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  • 1.
    Ahlborg, Helene
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Environmental Systems Analysis.
    Broäng, Frida
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Provision of electricity to African households: The importance of democracy and institutional quality2015Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 87, s. 125-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How can differences in per capita household electricity consumption across African countries be understood? Based on theories that highlight the importance of democracy and institutional quality for provision of public goods, the aim of the paper is to analyse the degree to which the level of per capita household electricity consumption in African countries can be attributed to the countries’ democratic status and their institutional quality. We rely on regression analysis employing a pooled data set for 44 African countries over the time period 1996–2009. The analysis shows that democracy and institutional quality both have significant positive effects on per capita household consumption of electricity. Our results have implications for how energy sector reforms are promoted in developing countries. At a more general level they illustrate that institution-building policy efforts are relevant also in areas where contemporary debates have tended to primarily centre on economic development, financial prerequisites and ownership issues.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Klas
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lindskog, Annika
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Martinsson, Johan
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Learning for the Future?: Effects of ESD on teacher education students2013Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, nr 12, s. 5135-5152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, politicians, university representatives, scholars and leading NGOs share a strong belief in the ability of educational systems to generate positive attitudes to sustainable development (SD) among citizens, with the idea of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) as perhaps the most apparent expression of this conviction. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether ESD might have the intended effects on teacher education students. More specifically, we account for the results from a panel study on the effects of a course on SD held in autumn 2010 at the University of Gothenburg (n = 323) on teacher education students. The surveys consisted of questions about the students’ concerns about various issues, including issues related to SD, and their attitudes towards SD and views of moral obligations to contributing to SD. The study included a control group (n = 97) consisting of students from the teacher-training programme at University West, which had not and did not include ESD. We find positive effects of ESD on almost all attitudes and perceptions, including e.g., personal responsibility in relation to SD and willingness to contribute to SD, while there is no noticeable effect in the control group. We conclude the paper by discussing the implications of our results for the idea of ESD in teacher training programmes at Swedish higher education institutions.

  • 3.
    Boräng, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Political Science and the Quality of Government Institute.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Povitkina, Marina
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, University of Gothenburg, Department of Political Science and the Quality of Government Institute.
    Political determinants of electricity provision in small island developing states2016Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 98, s. 725-734Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper approaches provision of affordable and reliable electricity in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) as a case of public good provision. It aims to contribute to our understanding of how regime type and the quality of implementing institutions within political systems affect the prerequisites for successful electrification in SIDS. More specifically, we analyse the independent and interdependent effects of level of democracy and control of corruption on per capita household electricity consumption in SIDS, using data from 34 SIDS over the period 1996–2009. The results show that although the independent effects of level of democracy and control of corruption are sensitive to model specification, these two factors do have an interdependent impact on per capita household electricity consumption: democratization has positive effects on provision of electricity to the general population only when there is a certain level of corruption control in place. The results imply a) that it is important for policy actors to acknowledge the interaction between regime type and the quality of implementing institutions, and b) when planning electrification projects in SIDS, it is necessary to have information about the social and political context in order to design the most effective projects.

  • 4.
    Carlander, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Center for Finance, School of Business, Economics, and Law, University of Gothenburg.
    von Borgstede, Chris
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Sundblad, Eva-Lotta
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment.
    A bridge over troubled water: public participation as a possibility for success in water management2016Ingår i: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 18, nr 5, s. 1267-1285Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Public participation in local water councils is one method to involve different actors in the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. In this study we investigate which beliefs explain why the public participate and also how motives to participate are related to willingness to comply with decisions related to the water management framework. In total 910 respondents answered a web survey regarding their participation in the council work. Structural equation modelling was conducted with willingness to comply and motives to participate as the main dependent latent constructs. Other included latent constructs were perceived need for change, fairness, trust, and social- and personal norms. The results show that motives to participate did not have an effect on willingness to comply. Perceived need for change had indirect effects on nearly all latent constructs in the model and personal norms and social norms (through personal norms) had an effect on willingness to comply. The results are discussed in the context of water management methods.

