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  • 1.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Aktivitet: Seminarium om användning av slam och aska som tätskikt på deponi2005Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 2.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Hydrotermisk karbonisering: en praktisk avfallsbehandlingsmöjlighet?2017Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hydrotermisk karbonisering (HTC) är en behandling där ett fuktigt organiskt materialutsätts för en kombination av värme och tryck, t ex 200°C och 20 bar. Då löses näringsämnenupp, och strukturen hos det organiska materialet förändras, vilket leder tillatt det stabiliseras, finfördelas, och enklare kan separeras från oorganiska delar.HTC har tidigare mest används vid bränsleproduktion, men i den här studien stod metodenspotential för avgiftning och separation av avfall i fokus, och vilken roll HTCkan ha som avfallsbehandlingsmetod. Syftet med projektet var att bedöma potentialenav HTC som metod för att öka återvinningen av näringsämnen i en cirkulär ekonomimed samtidigt förbättrad avgiftning av avfall jämfört med biologisk behandling, ochminskade utsläpp av koldioxid genom annan användning av organiska avfall än sombränsle.För att uppnå målen genomfördes labbförsök med efterföljande kemiska analyser, ochresultaten låg till grund för en multivariat dataanalys och en livscykelanalys.Resultaten visar på en avgiftning genom en separation av halten av skadliga tungmetaller,och att värmevärdet ökar. Dock så bedöms det analyserade materialet inte kunnaanvändas till jordförbättringsmedel eller som anläggningsmaterial, vilket dock främstberor på att materialet redan var förorenat.HTC lämpar sig bäst för blöta avfall med en blandning av organiska och oorganiskadelar. En marknadsanalys visar på att 100 000-tals ton av dessa typer av avfall fallervarje år.Sammanfattningsvis så kan processen vara intressant som avfallshanteringsmetod,men mer forskning behövs gällande mekaniska egenskaper och mekanisk separation.

  • 3.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Implementing a lab-developed liner recipe in a full scale cover construction: challenges, setbacks and success2012Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012 / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, s. 40-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4. Andreas, Lale
    Langzeitemissionsverhalten von Deponien für Siedlungsabfälle in den neuen Bundesländern2000Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [de]

    Langzeitemissionsverhalten von Deponien für Siedlungsabfälle in den neuen BundesländernZusammenfassungZiel der vorliegenden Arbeit war die Beschreibung des Langzeitverhaltens von DDR-Depo­nien unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Emissionen auf dem Sickerwasserpfad.Die Beschreibung umfaßte die untersuchten Deponiestandorte, die Deponierungspraxis in der DDR, cha­rak­teristische Eigenschaften der abgelager­ten Abfälle sowie der nach mehrjähriger Lage­rungs­zeit ausgekofferten Altabfallproben, die Sickerwasseremissionen der Deponie Döbeln-Hohenlauft, das Auslaugverhalten der Altabfälle in Mehrfachelutionsversuchen und die Sickerwasser- und Gas­emis­­sionen der Deponiesimulationsversuche.Als charakteristische Eigenschaften der DDR-Deponien, die für das Emissionsverhalten von Be­deu­tung sind, wurden folgende Punkte herausgearbeitet:langsames Deponiewachstum,fehlende oder sehr geringe Verdichtung,vergleichsweise intensive aerobe Prozesse zu Beginn der Ablagerung.Bedingt dadurch wurde ein Großteil der biologisch abbaubaren Bestandteile des Abfalls sehr schnell umgesetzt und trägt nicht zum langfristigen Emissionsverhalten bei.Die Abfallzusammensetzung von DDR-Altabfällen ist gekennzeichnet durch:hohe Anteile von Feinmaterial (bis zu 70 Masse% sind < 8mm),hohe Anteile mineralischer Stoffe, wie Aschen und Bauschutt,hohe Salzgehalte (Sulfat, Alkalien, Erdalkalien),eine hohe Säurepufferkapazität undgeringe Anteile organischer Abfälle.Dies führt zu einem wenig reaktiven Deponiekörper und den bei den meisten alten DDR-Depo­nien zu beobachtenden geringen Emissionen. Die wesentlichen Emissionen erfolgen auf dem Sicker­was­serpfad, die Hauptkomponente dabei sind anorganische Salze. Hinsichtlich der Zu­sam­mensetzung kön­nen die DDR-Deponien am ehesten mit Asche-/Schlackedeponien verglichen werden, die in Zu­kunft den wohl wichtigsten Deponietyp in Deutschland darstellen werden.Auf der Basis der Untersuchungen zur Feststoffzusammensetzung der Abfälle und ihres Auslaug- und Emissionsverhaltens wurden desweiteren Prozesse diskutiert, die in DDR-De­po­nien in der Ver­gan­genheit stattgefunden haben können bzw. die zukünftig möglich sind. Hierbei sind zu nennen:die Auslaugung von Salzen,Sulfatreduktion,Karbonatanreicherung im Feststoff.Mittels multivariater Datenanalyse konnte eine Einordnung der Deponieprozesse in eine späte an­aero­be Phase mit Tendenz zu semi-aeroben Prozessen hin vorgenommen werden. Die methodischen Unterschiede zwischen Mehrfachelutions- und DSR-Versuchen wurden genutzt, um biologische Prozesse in den DSR zu identifizieren und bewerten. Im Ergebnis der Untersuchungen in Deponiesimulationsreaktoren wurden langfristige Emissions­poten­tiale EP und notwendige Nachsorgezeiträume bis zum Erreichen von Grenzkonzentrationen im Sickerwasser abgeschätzt. Sie sind in Tabelle 1 als Medianwerte zusammengefaßt dargestellt. Die Auswertung langjähriger Sickerwassermeßreihen der Deponie Döbeln-Hohen­lauft bestätigte die Repräsentativität der DSR-Versuche und unterstützt die getroffenen Progno­sen.Tabelle 1 Notwendige Zeiträume TE bis zum Erreichen von umweltverträglichen Konzentra­tio­nen cE im Sickerwasser von DDR-Altdeponien [a] Grenzkonzen­tration cEDSR-EP(W-F ® ∞) Stoffaustrag FE bis cE [g/kg] W-FE bis cE [l/kg TS] Zeitraum TE bis cE [a]CSB200 mg/l0,60,20,557TOC 100 mg/l0,150,040,334NKj 70 mg/l0,250,091,2144Cl‾100 mg/l0,70,61,4167SO42‾250 mg/l2,72,61,5180 Die längsten Zeiträume sind für den Austrag von Stickstoff und Salzen, insbesondere des Sulfats, notwendig. Die Dauer wird im wesentlichen durch folgende Faktoren beeinflußt:Abfallzusammensetzung (Anteil neuer Abfälle auf den alten DDR-Deponien)WasserhaushaltLuftzutritt, Oxidation.Ein Ausblick auf das veränderte Emissionsgeschehen der nach 1990 weiter ­betriebenen DDR-Deponien zeigt, daß sich durch die Veränderungen in Ab­fall­zusam­men­setzung und Abla­ge­rungs­praxis das Deponieverhalten deutlich verschlechtert hat, und eine Annäherung des Emis­­sions­­niveaus an die Verhältnisse von Siedlungsabfalldeponien der 70er/80er Jahre in den alten Bun­des­län­dern zu verzeichnen ist.Die erwarteten Nachsorgezeiträume gehen z. T. deutlich über heute in der Praxis diskutierte Werte hinaus. Um den Zeitrahmen bis zum Erreichen umweltverträglicher Sickerwasserkonzentrationen so zu verkürzen, daß die bei der Deponierung anfallenden Probleme von der gleichen Generation gelöst werden, die sie verursacht hat, sind aktive Maßnahmen zur Emissionsminimierung unbedingt not­­wendig.

