies that their strategy for digital information management (DIM) might benefit from being addressed differently compared to more traditional BIM-based approaches. In this paper, we describe and discuss an implemented DIM-solution at an industrialised house-builder in order to address the benefits and challenges with DIM when managing information from design to production. The results imply that in order for several different functions within the company to reap benefits, a customised DIM-solution adapted after the company's specific needs is a well-suited approach forward to avoid sacrificing functionality when utilising design information.

  • 25.
    Fransson, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Håkansson, Bertil
    Omstedt, Anders
    Stehn, Lars
    Sea ice properties studied from the icebreaker Tor during BEPERS-881990Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report presents sea ice data taken during BEPERS-88 experiment in the Bothnian Bay. Several physical properties are presented and analysed. In general, the data illustrate that sea ice is a most complex medium with horizontal and vertical variations. Any analysis of remotely sensed data must therefore carefully consider the ground truth data.

  • 26.
    Fransson, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Porosity effects on measured strength of warm ice1993In: POAC 93: the 12th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, 17. - 20. August 1993, Hamburg. Proceedings, HSVA , 1993, p. 23-26Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Fransson, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Åström, Lars
    Håkansson, B.
    Omstedt, A.
    Variations of ice properties in an ice area of 1x2 km in the Gulf of Bothnia March 19881989In: POAC '89: 10th International conference on port and ocean engineering under arctic conditions / [ed] Kenneth B.E. Axelsson; Lennart Fransson, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 1989, Vol. 3, p. 1348-1357Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28. Fredriksson, Ylva
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Industrial difficulties and strategies for timber building system development in Sweden2003In: Construction economics and organization: proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization, 24-24 April 2003, Lund, Sweden / [ed] Bengt Hansson; Anne Landin, Lund: Lund Institute of Technology , 2003, p. 149-158Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Gharbia, Marwan
    et al.
    Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand.
    Chang-Richards, Alice
    Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand.
    Xu, Xun
    Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand.
    Höök, Matilda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jähne, René
    National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) Digital Fabrication, HIB E 25/Stefano-Franscini-Platz 1, CH-8093, Zürich 8092, Switzerland.
    Hall, Daniel
    Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Geomatic Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zürich 8092, Switzerland.
    Park, Kenneth
    School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston Univ., Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.
    Hong, Jingke
    Dept. of Management Science and Engineering, Chongqing Univ., Chongqing 400045, PR China.
    Feng, Yingbin
    School of Built Environment, Western Sydney Univ., Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia.
    Building Code Compliance for Off-Site Construction2023In: Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction, ISSN 1943-4162, Vol. 15, no 2, article id 04522056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are increasing concerns over building code, regulation compliance, and quality assurance issues in adopting off-site construction techniques in the construction industry related to meeting client expectations and regulatory requirements. Performance-based building regulations often allow for space for innovation but not a safe space for those who intend to introduce new construction techniques not prescribed in building regulations. Through a series of surveys conducted in Sweden, Switzerland, the UK, China, Singapore, and Australia, this study identified approaches and practices used in these countries that overcome compliance challenges when off-site construction techniques are used. The findings showed that manufacturer self-certification is the predominant approach for meeting code compliance requirements. A fit-for-purpose regulatory compliance system also warrants fair allocation of risks and liabilities to anyone involved in the supply chain. However, a healthy and functional regulatory system for off-site compliance requires third-party certification for products and factories and traceability. It is hoped that the lessons learned from this study can help policymakers introduce changes in product standards and legislation in order to improve the compliance and performance of off-site construction. This study concluded that a chain of custody approach is necessary in order to address quality concerns surrounding the adoption of prefabrication technology in countries that are increasingly exploring greater use of manufacturing in construction.