  • 5.
    Duus-Otterström, Göran
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Identifying burdens of coping with climate change: a typology of the duties of climate justice2012Ingår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 746-753Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the central questions in climate change debates concerns fair burden-sharing, i.e. justice in the distribution of costs of undertaking climate-managing policies. In this paper it is argued that in order to distribute such costs justly, it is necessary to have a nuanced understanding of what types of burdens they represent. Climate managing policies are usually divided into responses that seek to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (mitigation) and responses that seek to prevent harm arising from a changing climate (adaptation). Some have argued that there are normatively significant differences between mitigation and adaptation: that the two responses adhere to different logics and evoke different patterns of burden-sharing. This paper argues that the relevant distinction is instead between negative and positive climate duties, i.e. whether an agent has a duty to undertake climate-managing policies on account of the harm its excessive emissions are causing or simply on account of its ability to assist those in need. The paper offers a typology of the different mitigation and adaptation responses that can be sorted under the negative/positive distinctions. This way of conceptualizing the issue not only enables us to better address the burden-sharing question, offering a more nuanced understanding of the types of climate burdens that are ascribable to agents and pointing out the appropriate roles of contributory responsibility and ability. It also clarifies aspects of the climate negotiations, and explains why it matters whether adaptation finance transferred to vulnerable countries is portrayed as compensation for harmful emissions or simply as donor countries discharging their humanitarian duties.

  • 6.
    Duus-Otterström, Göran
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Why (most) climate insurance schemes are a bad idea2011Ingår i: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 322-339Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Various insurance schemes are increasingly considered as part of a comprehensive set of responses aimed at adapting the world to future climate change. Insurance is believed to provide resources needed to rebuild societies following adverse effects of extreme weather events, and do so in a way that encourages preventive, risk-reducing action. After investigating the idea of climate insurance from a normative standpoint, it is argued that when understood conventionally - i.e. commercially - climate insurance is a highly unattractive idea. There are more defensible models of reactive adaptation that retain aspects of insurance, including, in particular, a model that is more reminiscent of a (global) social insurance model

  • 7. Harring, N.
    et al.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Should we trust in values?: Explaining support for pro-environmental policy instruments2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Harring, N.
    et al.
    Centre for Collective Action Research (CeCAR), Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Centre for Collective Action Research (CeCAR), Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Centre for Collective Action Research (CeCAR), Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    The significance of political culture, economic context and instrument type for climate policy support: a cross-national study2019Ingår i: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 636-650Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While many countries have pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the choice of national climate policy measures demonstrates widespread variation. Although system of government, path-dependency and economic entanglements can explain a certain amount of variation in policy choice, research also points specifically towards the highly politicized nature of climate policy instruments and their sensitivity to public support as explanatory factors for cross-national differences. Previous studies hypothesize that various country-specific contextual factors determine both general preferences for environmental protection and the public’s preferences for different types of policy instruments. One suggestion is that countries’ prevailing political cultures have significant consequences for such public support. Another supposition is that, since countries differ in their economic dependency on climate detrimental industry such as fossil fuel production, this should be a significant factor determining both public attitudes and subsequent political decisions. This paper applies unique, original data from four countries with significant variation in (i) political-cultural contexts (Sweden and Norway vs New Zealand and Australia and (ii) economic dependency (Norway and Australia vs Sweden and New Zealand) to analyze how, and to what extent, these two contextual variables interact with, and moderate, the effect of individual-level factors on support for climate policy measures in the four countries. Furthermore, the paper explores variations in support for different types of CO2 taxes (directed towards individual consumers, industry, and fossil-fuel producers) in the four countries. Key policy insights Across contexts, public policy support is lower for taxes directed towards private consumption than for taxes directed towards industry, and the strongest for CO2 taxes on fossil fuel producing industry. Political culture and economic context influence the effect of individual-level factors on policy support. In a context of high economic dependency on the fossil-fuel industry, people are less likely to support the introduction of CO2 taxes. The effect of left-right ideology on policy support is sensitive to political-cultural context.