  • 5. Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Bilitewski, Bernd
    University of Technology Dresden, Pirna.
    Effects of waste quality and landfill technology on the long-term behaviour of municipal landfills1999Ingår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 413-423Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The pollution potential of old municipal landfills of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) is not as bad as expected, even taking into consideration that most lack environmental protection systems. Compared with specific conditions in the former GDR (such as production and consumption), the disposal of waste and the long-term behaviour of landfills clearly differs from that in the old German federal states. Low quantities of deposited waste created slowly growing landfills, and therefore led to rapid degradation processes still in the aerobic milieu. As a result of the increasing similarity of waste quantities and composition in the new and old federal states after 1990, waste deposited today can be expected to have similar long- term behaviour and emissions as existing old Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) landfills which were operating during the 1970s and 1980s.

  • 6.
    Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Diener, Silvia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Hydraulic performance of a land-fill top cover based on steel slag2014Ingår i: Sardinia 2013: 14th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Forte Village, S. Margherita di Pula (CA), Italy, 30 September - 4 October 2013 ; CD-ROM: Symposium proceedings / [ed] Raffaello Cusso, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    HYDRAULIC PERFORMANCE OF A LAND¬FILL TOP COVER BASED ON STEEL SLAGThe steel industry is expanding and following the amount of produced steel, more and more by-products and residuals are generated. About 17.6 million tonnes of steel slags arise in Europe every year. In Sweden about 18 % of the iron- and steelmaking slags are landfilled (Jernkontoret, 2012). One application for steel slags are landfill covers where large amounts of virgin materials are needed. The legal requirement in Sweden is directed towards the maxi¬mum amount of lea¬chate generated at the bottom of the landfill: < 5 and < 50 l (m2*a)-1 for landfill class 1 and 2, respec¬ti¬vely. To secure these demands, a layer of low permeability is needed to reduce water infiltration. The hydraulic load of this layer ought to be controlled by a protective water balance layer and an effective drainage layer.Previous investigations indicate that steel slags can be used as construction material for both liner and drainage layer (Herrmann et al., 2010). In order to verify this in full scale, five tests areas (A1-5) were constructed at a municipal landfill in Sweden between 2005 and 2011. The areas were designed using different mixtures of steel slags from the local steel company in the liner. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydraulic performance of the cover during the first years after installation.The design of the cover construction was varied like this: a mixture of 50 % electric arc furnace slag (EAFS) and 50 % ladle slag (LS) was tested as liner material in the first test area (A1). A2 and A3 were built using less LS and coarser fractions of EAFS since laboratory tests had given satisfactory results also for these recipes. High infiltration rates in A2 and 3 led to a return to the original weight proportions in A4 and 5, yet another EAF slag was introduced in these areas. The mixing and construction techniques were refined during the first years of the project time: while A1 was built with rather poorly conceived technique, as of A3 the method can be considered as technically mature and approved.The liner performance was evaluated by lysimetry: 10 lysimeters were installed below each test area. The infiltration below the liner corresponded to 44, 74, 71, 19 and 0.4 l/m2*year for A1 to A5. Compared to the legal limit of 50 l/m2*year, the covers of A2 and A3 allowed about 50 % more water to enter the landfill than stipulated.An initial increase of the infiltration was observed, which most likely is related to increasing water saturation of the liner material in the first period after construction. The saturation occurred fastest in A2, where basically no initial increase was observed, probably due to the long time that elapsed between construction and the first sampling event (260 days). In contrast, the saturation in A1 and A4 was quite slow which can be related to the smaller particle size of the slags in these areas and, hence, a less porous liner material. The decrease in A2 and A3 might be explained by mineral transformations within the slag matrix such as carbonation of calcium and magnesium leading to the precipitation of carbonates in the pores of the liner material. Future observations will show if the decreasing trend in A2 and A3 remains such that the infiltration eventually reaches a level falling below the legal limit.The results show that the infiltration criteria can be fulfilled under the condition that at least 50 % of the liner mix consists of ladle slag, a fine-grained slag with cementitious properties. With few adaptations the steel slag can be used with standard construction processes.

  • 7.
    Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Diener, Silvia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Steel slags in a landfill top cover: Experiences from a full-scale experiment2014Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 692-701Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A full scale field study has been carried out in order to test and evaluate the use of slags from high-alloy steel production as the construction materials for a final cover of an old municipal landfill. Five test areas were built using different slag mixtures within the barrier layer (liner). The cover consisted of a foundation layer, a liner with a thickness of 0.7 m, a drainage layer of 0.3 m, a protection layer of 1.5 m and a vegetation layer of 0.25 m. The infiltration varied depending on the cover design used, mainly the liner recipe but also over time and was related to seasons and precipitation intensity. The test areas with liners composed of 50% electric arc furnace (EAF) slag and 50% cementitious ladle slag (LS) on a weight basis and with a proper consistence of the protection layer were found to meet the Swedish infiltration criteria of ⩽50 l (m2 a)−1 for final covers for landfills for non-hazardous waste: the cumulative infiltration rates to date were 44, 19 and 0.4 l (m2 a)−1 for A1, A4 and A5, respectively. Compared to the precipitation, the portion of leachate was always lower after the summer despite high precipitation from June to August. The main reason for this is evapotranspiration but also the fact that the time delay in the leachate formation following a precipitation event has a stronger effect during the shorter summer sampling periods than the long winter periods. Conventional techniques and equipment can be used but close cooperation between all involved partners is crucial in order to achieve the required performance of the cover. This includes planning, method and equipment testing and quality assurance.