  • 30.
    Gull, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction. Byggdialog Dalarna.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Vem driver utvecklingen av massiva träbyggandet?2023In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, Vol. 4, p. 14-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 31.
    Haller, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    An indicator for superfluous iteration in offsite building design processes2015In: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 360-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhancement of iteration management in the design phase is important for successful offsite building projects. Design iteration has two aspects. Although iteration is necessary to deal with design requirements when solving complex problems (i.e. increasing quality through iteration), it has also been identified in numerous studies to be one of the main causes of design errors and time and cost overruns (i.e. superfluous iteration), as it increases scheduling and design complexity. Current building project management tools do not provide a means to control the reduction of superfluous iteration. One problem is that existing research has difficulty precisely relating the effects of specific management actions to superfluous iteration. The idea of this study is to develop an indicator, the sequence deviation quotient (SDQ), which reflects the amount of superfluous design iteration in a project. It can be thought of as a tool supporting project managers to make systematic and continuous (from project to project) design process improvement. A premise is that the impact of varying project conditions on the process structure of design processes, i.e. the precedence relationships between the design activities, is only small. In this paper, we provide a definition of superfluous iteration. We tested the feasibility of the SDQ by subjecting it to project variation and input perturbation by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. The simulations are based on the data from a real offsite design building process, the designing of a 1100 m2 residential building in Sweden.

  • 32.
    Haller, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Evaluation of efficiency in housing construction design2012In: ARCOM, twenty-seventh annual conference 2011, September 5-7, Bristol / [ed] Charles Egbu ; Eric Choen Weng Lou, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2012, Vol. 2, p. 797-806Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In housing projects a lot of time is spent for rework, entailing the risk of additional costs, time and deficient quality. As much as 50% or more of rework is originated in faulty output from the design phase. Activities within this phase are strongly interrelated and are carried out by several design consultants. Once the sequence of work in an ongoing project is interrupted the risk for loosing control is high. This results in, e.g., poor coordination of project participants, necessary changes in schedules, possible time pressure and about all a higher risk for making errors. The goal with this study is to reduce the risk of work sequence interruptions in the design phase of housing projects, or in terms of Lean, to make activities in the design phase flow. A timber housing multi dwelling building project in Sweden has been mapped in detail. In total 212 activities have been observed and recorded, spanning from the sales to the erection phase. Iterations (rework) have been identified by using process mining techniques in combination with supplemental interviews. A map of the complete design process consisting of 112 activities (exclusive of iteration) has been derived. A measurement model to detect process regions with a high share of iteration has been proposed that, together with the process map, serves as a starting point for further process optimisation. The efficiency of an activity is assessed by comparing the working hours, ignoring the time used for negative iteration (waste), with the working hours actually used to execute this activity. A Pareto-analysis of the occurring iteration with negative impact on quality then provides an indication of a suitable order for process optimisation.

  • 33.
    Haller, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Increasing the Accuracy of a Prefab Building Design Process Simulation Using Simulated Annealing2014In: Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058, E-ISSN 1877-7058, Vol. 85, p. 214-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monte-Carlo simulation analysis has been discussed in project management literature as tool for proactive scheduling and to gain better insights into projects which are characterized by a high level of complexity and uncertainty, such as the design phase of prefab building projects. The application of simulation as proactive scheduling tool in construction projects is hampered by limited accessibility of proper input data, though, because of long project duration, the often temporary organization and multidisciplinary nature of such projects. In this study we use simulated annealing to adjust parameters of a simulation model for which the simulation outcome is sensitive to data perturbation by making use of data from related parameters which is easier to estimate. The applicability of the approach was demonstrated on a real life project, the construction of a 1100 m2 residential building in Sweden. More precisely, we used Design Structure Matrix simulation, i.e. an activity network based Monte-Carlo simulation technique with which stochastic project evolution (deviations from the planned activity sequence due to unexpected iteration of sub-processes) can be simulated, to model the workflow of the design process of the observed project. Then, by means of the simulated annealing approach, we adjusted the rework probabilities (model parameter) such that the frequencies of executed activities in simulated activity sequences fitted the frequencies as observed in the real project. Adjusting input data by using prior knowledge of the dependencies of the project activities and cross analysis with related data that is easy to estimate would help to increase the accuracy of simulations when access to statistical data of the input variable in question is limited. The suggested approach is interesting for practitioners who work with standardized design processes (e.g. as part of standardized building systems) and continuous improvement