  • 9.
    Harring, Niklas
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Should we trust in values?: Explaining public support for pro-environmental taxes2013Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 210-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we are concerned with what explains public acceptance and support of environmental taxes. We examine findings in environmental psychology emphasizing that people’s (environmental) value-orientation is the dominant driver determining individuals’ support for pro-environmental policy instruments. We introduce a complementary model, mainly drawing upon findings in political science, suggesting that people’s support for policy instruments is dependent on their level of political trust and their trust in other citizens. More specifically, we analyze whether political trust and inter-personal trust affect individuals’ support for an increased carbon dioxide tax in Sweden, while checking their value orientation, self-interest, and various socio-economic values. We make use of survey data obtained from a mail questionnaire sent out to a random sample of 3,000 individuals in 2009. We find that apart from people’s values, beliefs, and norms, both political trust and interpersonal trust have significant effects on people's attitudes toward an increased tax on carbon dioxide.

  • 10.
    Harring, Niklas
    et al.
    Centre for Collective Action Research, Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Why do people accept environmental policies?: The prospects of higher education and changes in norms, beliefs and policy preferences2018Ingår i: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 791-806Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressing problems of environmental degradation are typically argued to require coordination, primarily through state intervention. Social scientists are struggling to understand how attitudes toward such state interventions are formed, and several drivers have been suggested, including education. People with university degrees are assumed to have certain values as well as the analytical skills to understand complex issues such as climate change. By using a unique panel data-set with students in different university programs (economics, law and political science), this study provides a better understanding of whether and how education affects environmental policy acceptance. One important finding is that university studies generate variation in support and scepticism toward different types of policy measures. For example, economics students tend to develop more positive attitudes toward market-based policy measures. This indicates a potential for education to increase the societal support often hindering the implementation of such policy tools.

  • 11.
    Harring, Niklas
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Martinsson, Johan
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Explaining ups and downs in the public’s environmental concern in Sweden: the effects of ecological modernization, the economy, and the media2011Ingår i: Organization & environment, ISSN 1086-0266, E-ISSN 1552-7417, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 388-403Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors search for explanations to ups and downs in the Swedish public’s environmental concern since the 1980s. In line with previous research, this study examines the effects of economic cycles and media coverage. In addition, the authors hypothesize that the economy will affect environmental concern less over time because of the entry of ecological modernization into elite discourse. Using time series regression analysis and a unique data set, we study Swedish public opinion during more than 20 years. Economic cycles affect the public’s environmental concern but to a diminishing degree. Public environmental concern is also affected by the amount of media coverage. In accordance with earlier observations, it is concluded that both the economy and media content have an independent effect on public environmental concern. However, the previously observed conflict between economic cycles and public environmental concern is weakened, potentially because of the elite group embracement of an ecological modernization discourse.

  • 12.
    Harring, Niklas
    et al.
    Centre for Collective Action Research, Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Public support for pro-environmental policy measures: Examining the impact of personal values and ideology2017Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, nr 5, artikel-id 679Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the relationship between two major explanations of the formation of positive attitudes towards environmental policy measures. Ideological orientation and personal values have, in theory, significant overlaps in the sense that they collect general and cross-situational sentiments used to understand and evaluate a wide range of political issues. However, in the empirical literature, although they independently have been shown to have rather significant effects on pro-environmental policy attitudes, they are rarely tested together in order to explore whether they capture the same basic mechanisms. In this article, two data sets from Sweden are used to demonstrate both that ideological orientation and personal values independently affect pro-environmental policy support, as well as that these effects differ across different policy types.

  • 13.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    et al.
    Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Department of Political Science and Centre for Collective Action Research (CeCAR), University of Gothenburg.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Peters, Gregory M.
    Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Chalmers University of Technology.
    How information about hazardous fluorinated substances increases willingness-to-pay for alternative outdoor garments: A Swedish survey experiment2018Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 202, s. 130-138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many outdoor garments are impregnated to make them water and, in some cases oil repellent, but the impregnation agents can be hazardous to human health and the environment. Some examples of such hazardous impregnation agents include per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances. To reduce the risks related to these fluorinated substances, a phase-out is necessary, and voluntary avoidance by consumers may be one way to make this happen. This experimental survey investigates the extent to which information about the hazardous properties of fluorinated substances affects consumer willingness-to-pay for alternative outdoor garments without hazardous chemicals. The experiment was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to more than 4000 Swedish respondents via the Laboratory of Opinion Research's Citizen Panel. The results show a generally high willingness-to-pay, and that the effects of providing information are higher when the price increase is high. This suggests that there is room for a price increase if the non-hazardous options are more expensive. This survey experiment indicates that the Swedish general public is ready for substitution to garments without hazardous fluorinated chemicals if the alternative provides an identical function. Information campaigns, however, will have limited ability to increase the willingness-to-pay for an alternative as it is already high. Despite the general willingness of the Swedish public to choose less hazardous options, legislative measures may potentially be the most effective action when supply chains are opaque and information to consumers is limited.