  • 8. Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Shimaoka, T.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Characterizing landfill phases at full-scale with the aid of test cells1999Ingår i: Sardinia 99: proceedings / Seventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, [4 - 8 October 1999, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy]. / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1999, Vol. 1, s. 145-152Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Jannes, Sara
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Mellström, Anna
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Energi AB.
    Chemical and hydraulic conditions in a landfill/deposit for wood-based ash2004Ingår i: The 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan / [ed] Morton Barlaz; Anders Lagerkvist; Toshihiko Matsuto, Hokkaido: Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, 2004, s. 121-129Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10. Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mácsik, Josef
    Ecoloop, Stockholm.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB.
    Use of secondary materials in landfill constructions2007Ingår i: SARDINIA 2007: Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [1 - 5 October 2007, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many landfills are subject to closure in the near future. Roughly 2,000 hectares of land­fill area have to be covered only in Sweden, equivalent to about 100 million tonnes of construction material. In addition to material costs in the order of tens of billions Euro, this also puts a strain on the environment through the exploitation of non-renewable virgin construction materials. Many landfill operators are considering alternative cover designs and materials in order to reduce resource spending. However, there is a fair amount of uncertainty with regard to functional and environmental consequences of using alternative (secondary) materials, both from the side of the companies and the authorities. This paper gives an overview over potential waste based construction materials and the use of some of them in projects presently ongoing in Sweden.Research on the use of secondary materials in landfill covers is quite recent. Substitutes for natural or synthetic materials in a landfill cover can be various types of waste from process industry, construction and demolition, or comparable activities. Alter­na­tive mate­rials that have been investigated are ashes, slags, sewage and fibre sludges, treated soils and com­post. Table 1 gives an overview over potential waste based construction materials. The total of potential materials is well in excess of the material needs for landfill construction, but they may not be available at the right time, place or quality.Besides being economically viable, the substitute materials should have suitable technical and environmental properties in order to secure a proper function of the construction. Experiences from three field studies (landfills at Tveta/Södertälje, Hagfors and Alvkarleby) are discussed looking at relevant issues during 1) construction, 2) active after care phase, and 3) long term processes.Using SCM poses additional problems compared to using conventional materials. Often, the supply of material has to be planned in advance and the materials may have to be stored on site. Storing, however, can cause problems if the materials have properties that change over time e.g. due to climate. For other materials storing may be necessary in order to achieve desired properties. One example is the ageing of strongly alkaline materials that react with atmospheric carbon dioxide and thus obtain better leaching properties. Table 1 Overview over potential waste based construction materials and examplesSourceExamplesMining and mineral industryWaste rock, flotation sand, etc...Construction and demolition (C&D)Crushed concrete, gypsum, asphalt, reinforced polymers, woodProcess industryDifferent types of slag from steel making, green liquor and fibre sludge from paper production, ashes and foundry wastesWastewater treatmentDigested sewage sludge, sandIncinerationBottom ash, fly ashThe evidence is mounting that the desired technical function of a landfill cover can be attained using suitable combinations of secondary construction materials. So far, all three field tests indicate leachate amounts between less then one and 30 l (m2 yr)-1 below the liner. In comparison with the average annual precipitation of about 600 mm yr-1 at the Swedish East coast, only 0.2-5 % of the precipitation seeped through the liner so far; i.e. the leachate generation is reduced with about 90 % or more.The issue is more if the materials may cause adverse impacts of the landfill and its recipients. A low water infiltration through the liner means that the most of infiltrating water is removed as drainage water and thus the leaching of the layers above the liner are of the greatest concern.Infiltrating water will yield a liquid to solid ratio of about 1-2 l kg-1 in the layers above the liner after about 10 years. The most mobile elements, such as nitrogen, will be leached to a great extent already at such low L/S ratios, so a forecast with regard to the need of treatment of drainage water points at about two to three decades.In the long term perspective the mineral changes of the construction materials become important. E.g. one of the incentives for using fly ash in liners is their capacity for chemical-mineralogical changes leading to the formation of clay-like structures. This could mean that a liner built of ashes will attain a lower permeability over time. Other mineral changes that can occur in ashes include the trapping of metals in the structure, e g in clay and carbonate phases.Much is still to be learned about the long term processes and the factors that control them. Ongoing studies include the assessment of climatic variables, different material combinations as well as the impact of landfill gases.The following conclusions can be drawn:The use of secondary materials in construction is important due to substantial resource and environmental impacts. An increased use should be beneficial, provided that the problems of using such materials can be managed.In addition to legislative and bureaucratic barriers, there are also practical issues which need to be dealt with in order to pave the way for a wider use of alternative construction materials. In the construction phase more planning is needed due to temporal and geographical limitation of the material availability. Some materials are not ready for immediate use but need to be pre-treated. All of these factors may cause a need for more space and time. A system for quality assurance comparable to that of traditional construction materials is another issue that needs to be resolved. Most likely some kind of legislative pressure is needed for this.In the medium term leaching of pollutants from the construction materials may be the most important issue when using secondary construction materials, which underlines the double standards applied, since traditional construction materials will not be scrutinized in the same manner. Anyhow, the long term interactions between materials and their environment need to be considered and further studies are necessary for secondary construction materials as well as for conventional materials. Existing data indicate both possibilities and problems.In the long term issues of material interactions will remain and the mechanical impact of mineral changes in the secondary construction materials may be added to the list of issues to clarify. Some of the material changes may be beneficial for the function of the construction, e.g. clay formation in liner materials may make them more impervious, but there may also be negative changes caused by deteriorated material properties. The rate and extent of such processes and the factors that enhance or retard them need to be understood better.Secondary construction materials have always been used and some of the "traditional" materials used today were wastes before. There is no reason to believe that this development should not continue.

  • 11.
    Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB.
    Utvärdering av fullskaleanvändning av askor och andra restprodukter vid sluttäckning av Tveta Återvinningsanläggning2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökning av askor har pågått i över 20 år. Telge Återvinning har i samarbete med Luleå tekniska universitet undersökt askor (biobaserad flyg- och bottenaska från förbränning av sorterat verksamhetsavfall/samförbränning, upparbetat slaggrus och pannsand från avfallsförbränning) och ett antal andra restprodukter (rötat slam från avloppsrening, kompost, LD-slagg) inför användning som konstruktionsmaterial i sluttäckning av avfallsupplag.Undersökningarna har visat att de testade materialen väl klarar funktionskraven som ställs på en sluttäckning för deponier för icke-farligt avfall och delvis även för deponier för farligt avfall. Materialen har noga karakteriserats i både små- och storskaliga laboratorieförsök och sedan testats framgångsrikt i fullskala på Tveta Återvinningsanläggning. Resultaten redovisas i denna rapport. Ett fyra hektar stort fältförsök ledde till en permanent sluttäckning av detta område. Miljö- och miljööverdomstolen har godkänt sluttäckningsmetoden för hela verksamheten på Tveta Återvinningsanläggning.SammanfattningMiljödomstolen i Stockholm beviljade Telge Återvinning tillstånd år 2000 att sluttäcka fyra hektar med restprodukter på den avslutade hushållsdeponin. Tillståndet utvidgades senare till att även omfatta den del av askdeponin som inte längre var i bruk. År 2006 erhölls ett obegränsat tillstånd att etappvis sluttäcka övriga delar av deponin med TvetaMetoden.Askor användes första gången 1996 på hushållsdeponin för att pröva om askor skulle kunna fungera som tätskikt i en sluttäckningskonstruktion eftersom tidigare undersökningar hade visat att askor kan härda genom naturlig fukthalt. Ett samarbete inleddes 1999 med Luleå tekniska universitet för att undersöka askors fysikaliska och kemiska egenskaper. De askor som undersöktes var inledningsvis biobaserade bestående av trä, träflis, papp, papper, torv och returbränslen med liten andel plast. Även äldre askor kunde användas efter reaktivering.Undersökningarna utökades sedan till att även omfatta andra avfallsprodukter såsom rötat och avvattnat avloppsslam, renade jordar, gjuterisand, kompost m fl. Bottenslagg från avfallsförbränning kunde efter upparbetning och siktning återanvändas i konstruktionen. Detta innebar att sluttäckningen kunde konstrueras av enbart returmaterial.Sex provytor på östra slänten av Tveta hushållsavfallsdeponin planerades med avsikt att prova olika askor i en eller flera skikt av en sluttäckningskonstruktion. Olika materialsammansättningar och olika släntvinklar testades. Provytorna färdigställdes mellan åren 2003 och 2005. Materialen lades ut med konventionell utrustning. Noggrann dokumentation gjordes. Lysimetrar och sonder installerades under tätskiktet samt mät- och kontrollutrustning på ytan.Resultaten hittills visar att ytorna klarar permeabilitetskravet på 50 liter per kvadratmeter och år och ett par ytor mindre än 5 liter per kvadratmeter och år. Det förmodas att den kemiska sammansättningen, kornstorleksfördelningen och de processer som sker i en reaktiv aska med pH kring 12 bidrar till att tätskiktet efter hydratisering och karbonatisering bildar en monolitisk konstruktion där utlakningen sker främst genom diffusionsstyrda processer. Resultat från borrningar i den befintliga askdeponin, som anlades 1982, visar att askors porutrymmen är små och att någon transport in och ut ur systemet av luft - vatten sker långsamt. En jämförelse kan göras med vulkanisk aska som historiskt använts som konstruktionsmaterial. En ombildning av askor till leror sker naturligt och bidrar till att sådana konstruktioner blir hårdare och stabilare med tiden. Rapporten avslutas med en beskrivning av praktiska erfarenheter och en diskussion kring de resultat som uppnåtts och behovet av ytterligare forskning. Vidare tas en del frågor upp som berör tillståndprövningen och myndighetens inställning till att använda restprodukter som sluttäckningsmaterial.