  • 34.
    Haller, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Increasing the Accuracy of a Prefab Building Design Process Simulation Using Simulated Annealing2014In: Automation and robotics for construction: proceedings : CC2014 / [ed] Miklós Hajdu ; Mirosław J. Skibniewski, Budapest: Diamond Congress Ltd , 2014, p. 408-413Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Haller, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Standardizing the pre-design-phase for improved efficiency in off-site housing projects2010In: ARCOM twenty-Sixth Annual Conference 2010, September 6-8, Leeds / [ed] Charles O. Egbu; Eric Lou, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2010, Vol. 2, p. 1259-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long erection times on-site and project-specific design work, performed by consultants, generally accounts for a large part of correction and building costs in construction projects. In a typical Swedish housing project, the pre- and design phase accounts for about 10-12 % of the total costs. Due to a lack of standardized conceptualization procedures, much of the design work is reiterated in each project, and thus avoidable costs are incurred. In order to minimize these problems an open building system, called MFB, which exploits standardized technical solutions, design and construction processes for off-site prefabricated housing is under development. The MFB system developer will provide a process manual that describes, in detail, standardized design, construction, and erection processes. The open building system relies on close cooperation with local, often small to medium-sized, enterprises that can efficiently undertake “local” building projects. Here, we present and analyse a standard procedure for the pre-design-phase to incorporate in a MFB-process manual. The pre-design-phase of a MFB-building project was recorded and analysed in terms of efficiency. A detailed process map is presented, showing that 122 process steps were logged from the first contact with the client until the generation of the tender. By standardizing the pre-design-phase, the number of essential activities could be reduced by 47%. An improvement in time efficiency of the pre-design-phase with co-instantaneous generation of effective cost estimates should lead to lower building costs in general. Furthermore, by tightly standardizing and controlling the process, it should be possible to repeat projects (or many aspects of projects), without repeating much of the pre-design-phase, even if the actors change.

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  • 36.
    Hedgren, Erika
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    The impact of clients’ decision-making on their adoption of industrialized building2014In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 126-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that client organizations’ decision-making about new-build creates individual-level and organizational-level barriers to the adoption of Swedish industrialized building (IB). However, it has been proposed that clients may overcome barriers on both levels by allowing multiple meanings and conflicting interpretations to surface and interact with their decision-making. The aim is to test this proposition. Based on the theoretical fields of decision-making and organizational information processing, a framework for analysis has been developed. In the framework, three decision-making approaches are operationalized: rational, judgments and managing multiple meanings. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with key decision-makers from four Swedish professional clients differing on when and if they adopted IB: one early-adopter, two late-adopters and one non-adopter. The empirical findings support the proposition and show a relationship between how clients manage multiple meanings in their decision-making and their adoption of IB. The research adds to the understanding of how clients may overcome barriers to the adoption of IB on both individual and organizational levels. Moreover, it increases understanding about how clients might better cope with radical changes and innovations.

  • 37.
    Häggström, Marwin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Thiger, Ingvar
    Televerket Radio, Luleå.
    Atmospheric icing of masts1989In: POAC '89: 10th International conference on port and ocean engineering under arctic conditions / [ed] Kenneth B.E. Axelsson; Lennart Fransson, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 1989, Vol. 2, p. 705-711Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38. Höök, Matilda
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Applicability of lean principles and practices in industrialized housing production2008In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 1091-1100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The applicability of lean principles and practices to industrialized housing in Sweden are examined, taking the production culture into consideration. The factory production of industrialized housing shows apparent similarities to manufacturing, but areas related to fully integrated lean production practices, such as error proofing and standardized work floor and equipment maintenance, are scarce. Hence, applicability of lean principles and practices to industrialized housing production is clearly influenced by a production culture that has similarities to a traditional construction culture. Setting up industrialized housing production thus requires careful implementation of lean principles if workers from traditional building are moved into factories, and managers still adhere to the prevailing site-based production mentality. However, the influence of the traditional construction project culture is not solely a constraint; flexible teams that take their own responsibility are also important in a lean culture. Hence, retaining parts of the existing construction mentality, context and way of working is also central when discussing lean applicability in industrialized housing.