  • 14. Jagers, Sverker
    Justice, liberty and bread - for all?: on the compatibility between sustainable development and liberal democracy2002Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Statsvetenskap, gåtor och tvärvetenskapliga landvinningar: om utmaningar för studiet av miljöpolitik2010Ingår i: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 112, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Berlin, Daniel
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Jentoft, Svein
    Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø.
    Why comply?: Attitudes towards harvest regulations among Swedish fishers2012Ingår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 36, nr 5, s. 969-976Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do fishers break rules? And why do they follow them? The answers to these pertinent questions could contribute to reducing overfishing, stock decimation, environmental degradation, economic losses and community failures. This explorative paper presents findings from a nationwide survey among Swedish fishers, who were asked what, in their opinion, would justify non-compliance, why fisheries management regulations are not being respected, and what might help improve the situation. The survey was conducted to test four inducements often suggested in the literature: Fishers’ compliance/non-compliance is based on (a) their own benefit, (b) whether they feel morally compelled to do one way or another, (c) whether compliance is believed to create a negative impression among peers and (d) whether they accept the justification given for introducing the rules. Among other things, the study finds that the moral motives of law-abidingness and peer group solidarity rank the highest among the reasons for compliance, that large-scale fishers are more concerned about deterrence than small- and medium-scale fishers and also that co-management experience makes fishers less inclined to accept non-compliance by fishers who seek to boost their income.

  • 17.
    Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Harring, Niklas
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Environmental management from left to right: on ideology, policy-specific beliefs and pro-environmental policy support2018Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 61, nr 1, s. 86-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to growing environmental challenges, the demand for effective management through pro-environmental policy measures is increasing. The effectiveness is, however, largely determined by the degree to which the policy measures are supported by the actors affected by them. A consistent finding in the literature is that ideology (or subjective positioning on the left–right dimension) affects environmental policy support, with left-leaning individuals being more pro-environmental. A major caveat with previous research is that it seldom makes a distinction between different kinds of policies. Therefore, we are concerned with investigating how different ideological positions affect attitudes towards different forms of environmental protection. Using unique survey data, we show that ideology is related to conceptions about the fairness and effectiveness of different policy tools, which in turn steer preferences. In that sense, this paper makes the discussion on the effects of ideological position on pro-environmental policy support more nuanced.

  • 18.
    Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Linde, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Martinsson, Johan
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Statsvetenskapliga Institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Testing the Importance of Individuals’ Motives for Explaining Environmentally Significant Behavior2017Ingår i: Social Science Quarterly, ISSN 0038-4941, E-ISSN 1540-6237, Vol. 98, nr 2, s. 644-658Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveThis article explores how different motives affect behavior, and attempts to explain how the causal chain of values and beliefs forms our understanding of and motives for private-sphere environmentally significant behaviors (ESBs). As a point of departure, we postulate that traditional models focusing primarily on individual-level motivation as a driver for ESB should benefit significantly from making a distinction in the dependent variable between: (1) behaviors that are explicitly pro-environmental, judging both by their outcomes and the individual's stated motives for undertaking them; (2) behaviors that have a positive environmental impact but that are connected to motives other than environmental ones; as well as (3) behaviors where both environmental and other motives coincide as drivers for ESB.MethodsIn order to answer our research questions, we use survey data collected from a random sample from the Swedish population register. The main dependent variable is the self-reported frequency of 12 different kinds of nonactivist, private-sphere behaviors. We employ ordinary least square regressions to analyze the explanatory strength of individual-level motivational factors for ESB when taking stated motives for behavior into account.Results and ConclusionThe results support our main assumption that to explain drivers for ESB, stated motives should be taken into account. For all of the 12 ESBs in the survey, a considerable share of the respondents do not perceive or motivate behavior as pro-environmentalism at all, and others provide multiple motives for their behavior, combining, for example, economic or health with environmentalism. Furthermore, when analyzing the relationship between a scientifically well-established model aspiring to explain pro-environmental behavior, and individuals’ behavioral perceptions and their stated behavior, we find that the explanatory power of this model is clearly sensitive to people's stated motives.