  • 12.
    Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Travar, Igor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Tham, Gustav
    Sweco AB.
    Leaching behaviour of ashes in a landfill cover construction2012Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012 / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, s. 39-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 13. Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Diener, Silvia
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB, Södertälje.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Influence of accelerated ageing on acid neutralization capacity and mineralogical transformations in refuse derived-fuel fly ashes2009Ingår i: SARDINIA 2009: Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [5 - 9 October 2009, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2009, Vol. 1Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a part of a long-term collaboration between Telge Återvinning AB at Södertälje in South Sweden and Lulea University of Technology (LTU) in the Northern part of Sweden. Ashes and other industrial wastes used for landfill cover construction have been studied for several years. However, there is a need for further investigations with regard to the long-term mechanical and chemical stability of ash liners in landfill cover constructions. Long-term changes of ashes are investigated by laboratory studies on accelerated weathering (ageing) using experimental design. With regard to weathering, several stages can be identified: hydration and carbonation are well known processes while the processes surrounding the conversion of ash to clay minerals are less well known. There are a number of studies showing that the process of mineral transformation during the ageing of coal or MSWI ashes is quite similar to that of volcanic ashes in nature. Yet, the time frames are quite different: while volcanic ashes need several thousands of years for clay mineral development, there are evidences as well that e.g. clay illite is formed from glass phases in MSWI bottom ash after only 12 y or that clay like amorphous material can be formed in micro-scale throughout the surfaces of coal ash particles after 8 y of natural weathering (Zevenbergen et al., 1999; Zevenbergen et al., 1998). There are a lot of studies performed on rapid fly ash conversion into zeolites by hydrothermal alkaline treatment, the success of which strongly depends on alkaline conditions and the silica-alumina composition of the fly ash source (Inada et al., 2005). These results provide further support to the hypothesis that the observed rapid clay like mineral formation arose as a result of the initially high pH of ash, which promotes rapid dissolution of certain components of aluminosilicate glasses. Furthermore, in a long term perspective these aluminosilicates can transform into zeolites, smectites or halloysites dependent on the solution pH and leaching rate. Based on these studies on volcanic, coal or MSWI ashes we presume that refuse derived fuel (RDF) ashes, like those that are used in the Tveta landfill cover, will be subject to analogical weathering and mineral transformation processes.In order to investigate the mineral transformation in RDF fly ashes, a designed laboratory experiment was performed. A reduced factorial experimental design for accelerated ageing has been applied to evaluate the influence of five factors: carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative air humidity, time and, quality of added water (Table 1). Table 1 Factors and levels tested in the reduced multivariate factorial design for the study of accelerated ageing of RFD fly ashesFactorLowMiddleHighCarbon dioxide, CO2 (%)Atmosphere (0.038)20*100Temperature, ºC5 3060Relative air humidity, Rh (%)3065100Time, months31022Water qualityDistilled -LeachateThe influence of these factors on mineralogical composition, leaching behaviour and acid neutralization capacity (ANC) is analysed and evaluated with the aid of multivariate data analysis. The MVDA modelling was performed with SIMCA-P+ 11.5 version program developed by Umetrics AB (Eriksson and Umetrics Academy, 2006). Principle component analysis (PCA) technique was used and presented in this paper. PCA is an interdependence model where all variables are analysed simultaneously as a single set in a data matrix X. Triplicates were tested for each factor combination. Sampling was performed after 3, 10 and 22 months of accelerated ageing. Mineral composition was analysed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Acid neutralisation capacity was performed at 8.3 and 4.5 pH with 0.1 M HCl solution. The experimental set-up of accelerated ageing of RDF fly ashes is showed in Fig. 1. Preliminary evaluation of the mineral transformations in aged RDF fly ashes revealed that the carbonation process was not yet completed in the some of the specimens (Fig.2). This still caused high pH (pH=12.7) in the solution even though a calcite phase was found in all aged fly ashes. Multivariate data analysis confirmed that carbon dioxide affects the pH and ANC of fly ashes during ageing of RDF fly ashes. The specimens prepared with leachate water had higher ANC than the specimens with distilled water. The ANC8.3 was most influenced by 30 ºC temperature and 65 % relative humidity (ANC8.3 = 0.05 mmol/g) and this well corresponds to the results found in the literature. The ageing time factor has the highest influence on ANC4.5. A more detailed analysis of other mineral phases including clay-like minerals in aged fly ashes will be performed later.The results of this study will contribute to the better understanding of ash formation processes and improved possibilities to make beneficial use of ashes as an alternative to landfilling.Figure 1. Experimental set-up for investigations of the long-term behaviour of the ashes under different environmental conditions. Figure 2. XRD patterns of RDF fly ashes at different ageing conditions. a) N33, b) N71, c) N15, d) N85, and e) N51. The peaks are labelled A (anhydrite), C (calcite), E (ettringite), F (Friedel's Salt), Ge (gehlenite), H (halite), He (hematite), P (portlandite), Q (quartz), S (sylvite), V (vaterite).