  • 39. Höök, Matilda
    et al.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Connecting lean construction to prefabrication complexity in Swedish volume element housing2005In: Proceedings: 13th Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction / [ed] Russell Kenley, Sydney: International group for lean construction , 2005, p. 317-325Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean is about waste elimination and value creation and prefabrication of houses seems to be one way to create structure and decreased complexity and waste generated by variation. However, prefabrication decreases some types of complexity and waste but introduces other ones through new roles of the actors and a shift of focus to manufacturing. The aim of this paper is to develop an understanding of a prefabrication strategy and to show the increased need for a novel comprehension in lean construction regarding different types of prefabrication deliveries and thus different types of complexity. Complexity as such, in this paper used in a contingency context, cannot be generalized and this study explores the differences in peculiarities of on-site construction, element prefabrication and volume element prefabrication. Peculiarities in volume element prefabrication are found to consist of two connected parts; Product complexity including building element design and product design (built-in knowledge) and process complexity including internal logistics, breadth of required knowledge and integration between product and process design. The sources of complexity in volume element prefabrication are thus connected to the in-house production system, differing from on-site construction and element prefabrication peculiarities connected to fragmentation and uncertainty among actors in the value chain.

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  • 40.
    Höök, Matilda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Exploring the management of multiple business models in one company2014In: Proceedings 30th Annual Association of Researchers in Construction Management Conference, Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2014, p. 1315-1324Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased demands for responsiveness and efficiency have led specialized Swedish manufacturing firms and contractors to adopt new production and product strategies. Some firms have adopted multiple business models (BMs) concurrently in order to be competitive in the modern market. A BM can be seen as a conceptual blueprint of a company's money earning logic, and can act as a guiding instrument towards competitiveness. It is known that companies trying to compete with both low-cost and differentiation BMs face challenges such as conflicting value chains and straddling costs. However, further understanding of various aspects of BMs, their implementation and effects (particularly in the construction industry) is required. Thus, the aim of this paper is to explore BM management in a manufacturing firm in the Swedish construction industry, which has adopted evolving BMs (some concurrently) in recent years. The results, based on analysis of long-term (15 years) process data, indicate that strategic events and decisions influence the management of parallel BMs, and that strategic events are important for competitiveness. They also show that successful balancing of concurrent BMs can yield synergistic benefits, such as resource flexibility and lower vulnerability in the construction market. Due to its exploratory nature, this work serves as a first step towards a wider and more general understanding of the management of multiple BMs in construction firms.

  • 41.
    Höök, Matilda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lean principles in industrialized housing production: The need for a cultural change2008In: Lean Construction Journal, ISSN 1555-1369, E-ISSN 1555-1369, p. 20-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deep-rooted project culture in construction, e.g. including the one-of-a-kindness of the project, the production set up, the construction site and the temporary organization, is stated to be a hindrance when applying lean principles. However, the biggest challenge to achieving a long-term benefit of lean application in industrialized housing production (80 % of the work in a factory environment) is here argued to be to approach a lean culture. The aim of this paper is therefore to deepen the understanding of how to approach a lean culture in industrialized housing production. A production questionnaire shows that industrialized housing production displays a projectbased culture similar to that found in on-site construction with low motivation for, e.g., error-proofing and continuous improvement. Results from the questionnaire and a case study show that workers rather fix problems as they arise ahead of focusing on errorproofing and continuous improvement. Lean Construction research has traditionally (up to latest years) focused on a top-down (top-management initiated project performance) tool approach to improve construction projects. However, theoretical and empirical proofs show that error-proofing and continuous improvement is statistically connected to worker motivation, and that workers follow standardized routines if they are visual and clear to workers. It is also shown that workers do not take own responsibility to obtain standardization in work and maintenance of equipment and tools. Therefore a simultaneous top-down/bottom-up (person focused) approach to achieve a lean culture in industrialized housing production is proposed. Generally, the study also points to more research to obtain a deeper understanding of lean culture and cultural change in construction.