  • 19.
    Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Martinsson, Johan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ecological citizenship: a driver of pro-environmental behaviour?2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Martinsson, Johan
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ecological citizenship: a driver of pro-environmental behaviour?2014Ingår i: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 434-453Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In theory, ecological citizenship (EC) has been suggested as a driver of individual pro-environmental behaviour (PEB), providing a more stable foundation for lifestyle changes than reliance on external policy tools. The relevance of EC for explaining PEB is tested by applying data from a Swedish survey designed to capture various aspects of EC. A significant proportion of Swedes fulfil the values-based requirements of ecological citizenship, as outlined in EC-theory. Furthermore, individuals who think along the lines of EC are more likely than others to behave in an environmentally friendly manner in their day-to-day activities. Certain aspects of EC are more important for PEB than others, which implies the need for further theoretical development of EC theory

  • 21.
    Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Martinsson, Johan
    Statsvetenskapliga Institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Matti, Simon
    On how to make the theoretical concept of ecological citizenship empirically operational2009Ingår i: Papers from Uppsala Forum Workshop: Climate Change Policy after Copenhagen- Politics, Policy and Ethics, Uppsala University, September 28, 2009, 2009, s. 1-15Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the discourses of ecological sustainability point towards the active involvement of individuals in the environmental work as an important prerequisite for targeting the sources of environmental degradation, one of the main foci for contemporary environmental policy and political theory is the need for comprehensive individual lifestyle-changes. Within political theory an Ecological Citizenship, reinterpreting the traditional state/individual relationship by straddling the private - public; national - global; and present - future divides, has been suggested a valuable approach to realising a personal responsibility for the environment. Empirical research analysing the prospects for ecological citizenship to function as a route towards individual environmental responsibility is, however, to date lacking in the literature. In this paper we elaborate on how the theory of ecological citizenship can be made empirically operational.

  • 22.
    Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Martinsson, Johan
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Statsvetenskapliga Institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The Environmental Psychology of the Ecological Citizen: Comparing Competing Models of Pro-Environmental Behavior2016Ingår i: Social Science Quarterly, ISSN 0038-4941, E-ISSN 1540-6237, Vol. 97, nr 5, s. 1005-1022Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesThe overall objective of this article is to contribute to the identification of underlying factors causing individuals’ pro-environmental behavior (PEB).MethodsThis is done by the amalgamation of an empirically-derived theory originating in the behavioral science research—the value-belief-norm (VBN) theory (e.g., Stern et al., 1999)—and a rather recently developed theory in political science—the ecological citizenship (EC) model (e.g., Dobson, 2003). Using survey data, this article empirically tests the explanatory power of these two theories, both separately and as a joint model.

  • 23.
    Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Martinsson, Johan
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Centre for Collective Action Research (CeCAR), University of Gothenburg.
    The impact of compensatory measures on public support for carbon taxation: an experimental study in Sweden2019Ingår i: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 147-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at better understanding how, and to what extent, perceptions of a policy instrument’s distributional effects impact on policy support, focusing on the case of CO2 taxes on petrol in Sweden. Through a large-scale (N = 5000) randomized survey experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design, the extent to which perceptions of fairness determine attitudes to a suggested increase of the Swedish CO2 tax is explored. Furthermore, the study considers whether these effects change with the level of the suggested tax increase, as well as whether negative sentiments can be alleviated by combining it with a compensatory measure in the shape of a simultaneous income tax cut financed by the revenues from the tax increase. The results show that a higher tax increase is both viewed as more unfair and enjoys weaker support. Furthermore, compensatory measures can be a powerful policy design tool to increase perceptions of the policy as fair, but the effect of compensation on policy support is conditioned by the individual’s left–right ideological position. Whereas people self-identifying to the right react favourably to compensatory measures, people self-identifying to the left become less supportive of a tax increase when combined with a simultaneous cut in income taxes.