  • 14. Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Diener, Silvia
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Formation of secondary mineral phases during the ageing of RDF fly ashes2010Ingår i: The 6th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, 2010, s. 110-112Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Diener, Silvia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Factors influencing chemical and mineralogical changes in RDF fly ashes during aging2014Ingår i: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 140, nr 3, artikel-id 4013014Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of aging should be considered for reliable long-term assessments of the environmental risks of the use of refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) fly ash as landfill top cover liner material. Mineral transformations that occur in RDF fly ash, and the effects of selected factors on these transformations, were studied on compacted fly ash specimens in an accelerated aging experiment using a reduced factorial design. Carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, relative air humidity, time, and the quality of added water were varied in six factor combinations. Acid neutralization capacity and leaching behavior were analyzed after four different periods of time. The results were evaluated with multivariate data analysis. A significant change in the acid neutralization capacity, a decrease in leaching of Ba, Ca, Cl − , Cr, Cu, Pb, K, and Na, and an increase in solubility of Mg, Si, Zn, and SO 2− 4 could be attributed to different aging conditions

  • 16.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Changes of fly ash properties during the ageing2015Ingår i: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 141, nr 5, artikel-id 4014083Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) fly ashes was investigated in a long-term laboratory experiment. Aging affected the chemical stability of RDF fly ash in terms of leaching behavior, ANC, and mineralogical transformations. The design of experiment model evaluation showed that the use of RDF ashes in a top cover liner construction has the following advantages: most of the investigated hazardous elements like Pb, Cl, Cr, Cu, etc., will not be released from the ashes, and their buffer capacity will increase with time. However, aging has the disadvantage that leaching of Zn and SO 4 is likely to increase. The multivariate data analysis of the coefficients of variation did not reveal any systematic errors in the performance of the experiment. However, batch leaching test not always reflect the real situation in the landfill top cover environment.

  • 17.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Travar, Igor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ageing of ashes in a landfill top cover2011Ingår i: SARDINIA 2011: Thirteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy; 3 - 7 October 2011 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA Publisher, Italy , 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on studies on the effects of accelerated ageing on refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) fly ashes, in experiments under controlled laboratory conditions, intended to derive models to predict the stability of RDF fly ashes used in a landfill liner and the mineralogi-cal changes that occur in them. A reduced factorial design was applied, followed by multivariate data analysis, to evaluate the effects of five factors — carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, temperature, relative air humidity (RH), time and the quality of added water — on mineral transformations within the ashes, and leaching behaviour. The pH values of these ash specimens ranged from 7.2 to 7.6, indicating advanced carbonation. Ageing decreased pH values from 12.4 to 7.2, conse-quently affecting the leaching behaviour of most chemicals measured in the leachates. Levels of Ba, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Pb, K and Na decreased over the study period while those of Mg, Zn and SO4 increased. Clay minerals could not be detected neither in fresh nor in aged ashes. However, geo-chemical modelling indicated that such minerals may precipitate.

  • 18. Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Evaluation and discussion of steel slag mineralogy after ageing under laboratory and field conditions2010Ingår i: The 6th Intercontinental Landfill research Symposium, 2010, s. 107-109Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19.
    Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Accelerated carbonation of ashes and steel slags in a landfill cover construction2008Ingår i: Proceedings of Second International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering / [ed] Renato Baciocchi; Giulia Costa; Alessandra Polettini; Raffaella Pomi, University of Rome "La Sapienza" , 2008, s. 389-400Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fly ash from biofuel incineration and slags from steel production were used in two full scale applications of cover constructions on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The long-term stability of the cover materials is studied in a designed laboratory experiment. The impact of six environmental factors on accelerated carbonation is investigated over a period of three years. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity, mineral composition (XRD) and thermo gravimetrical behaviour (TG) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions. By now samples were taken after three and ten months of ageing. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate the factors material, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere to be most relevant.

  • 20. Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Accelerated carbonation of steel slags in a landfill cover construction2010Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 132-139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Steel slags from high-alloyed tool steel production were used in a full scale cover construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. In order to study the long-term stability of the steel slags within the final cover, a laboratory experiment was performed. The effect on the ageing process, due to i.e. carbonation, exerted by five different factors resembling both the material characteristics and the environmental conditions is investigated. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity and mineralogy (evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction, XRD, and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, TG/DTA) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions.Samples aged for 3 and 10 months were evaluated in this paper. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate that among the investigated factors, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere were able to exert the most relevant effect. However, further investigations are required in order to clarify the role of the temperature.

  • 21.
    Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Herrmann, Inga
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Mineral transformations in steel slag used as landfill cover liner material2007Ingår i: SARDINIA 2007: Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [1 - 5 October 2007, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2007, Vol. 1Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, 15.2 million tonnes of steel slags have been generated in 2004 (Euroslag, 2006) out if which almost 6 million tonnes came from electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking and secondary metallurgical processes. In the presented project from Luleå University of Technology, two types of EAF slag and one slag originating from secondary metallurgical processes named ladle slag are investigated. The chemical and physical properties of these slags have been studied in detail (Herrmann, 2006; Andreas et al., 2005). For utilising steel slags in the liner of a landfill cover the long-term stability of the minerals is of great importance. Therefore, the ageing of steel slag minerals is evaluated with the help of a laboratory experiment. Particularly, the research questions, the experimental set-up and the methodology are presented. The present paper is part of a research project of the Division of Waste Science and Technology at Luleå University of Technology, Sweden in cooperation with Uddeholm Tooling AB, Hagfors municipality and MiMeR (Mineral and Metal Recycling Research Centre). It is investigated if steel slags are stable as a landfill cover liner material. The long-term stability is evaluated by determining the factors influencing the mineralogy of the slags and possible mineral transformations through ageing under the environmental conditions in a liner. The experiment includes two similar types of EAF slag and one ladle slag. Each steel slag sample is made by mixing 50% EAF slag and 50% ladle slag, addition of water and compaction. The specimens are stored in boxes under different atmospheric conditions. A reduced multivariate design has been chosen to determine the impact of different factors on the slag mineralogy. The factors that are varied in the experiment are relative humidity, carbon dioxide and temperature of the atmosphere surrounding the slag material as well as ageing time and the quality of the water used for sample making (see table 1). Table 1. Factorial design for ageing experiment of steel slagsLowMiddleHighRelative humidity30% -100%Carbon dioxide content0.036 (air)20 % * 100 %Temperature5 °C30 °C60 °CTime 1 month6 months1 yearWater quality destilled water -LeachateThe ageing of minerals is expected to initiate mineral transformations in steel slags. Primary phases will alter into secondary mineral phases. Changes in mineralogy can influence the stability of the liner. To evaluate mineralogy and properties of the aged steel slag, different analyses will be performed after the storage time of the specimens. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy as well as shear strength, acid neutralisation capacity and cation exchange capacity will be included. A possible mineral transformation for an alkaline material as steel slags can be the reaction of calcium ions from calcium silicates with the carbon dioxide resulting in the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Through this carbonation reaction, the transport of carbon dioxide into the bulk of the specimen could be hindered by the reaction products. Therefore, surface morphology can influence mineral transformations. First results and evaluations will be presented at the conference. REFERENCES Andreas L., Herrmann I., Lidstrom-Larsson M. & Lagerkvist A. (2005) Physical properties of steel slag to be reused in a landfill cover, Sardinia 2005, Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy; 3 - 7 October 2005Euroslag (2006) Legal status of Slags. Position Paper. January 2006. The European Slag Association - EUROSLAG. Duisburg, Germany.Herrmann I. (2006). Use of Secondary Construction Material in Landfill Cover Liners. Licentiate Thesis. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.