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  • 42.
    Höök, Matilda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Berge, Staffan
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    The development of a portfolio of business models: a longitudinal case study of a building material company2015In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 33, no 5-6, p. 334-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic aspects of intended company change can be related to the development and management of a portfolio of business models with regard to competence deployment and to performance. A portfolio of business models is seen as a reflection of the realized strategy of a company, and the dynamics aspects of company change are connected to internal and external critical strategic incidents. The business model elements considered in this research are market position, offering, and operational platform enabling a differentiation between strategic and operational effectiveness. The evolution of a Swedish supplier of building components and systems during a 15-year period is examined. The process data consists of temporal phases where a shift of phase is defined as a change of a specific portfolio of business models. The concept of a portfolio of business models helped to discover new and conflicting standardized or customized business models that were not always intended by the company. The findings indicate that unawareness of intended actions led to unintended allocation of resources or integration mechanisms that negatively affected company performance. On the other hand gains can be achieved if a strategy is deliberately managed as a portfolio of business models which then also can be a tool for managing change in a company

  • 43.
    Ilar, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Jimenez, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Byfors, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Produktivitet i byggandet: Mått och mätning2020Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggindustrin har under lång tid varit utsatt för kritik för bristande produktivitetsutveckling (såväl i Sverige som i många andra länder). En brist som också identifierats är att det faktiskt saknas pågående forskning kring produktivitetsmätning i byggandet i Sverige, något som har initierat detta projekt.

    Syftet var att visa på olika produktivitetsmått för framdriften av delprocesser i ett byggprojekt, men även jämförelser av dessa utifrån olika perspektiv såsom byggdel, byggnad och projekt. Syftet var inte att mäta och jämföra produktiviteten i/mellan de olika företagen utan att identifiera formella och informella nyckeltal och indikatorer förproduktivitet inom områdena som säkerhet, kund, leverans, ekonomi och kvalitet.

    En bärande del i projekt var inventeringen av produktivitetsmått som genomfördes genom intervjuer med personer på olika nivåer med tydlig bas i företagens produktion. Totalt genomfördes 15 intervjuerna med 3 personer/roller (Företagsledning, Avdelningschef ochPlatschef) på de 5 företag som deltog i projektet. Underlaget har vidareutvecklats genom diskussioner i referensgruppens.

    I rapporten presenteras mer än 40 olika produktivitetsrelaterade mätetal som identifierats under intervjuerna. De identifierade måtten baseras på de kvantitativa eller kvalitativa uppföljningarna som plastledningen i varierande grad utför, och kan delas in enligt kategorierna kostnad, tid, resurser, kvalitet, arbetsmiljö och kultur. För att få en större nytta samt möjliggöra en värdeskapande användning av produktivitetsmått, såsom görs i andra industrier, presenteras ett ramverk och system för mätningarna, som exemplifierats. I ett första steg föreslår vi användandet av de identifierade måtten satt i ramverksstrukturen. I ett andra steg för att byggföretag kontinuerligt och strukturerat ska förbättra produktiviteten föreslår vi att måtten behöver placeras i ett prestationsmätningssystem (PMS). Genom att använda mätetal samt förstå relationen mellan mätetalen från olika delar kan resultat användas i erfarenhetsåterföringssyfte såväl för det enskilda projektet som högre upp i en organisation.