  • 24.
    Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ecological citizens: identifying values and beliefs that support individual environmental responsibility among Swedes2010Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 1055-1079Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As it has been suggested that involvement of individuals in environmental work is necessary for halting environmental degradation, one focus for contemporary environmental policy and political theory is the need for comprehensive individual lifestyle changes. Ecological Citizenship (EC) has been suggested within the field of political theory as an approach to realize personal responsibility for the environment. However, empirical research on whether EC can serve this purpose is still lacking. Based on a survey sent to 4,000 Swedish households, this paper makes the theory of EC empirically operational and explores whether, and to what extent, people in general hold values and beliefs in line with what is expected of EC, in order to shed light on the feasibility of cultivating ecological citizens in Sweden. The study concludes that a significant proportion of the respondents do demonstrate a value base consistent with EC, i.e., non-territorial altruism and the primacy of social justice. While additional tests and studies are needed, the results support the use of EC as a theoretical model for behavioral change.

  • 25.
    Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Politikernas representation av medborgarnas miljöintresse2014Ingår i: Svenska politiker: Om de folkvalda i riksdag, landsting och kommun, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2014, s. 41-59Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26.
    Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Langlet, David
    Department of Law, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Havenhand, Jonathan N
    Department of Marine Sciences-Tjärnö, Tjärnö Marine Laboratory, University of Gothenburg, Strömstad, Sweden .
    Troell, Max
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Filipsson, Helena L
    Department of Geology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Galaz, Victor R
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Anderson, Leif G
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Societal causes of, and responses to, ocean acidification2019Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 48, nr 8, s. 816-830Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Major climate and ecological changes affect the world's oceans leading to a number of responses including increasing water temperatures, changing weather patterns, shrinking ice-sheets, temperature-driven shifts in marine species ranges, biodiversity loss and bleaching of coral reefs. In addition, ocean pH is falling, a process known as ocean acidification (OA). The root cause of OA lies in human policies and behaviours driving society's dependence on fossil fuels, resulting in elevated CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. In this review, we detail the state of knowledge of the causes of, and potential responses to, OA with particular focus on Swedish coastal seas. We also discuss present knowledge gaps and implementation needs.

  • 27.
    Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    How Exposure to Policy Tools Transforms the Mechanisms Behind Public Acceptability and Acceptance: The Case of the Gothenburg Congestion Tax2017Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, ISSN 1556-8318, E-ISSN 1556-8334, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 109-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing body of literature suggests that acceptance of environmental policy instruments tends to change along with increased experience of the same. Among the more popular examples of this are the growing number of congestion-pricing initiatives emerging around the world; in several cases the acceptability of these projects among the public has been relatively low before implementation, but then acceptance has increased as experience of the project has grown. The question is just how, and in particular, why? I.e., what is it really that experience does to people's propensity to accept initially quite unpopular measures? In this article we analyze how the relationship between political trust, policy-specific beliefs and public support for policy tools is moderated or affected by people's personal experiences of those policy tools. On the basis of the experience of previous research, we test the way in which policy-specific beliefs, institutional trust and the legitimacy of the political decision-making process affect public attitudes toward a policy tool. In addition—and consistent with other studies—we expect these effects to be significantly reduced post-implementation, as people gain first-hand experience of a policy tool. More specifically, we theorize that the often emphasized process legitimacy is only valid as a factor driving support before implementation, and that the effect of general institutional trust is replaced by the level of trust specific to the implementing institutions after the introduction of the policy tool. We tested these hypotheses using a natural experiment; i.e., by studying public attitudes toward the introduction of congestion fees in the Swedish city of Gothenburg both before and after their introduction. By doing so, we were able to comprehensively analyze both the drivers behind public sentiments toward congestion charges and how these mechanisms transform as people are exposed to the costs and benefits of the policy tool in practice. Among other things, we found that with regard to fairness and environmental effectiveness, there is a clear symmetry in our results. The level of acceptance increased most noticeably among those who experienced that the environment was improved by the implemented tax, or that the system turned out to be fairer than expected. However, the opposite is also the case. Thus, among those experiencing that the environment was not improved, or that the system appeared to be less fair than expected, the level of acceptance decreased significantly after implementation. These results may have important policy implications.