  • 22. Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Results from a field study using steel industry slags in a landfill cover construction2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Dresden University of Technology.
    Andreas, Lale
    Herrmann, Inga
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lidström-Larsson, Margareta
    Mineral phases in steel industry slags used in a landfill cover constuction2006Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of the 4th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, , [June 14th to 16th 2006, Gällivare, Sweden] / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, s. 73-74Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24.
    Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Leaching properties of steel slags after ageing under laboratory and field conditions2010Ingår i: Third International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering: ACEME10 : November 29 - December 1, 2010, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo/Turku, Finland : proceedings / [ed] Ron Zevenhoven., Åbo: Åbo Akademi University Press, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 25. Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lidström-Larsson, Margareta
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Reuse of steel industry slag in a landfill top cover2006Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of the 4th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, [June 14th to 16th 2006, Gällivare, Sweden] / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, s. 88-89Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26. Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lidström-Larsson, Margareta
    Gustafsson, G.
    Reuse of steel industry slags in landfill top cover constructions2005Ingår i: Securing the future: international conference on mining and the environment, metals and energy recovery : proceedings, Stockholm: SweMin , 2005, s. 409-416Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27. Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lidström-Larsson, Margareta
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Physical properties of steel slag to be reused in a landfill cover2005Ingår i: SARDINIA 2005: Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; S. Margerita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy, 3 - 7 October 2005 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 28.
    Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Diener, Silvia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lind, Lotta
    Steel slag used in landfill cover liners: laboratory and field tests2010Ingår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 28, nr 12, s. 1114-1121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stricter rules for landfilling within the EU have led to the closure of many landfills and a need for large amounts of cover liner materials. Therefore, the potential utilization of mixtures of electric arc furnace slag (EAFS) and ladle slag (LS), which are currently deposited in landfills, as a material for use as landfill liner was investigated. Laboratory analyses showed the mixtures to have similar compression strength to that of high-strength concrete and low hydraulic conductivity (<10-11 m s-1 in some cases). However, both their hydraulic conductivity and compaction properties were strongly affected by the time between adding water to the mixtures and compacting them (tests showed that a delay of 24 h can lead to an increase in hydraulic conductivity, so it should be compacted as soon as possible after mixing the material with water). In addition, the performance of a cover liner constructed using EAFS and LS was studied in a 2-year field trial on a landfill for municipal solid waste, in which the average amount of leachate collected from ten lysimeters was only 27 L m-2 year-1, easily meeting Swedish criteria for the permeability of covers on non-hazardous waste landfills (≤50 L m-2 year-1). Thus, the material seems to have promising potential for use in barrier constructions.

  • 29.
    Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Svensson, Malin
    Ecke, Holger
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Hydraulic conductivity of fly ash: sewage sludge mixes for use in landfill cover liners2009Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, nr 14, s. 3541-3547Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary materials could help meeting the increasing demand of landfill cover liner materials. In this study, the effect of compaction energy, water content, ash ratio, freezing, drying and biological activity on the hydraulic conductivity of two fly ash - sewage sludge mixes was investigated using a 27-1 fractional factorial design. The aim was to identify the factors that influence hydraulic conductivity, to quantify their effects and to assess how a sufficiently low hydraulic conductivity can be achieved. The factors compaction energy and drying, as well as the factor interactions material×ash ratio and ash ratio×compaction energy affected hydraulic conductivity significantly (α = 0.05). Freezing on 5 freeze-thaw cycles did not affect hydraulic conductivity. Water content affected hydraulic conductivity only initially. The hydraulic conductivity data were modelled using multiple linear regression. The derived models were reliable as indicated by R2adjusted values between 0.75 and 0.86. Independent on the ash ratio and the material, hydraulic conductivity was predicted to be between 1.7 × 10-11 m s-1 and 8.9 × 10-10 m s-1 if the compaction energy was 2.4 J cm-3, the ash ratio between 20 and 75 % and drying did not occur. Thus, the investigated materials met the limit value for non-hazardous waste landfills of 10-9 m s-1.

  • 30.
    Klausing, Benjamin
    et al.
    TU Hamburg-Harburg.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bilitewski, Bernd
    TU Dresden.
    Auswertung zweier reststoffbasierter Deponieabdeckungen2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of material will be needed to install covers on closed landfill constructions due to the application of EU landfill directive 1999/31/EC. Approximately 1 million t of ashes are produced in Sweden each year. The interest in substituting conventional construction materials for landfill covers by alternative materials increases by the possibility to implement advantages, such as saving natural resources and economic benefits, using SCM. But to use SCM advantageous for the intended purpose, additional problems compared to the use of conventional materials have to be solved, such as availability, storing, preparation, planning and the construction process itself. Thorough investigations and experiments to characterize the used materials are a necessity. At Tveta Landfill in Södertälje field investigations are performed concerning different cover construction designs. During an excavation in 2007 samples from the different layers of the cover of two test fields were collected. In this study the development of the cover constructions is investigated focusing the mechanical and chemical stability of the cover constructions. During the investigations the bulk density, WHC and total composition of the material were analyzed and a diffusion test was performed. No negative development of the mechanical properties of the material due to ageing processes could be determined. The results of the analyses show that the construction process itself influences the future mechanical and chemical conditions of the cover construction. For example, the delayed covering of the protection layer of area 1 by the vegetation layer resulted in displaced concentrations for most considered components within the solid matter.The comparison of solid matter content and leaching behaviour before installation and after excavation after two and four years, respectively, indicate a trend to decreasing concentrations for most of the concerned components. The trend is only weak due to the short time the material was in place and because the amount of water that percolated through the layers was reported to be small. For some components enrichment especially in the protection layer of area 4 was determined. It could be shown that this enrichment is caused by the superimposed vegetation layer material, which contains high concentration levels for some elements. The transport path of these components leading to a contamination of the other layers by leaching could also be disclosed. The leaching behaviour of the fly ash used in area 4 was studied in a diffusion test using leachate from the protection layer as a way to understand the influence of different layers on each other. Moreover, the comparison of the results from this test with another diffusion test using distilled water reveals different behaviour depending on the used leachant. The diffusion occurs in the initial phase of the experiment for the concerned diffusion controlled components influenced by the leachate of the protection layer. A difference in the leached amounts could also be noticed. The stabilization of the mineral liner due to the formation of clay minerals could not be proved analytically, but the precursors reported to be necessary for this process could be determined.Leaching was found to have the main impact on the stabilization of the cover construction, causing the reduction of component concentrations and the approach to an equilibrium state between the cover and its environment. It was shown that the influence of leaching emissions on the environment is controllable. A risk for the environment was determined by the contaminated vegetation layer of area 4, hence uncontrolled emissions of components into the environment by plants and animals may occur.As a result of this study it is shown that the implementation of SCM is possible. Whether constructing with SCM is successful or not strongly depends on anticipatory planning and the design, the knowledge of the materials properties, their development over time and their interactions.