    Några slutsatser/observationer från projekt är:

    - Det är ingen brist på mått direkt eller indirekt relaterade till produktivitet men företagsgemensamma standar och system för koppling saknas.

    - Egenmätning och registrering av mätetal bland yrkesgrupper förkommer sällan, där rådande lönesystem och organisation (kombination av YA och UE) är en utmaning.

    - Systematisk återkoppling av mätetal för kunskapsöverföring mellan projekt saknas.

    - En utmaning och förslag till fortsatt arbete är att utveckla likare/korrelationsfaktorer för att möjliggöra jämförelse mellan projekt, företag och för kunskapsöverföring mellan projekt.

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  • 44.
    Janols, Henrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Utilizing 3D-computer visualization for communicating aesthetics of long-span timber structures2004In: Proceedings, The 8th World Conference on Timber Engineering: WCTE 2004, 2004, Vol. 3, p. 223-226Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 45.
    Jimenez, Alexander
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Ilar, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Keeping Track of Productivity in House-Building2020In: Proc. 28th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC28), The International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC) , 2020, p. 85-96Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The broad nature of productivity leads to different interpretations and uses depending on the purpose, context and levels giving many ways for measuring productivity. However, measuring productivity in ways that reveal substantial information for operational improvements in house-building seems challenging, and methods like single-factor productivity are reported not to be common in systematic ways to that end. It is unclear how productivity is used by house-builders on-site to control, evaluate and improve operations. This study addresses how Swedish house-building companies keep track of productivity in the processes and sub-processes of production. Productivity measurements and the control of influencing factors on productivity are discussed with findings from interviews and workshops with representatives from five Swedish housebuilding companies. Results show that some productivity measurements are done in parallel with “ordinary” project management assessments to control time and cost. Yet, most factors seemingly affecting productivity are measured qualitatively and “stay in the mind” of the managers. However, some results indicate an increased understanding amongst managers for using performance indicators to track and develop activities and processes assisted with digital tools. Still, further investigation is needed to better understand how factors influencing productivity can systematically be assessed and incorporated into methods for operational development.

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  • 46.
    Jimenez, Alexander
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Engström, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Ilar, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Byfors, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    A systems perspective for measuring productivity in house-building productionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Johnsson, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Janols, Henrik
    Stehn, Lars
    3D computer visualisation in timber construction: some important parameters2006In: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 161-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Timber building structures are seldom considered because of a lack of timber construction knowledge among many clients and professionals. 3D computer visualization (3D VIZ) is a possible way of communicating the aesthetics of a visible timber structure and visualizing complex timber connections. This paper investigates the potential for 3D VIZ to communicate visible timber structures during the different phases of the construction process. Furthermore, important parameters (controllable in 3D VIZ) for communicating a timber structure are identified. Through an Internet-based Delphi study, the usefulness of 3D VIZ for timber structures has been evaluated by professionals representing different competencies in the construction process. The results show that structural complexity, intended beholder (professional or non-professional) and current construction phase influence the benefit of 3D VIZ. The level of detail in the visualization is heavily dependent on whether the communication is internal (between professionals) or external (between professionals and clients/users). The impact of parameters needed, such as textures, surface structures and realistic lighting, have been described.

  • 48. Johnsson, Helena
    et al.
    Lukaszewska, Elzbieta
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nailed timber joints with a thick interlayer2004In: 8th World Conference on Timber Engineering: WCTE 2004. Proceedings, 2004, p. 281-284Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 49.
    Johnsson, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    A linear fracture mechanics evaluation of plug shear failure2004In: Proceedings, The 8th World Conference on Timber Engineering: WCTE 2004, 2004, Vol. 1, p. 253-258Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 50.
    Johnsson, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Effect of joint geometry on the shear-plug failure in nailed timber connections2002In: 7th World conference on timber engineering: WCTE 2002, Penerbitan Publications , 2002, Vol. 2, p. 320-327Conference paper (Refereed)
123 1 - 50 of 124
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