  • 28.
    Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Povitkina, Marina
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Sjöstedt, Martin
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Sundström, Aksel
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Paradise Islands?: Island States and Environmental Performance2016Ingår i: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, ISSN 1548-7733, E-ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 8, nr 3, artikel-id 285Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored

  • 29.
    Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Sevä, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Governance and front-line bureaucrats: on government and governance among civil servants2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 30. Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Sjöstedt, Martin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Democracy and the environment revisited: The case of African fisheries2014Ingår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, s. 143-148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article develops and tests three hypotheses concerning the effects of levels of democracy on levels of overfishing in Sub-Saharan Africa. The results show that the more democratic a country is, the more successful it is in protecting marine environments. However, this effect disappears during turbulent times and periods of rapid political change. The analysis also shows that democracy has a stronger effect on environmental performance than do levels of corruption and government effectiveness.

  • 31. Jagers, Sverker
    et al.
    Sjöstedt, Martin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Democracy and the environment revisited: the case of African fisheries2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a growing body of literature in political science and environmental studies, scholars debate the effect of democracy on environmental degradation While some analysts argue that democracy reduces environmental degradation others hold that democracy may not reduce environmental degradation or may in fact even be harmful This article seeks to address this debate by focusing on the effect of democracy and political–regime type on levels of overfishing in sub–Saharan Africa. In this region, the democratization since the late 1980s has spurred increased optimism about the environment but there is clearly a lack of empirical investigations on what effects increased levels of democracy have had on, for example, overfishing. After a discussion of the theoretical literature on the subject – as well as of the proposed causal mechanisms – this paper tests the theoretical propositions about democracy’s potential effects on overfishing in a cross–country time series analysis using various democracy indices and the marine trophic index as independent and dependent variables respectively.

  • 32.
    Linde, Stefan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Political and institutional prerequisites for successful mining establishment and development: a synthesis of social science research2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining has a substantial influence on several parts of society, in part by providing economic and social development, but also through negative environmental and social-cultural impacts connected to its operation. This combination of both positive and negative effects induces a complex planning and permitting process concerning large and differentiated values, long time spans and large numbers of actors. The aim of this report is to conduct a survey of previous research on societal aspects on mines and mining conducted within political science in particular (and within a broader spectrum of other social sciences in general). The emphasis of the study is placed on identifying research focusing on how, and to what extent, political and institutional factors affect processes of mining development and subsequent serve to shape their outcomes. Results show that previous research has focused on the distribution of rights and resources in connection to development. Five main sub-categories are identified: national mining policies, indigenous rights, corporate social responsibility, company-community conflicts and environmental impacts. Research on how the development processes is impacted by the influence of e.g. public opinion and stakeholder core values, of interactions within the administrative system and of national and subnational policies has though largely been overlooked.

  • 33.
    Matti, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    From sustainable consumers to ecological citizens: identifying values and attitudes supporting individual environmental responsibility in Sweden2008Ingår i: Swepsa 2008: Papers från workshop 4: politiskt deltagande och medborgarskap, Swepsa , 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 34.
    Matti, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Martinsson, Johan
    Statsvetenskapliga Institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    The Environmental Psychology of the Ecological Citizen: Comparing Competing Explanations to Factors Driving Individual Pro-Environmental Behaviour2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite essentially focusing the same issue, i.e. exploring the drivers behind pro-environmental behaviour (PEB) at the individual level, research within environmental psychology and environmental political science rarely converge. Rather than joining forces, theories and models of individuals’ PEB have developed side-by-side within these two main approaches, without them communicating, exchanging experiences and possibly finding a common ground for future research across disciplinary boundaries. This is certainly a shortcoming in the literature on PEB, as perspectives, theories and models from these two research traditions very well might prove to complement each other in a fruitful way, and provide a better basis for political decision-making and policy design. This research attempts to amalgamate the learning on factors driving individual-level PEB from environmental psychology and environmental political science respectively. The aim of the study is to examine how these two theories relate to each other, if they essentially measure the same mechanism, and if they complement, rather than compete with, each other: What factors remain as significant explanatory factors for PEB when the two theoretical models are combined?