  • 31. Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Utilization of chemically stabilized soil in a landfill top cover2008Ingår i: The 5th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: 10-12 Sep 2008, Copper Mountain, CO, USA, 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Verksamhetsstöd. EXTfinansiering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Project: North Waste Infrastructure2014Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 33.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Desogus, Paolo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Schulenburg, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Arenella, Mariarita
    Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Florence.
    Renella, Giancarlo
    Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Florence.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Utilisation of chemically stabilized arsenic-contaminated soil in a landfill cover2013Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, nr 12, s. 8649-8662Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to determine if an As-contaminated soil, stabilized using zerovalent iron (Fe0) and its combination with gypsum waste, coal fly ash, peat, or sewage sludge, could be used as a construction material at the top layer of the landfill cover. A reproduction of 2 m thick protection/vegetation layer of a landfill cover using a column setup was used to determine the ability of the amendments to reduce As solubility and stimulate soil functionality along the soil profile. Soil amendment with Fe0 was highly efficient in reducing As in soil porewater reaching 99 % reduction, but only at the soil surface. In the deeper soil layers (below 0.5 m), the Fe treatment had a reverse effect, As solubility increased dramatically exceeding that of the untreated soil or any other treatment by one to two orders of magnitude. A slight bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri was detected in the Fe0 treatment. Soil amendment with iron and peat showed no toxicity to bacteria and was the most efficient in reducing dissolved As in soil porewater throughout the 2 m soil profile followed by iron and gypsum treatment, most likely resulting from a low soil density and a good air diffusion to the soil. The least suitable combination of soil amendments for As immobilization was a mixture of iron with coal fly ash. An increase in all measured enzyme activities was observed in all treatments, particularly those receiving organic matter. For As to be stable in soil, a combination of amendments that can keep the soil porous and ensure the air diffusion through the entire soil layer of the landfill cover is required.

  • 34.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Robinson, Ryan
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Nordmark, Desiree
    Bjurstöm, Henrik
    ÅF-Engineering AB.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Ecke, Holger
    Carbon speciation in ash, residual waste and contaminated soil by thermal and chemical analyses2011Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 18-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon in waste can occur as inorganic (IC), organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) each having distinct chemical properties and possible environmental effects. In this study, carbon speciation was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), chemical degradation tests and the standard total organic carbon (TOC) measurement procedures in three types of waste materials (bottom ash, residual waste and contaminated soil). Over 50% of the total carbon (TC) in all studied materials (72% in ash and residual waste, and 59% in soil) was biologically non-reactive or EC as determined by thermogravimetric analyses. The speciation of TOC by chemical degradation also showed a presence of a non-degradable C fraction in all materials (60% of TOC in ash, 30% in residual waste and 13% in soil), though in smaller amounts than those determined by TGA. In principle, chemical degradation method can give an indication of the presence of potentially inert C in various waste materials, while TGA is a more precise technique for C speciation, given that waste-specific method adjustments are made. The standard TOC measurement yields exaggerated estimates of organic carbon and may therefore overestimate the potential environmental impacts (e.g. landfill gas generation) of waste materials in a landfill environment.

  • 35.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sližytė, Danutė
    Vilnius Gediminas Technical University.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Suitability assessment of chemically stabilized soil for utilization in constructions2007Ingår i: Selected papers / The 9th International Conference Modern Building Materials, Structures and Techniques: International Association for Bridges and Structural Engineering, European Council of Civil Engineers, The Association of European Civil Engineering Faculties, Lithuanian Academy of Science, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius: Politechnika Gdanska, 2007, Vol. 3, s. 1126-1129Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 36.
    Kylefors, Katarina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    A comparison of small scale pilot-scale and large-scale tests for predicting leaching behaviour of landfilled wastes2003Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 45-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills generate emissions over long periods, often longer than a lifetime. The longest lasting emission is leachate. In order to estimate the future requirements for leachate treatment, different kinds of leaching tests may be applied. In this paper, shaking leaching tests (SLT), landfill-simulator leaching tests and a field-cell leaching test performed with ash, municipal solid waste (MSW) and MSW+ash are evaluated. The tests are compared and the factors influencing leaching are identified and discussed. The factors are: liquid to solid (L/S) ratio, water withdrawal, recirculation rate, presence or absence of biological processes, size of particles, duration of experiment, temperature and pre-treatment of the waste. The presence of biological processes has the greatest impact on leaching and is the main reason why SLT is less useful for long-term predictions. The landfill simulator tests were found to be useful for several different kinds of predictions. However, they are not reliable for predicting the L/S required for reaching a certain concentration. The possibilities for reliable long-term predictions would be facilitated by a better knowledge of the influence of various factors on leaching. Such an increased knowledge would make it possible to enhance waste stabilisation in leaching tests as well as in full-scale landfills.

  • 37.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Tham, G.
    Travar, Igor
    Andreas, Lale
    Ecke, Holger
    Use of ashes in landfill constructions2006Ingår i: VENICE 2006 - Biomass and Waste to Energy Symposium: Proceedings on CD, 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Characterization and mechanical separation of organic matter in construction and demolition waste finesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction and demolition waste (CDW) amounts to a large fraction of produced waste. 37 %-58 % was found to be fines. Wood is a common building material in the Nordic countries, so CDW fines have a high organic content. Typically, CDW fines are landfilled, but due to the high content of total organic carbon (TOC), this is not allowed. In order to investigate potential treatments or uses of these fines, they were characterized, with focus on their organic content. The potential for mechanical separation was tested by sieving and by float-sink separation in water. The organic content is higher in the larger and lighter particles. Mechanical separation by particle size using a 10 mm screen is not likely to consistently produce an under sieve fraction with low TOC content (<10 %). After float-sink separation, the sink fraction still contains 9-42% volatile solids (VS). However, based on tests of biogas potential and respiration activity, the biological activity of the sink fraction can be considered low. This is confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis, showing an organic carbon (OC) content of only 1-2 %. The TOC (measured by CO2 formation) is up to nine times higher than the OC, indicating that the TOC is not a reliable assay to measure organic carbon. Further studies will show if screening up to 10 mm, or screening in combination with density separation can yield a low TOC fraction for landfilling.

  • 39.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Float-sink separation of C&D waste: a case of treatment oriented waste characterization2017Ingår i: Sixteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium: 2 -6 October 2017 S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy, Italy, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfilling and waste incineration are two major waste management options. However, some wastes can,due to their carbon content,be unsuitable for neither of these systems. Therefore, there is aneed for methods to remove organic carbon from wastes. One of these wastesis the construction and demolition fines. In this paper, we investigate using water for separating the waste by density, to see if this is a suitable method for separating carbon-containingmaterials, both in lab and field scale tests. Results show that halfof the carbon (measured as volatile solids) can be separated. However, this method cannot be said to reliably produce a sink fraction that is suitable for landfilling, as it still contains too much organic materials.

  • 40.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Float-sink separation of construction and demolition waste fines2018Ingår i: Detritus, ISSN 2611-4135, Vol. 3, s. 13-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfilling and waste incineration are two major waste management options. However, due to their carbon content, some wastes may be unsuitable for these systems. Therefore, methods capable of removing organic carbon from wastes should be identified. One of these wastes is represented by construction and demolition fines. In this paper, we investigate the use of water in separating the waste by density, to verify the suitability of this method in the separation of carbon-containing materials, both in lab and field scale tests. The results obtained show that half of the carbon (measured as volatile solids) can be separated. However, this method fails to reliably produce a sink fraction suitable for landfilling, as it continues to be characterized by an excessively high organic material content.