  • 35.
    Morf, Andrea
    et al.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Balancing sustainability in two pioneering marine national parks in Scandinavia2017Ingår i: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 139, s. 51-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though marine protected areas (MPAs) have become central instruments in the endeavour towards sustainable development, our knowledge on how different institutional designs influence outcomes is limited. Using a comparative case study design, this paper explores the interplay between institutional arrangements and management outcomes in two adjacent yet institutionally slightly differing MPAs, encompassing a shared marine trench and a partially inhabited archipelago landscape – namely the Koster Sea National Park in Sweden and the Outer Hvaler National Park in Norway. How can differences in the institutional designs governing the two parks, be linked to differences in sustainability outcomes? What lessons can be learnt for the design of MPAs? The study shows that institutional design influences management outcomes in some respects but not in others. Differences in overall management systems had no noticeable effects on sustainability outcomes and how they were perceived, while the differing objectives of the parks and how they are made operational seem to have affected the outcomes. But they have also influenced actors' expectations and their assessment of outcomes. According to this study, conservation arrangements can be broadened beyond mere nature protection. However, the study also underlines the challenges of locally adapted and participatory institutional designs and emphasises the importance of taking users’ varying expectations related to social and economic values into account throughout the whole process. The establishment of national parks is no guarantee for broader sustainable development per se; this also requires resources and proper embedding and integration with relevant sectors and tiers in the overall management system.

  • 36.
    Poulton, Mary M.
    et al.
    Lowell Institute for Mineral Resources, University of Arizona.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Linde, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Zyl, Dirk Van
    Institute of Mining Engineering, University of British Columbia.
    Danielson, Luke J.
    Sustainable Strategies Group.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    State of the world’s nonfuel mineral resources: supply, demand, and socio-institutional fundamentals2013Ingår i: Annual Review Environment and Resources, ISSN 1543-5938, E-ISSN 1545-2050, Vol. 38, s. 345-371Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Current material supply-demand imbalances are driven by situational- rather than physical scarcities, resulting in a growing interest among government, civil society, and industry to consider not only the availability of mineral resources, but also the sustainability implications of its production. This, in turn, places increasing pressure on mining companies to broaden its concerns when planning new mining projects, covering its “social license to operate” by incorporating strategies for limiting negative socio-environmental impacts alongside calculations of the project’s economic viability as well as balancing a large number of potential stakeholders and interests. Accordingly, understanding also the socio-political context of mineral development is crucial for development of sustainable practices within the mining industry. By applying a sustainable development-framework this article outlines the complex web of challenges associated with sustainable mineral extraction, ranging from technological and economic development to political and institutional concerns on how to govern and manage scarce resources in a globalized world.

  • 37.
    Povitkina, Marina
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Sjöstedt, Martin
    Göteborgs universitet, Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Sundström, Aksel
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Democracy, development and the marine environment: A global time-series investigation2015Ingår i: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 105, s. 25-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Is democracy favorable or adverse for the management of marine resources? While some studies find democracy to increase the likelihood of achieving sustainable development, others propose that democracy rather has negative effects on the environment. This paper contributes explicitly to this debate, but also adds insights from research arguing that the effects of democracy are conditioned by surrounding institutions. Building on this literature, we argue that the way democracy works – whether it is an instrument for collective action beneficial to the environment or an instrument for patronage and clientelism – depends on levels of economic development. The overall objective of the article is to test this proposition empirically. Employing time-series cross-section analysis and using Marine Trophic Index as a proxy for the health of marine ecosystems, we investigate the impact of democracy on the marine environment in a global sample from 1972 to 2006. The analysis provides interesting insights regarding the conditional role of economic development. We report negative effects of democracy in low income settings, but find that this pattern is reversed when economic development has reached a certain threshold. Finally, we discuss how democracy affects the prospects for sustainable development and based on our conclusions offer suggestions for future research.

  • 38.
    Sevä, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Inspecting environmental management from within: The role of street-level bureaucrats in environmental policy implementation2013Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 128, s. 1060-1070Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we assert that an important element is largely missing in much of the current environmental policy literature regarding different management ideals: street-level bureaucrats (i.e., the practicing and, typically, anonymous civil servants at the very end of the environmental policy chain). Thus, we aim to enhance a deeper understanding of the role that street-level bureaucrats play within different management ideals, and through this discussion, we indicate how they affect the functionality of governing structures and processes. We do so by interviewing street-level bureaucrats carrying out their role in different management settings, enabling evaluations of the degree to which their practices correspond with the ideals expressed in the literature and in official directives. We find a rather poor match between these ideals on one hand and the way street-level bureaucrats actually perceive that they are internally steered and how they carry out their commissions on the other hand.

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