  • 41.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The impacts of environments on waste: Part 1: The influence of thermal environments on organic wastesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Nilsson, Mirja
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Effect of accelerated carbonation and zero valent iron on metal leaching from bottom ash2016Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 51, s. 97-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    About 85% of the ashes produced in Sweden originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste and biofuel. The rest comes from the thermal treatment of recycled wood, peat, charcoal and others. About 68% of all ashes annually produced in Sweden are used for constructions on landfills, mainly slopes, roads and embankments, and only 3% for construction of roads and working surfaces outside the landfills (SCB, 2013). Since waste bottom ash (BA) often has similar properties to crushed bedrock or gravel, it could be used for road constructions to a larger extent. However, the leaching of e.g. Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn can cause a threat to the surrounding environment if the material is used as it is. Carbonation is a commonly used pre-treatment method, yet it is not always sufficient.As leaching from aged ash is often controlled by adsorption to iron oxides, increasing the number of Fe oxide sorption sites can be a way to control the leaching of several critical elements. The importance of iron oxides as sorption sites for metals is known from both mineralogical studies of bottom ash and from the remediation of contaminated soil, where iron is used as an amendment.In this study, zero valent iron (Fe(0)) was added prior to accelerated carbonation in order to increase the number of adsorption sites for metals and thereby reduce leaching. Batch, column and pHstat leaching tests were performed and the leaching behaviour was evaluated with multivariate data analysis. It showed that leaching changed distinctly after the tested treatments, in particular after the combined treatment.Especially, the leaching of Cr and Cu clearly decreased as a result of accelerated carbonation. The combination of accelerated carbonation with Fe(0) addition reduced the leaching of Cr and Cu even further and reduced also the leaching of Mo, Zn, Pb and Cd compared to untreated BA. Compared with only accelerated carbonation, the Fe(0) addition significantly reduced the leaching of Cr, Cu and Mo. The effects of Fe(0) addition can be related to binding of the studied elements to newly formed iron oxides. The effects of Fe(0) addition were often more distinct at pH values between 7 and 9, which indicates that a single treatment with only Fe addition would be less effective and a combined treatment is recommended. The pHstat results showed that accelerated carbonation in combination with Fe(0)0 addition widens the pH range for low solubility of about one unit for several of the studied elements. This indicates that pre-treating the bottom ash with a combination of accelerated carbonation and Fe(0) addition makes the leaching properties of the ash less sensitive to pH changes that may occur during reuse. All in all, the addition of Fe0 in combination with carbonation could be an effective pre-treatment method for decreasing the mobility of potentially harmful components in bottom ash.

  • 43.
    Nilsson, Mirja
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Screening analysis of bottom ashes from waste incineration2013Ingår i: Sardinia 2013: 14th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Forte Village, S. Margherita di Pula (CA), Italy, 30 September - 4 October 2013 ; CD-ROM: Symposium proceedings / [ed] Raffaello Cusso, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Screening analysis of bottom ashes from waste incinerationA local waste-to-energy plant in Northern Sweden incinerates municipal solid waste (MSW). The bottom ash (BA) shall be used as construction material. To investigate the homogeneity of the BA, as a base for a more detailed characterisation, a screening was done on 0-10 mm samples taken daily during one month in an ash treatment plant for metal separation.The on-going characterisation focuses on the leaching of heavy metals from the BA as previous work (Oja 2012) showed that a number of trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) exceeds the limits set up by the Swedish EPA (Naturvårdsverket 2010) for the use of waste as construction material with regard to total content. Since Cu and Cr also exceed the leaching limits (L/S10), the bottom ash cannot be used without treatment. Ageing and the effect of immobilising amendments are studied with regard to their effect on the leaching behaviour.Material and MethodSamples of BA were taken after metal separation and sieving, daily during one month in 2012 resulting in 32 samples of two different fractions, 0-10 mm and 10-50 mm. A screening was performed on the 0-10 mm fraction analysing pH, EC both in duplicates and LOI, TS, and elemental composition using XRF on non-milled samples in triplicates. Results Based on the analyses made, no grouping of samples could be observed (figure 1), and therefore the material in each fraction was homogenized prior to further investigation. On-going studyDifferent treatment options such as accelerated ageing and stabilization with e.g. zero valent iron are investigated in an on-going study. Also, the effect of incineration parameters such as temperature, air flow and time, on the composition of the BA is studied through modelling (using Factsage). The overall goal is to improve the quality of the BA to an extent that it can be used in different ground constructions.The combined effects of weathering and iron amendment on the mineral composition and the leaching behaviour will be studied. The test program includes acid neutralization capacity (ANC), TOC, XRF, XRD analyses and a column test. Mechanical stability and freeze-thaw resistance will also be tested. Using the Factsage database the incineration process will be modelled with regard to possible changes in the composition of the BA.In addition to this work two field test areas (á 200 m2) will be installed using treated BA as base layer in a material processing and stockpile areas. The leachate will be collected using lysimeters and analysed monthly. Primary results will be available in late summer/early fall. References Naturvårdsverket (2010). Återvinning av avfall i anläggningsarbeten. Handbok 2010:1. Naturvårdsverket StockholmOja E. (2012). Botten aska som dräneringsskikt vid sluttäckning av deponier. Department of Environmental Engineering, Division of Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology

  • 44.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Industrial By-products used in a Landfill Cover2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A small industrial waste landfill in Obbola, Northern Sweden is being completed and a final cover is installed. The landfill is owned and used by SCA Packaging, a paper mill factory nearby. An alternative final cover will be used, consisting mainly of industrial by-products from the paper mill. The aim of using industrial by-products is to save virgin materials, not to use synthetic materials and to make a cost-effective and environmentally safe closure of the landfill, while relevant laws and regulations are complied to.

  • 45. Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mobility and fractionation of arsenic, chromium and copper in thermally treated soil2011Ingår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 3-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal treatment is used to remediate soil co-contaminated with organic and inorganic contaminants. It destroys organic contaminants, but the remaining inorganic contaminants require further treatment. In this study the effects of thermal treatment on the mobility, speciation and chemical fractionation of As, Cr and Cu in a CCA-polluted soil were evaluated by leaching tests, As speciation assays and a sequential extraction procedure. The soil was sieved into four size fractions (<0.125, 0.125—0.250, 0.250—0.500 and 0.500—1.0 mm), each of which was treated at 800°C and analysed in comparison with the untreated soil. The leaching of As and Cr increased by factors of 18—40 and 2—23, respectively, while the mobility of Cu decreased 12—14-fold after treatment. The concentration of As(V) in pore water of the finest soil fraction increased 19-fold, whereas that of As(III) remained constant. The treatment reduced As, Cr and Cu associated with the reducible soil fraction. In addition, it increased the proportions of As and Cr (slightly) associated with the exchangeable and acid-soluble soil fractions, and the proportions of Cu and Cr (substantially) associated with the residual fraction.

  • 46.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Rönkkö, Reima
    University of Oulu.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Changes in leaching and chemical fractionation of arsenic, chromium and copper in soil after thermal treatment2009Ingår i: SARDINIA 2009: Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [5 - 9 October 2009, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal treatment is used for remediation of soils contaminated with both organic and inorganic contaminants. The target is destruction of organic contaminants while the residue containing the inorganic contaminants has to be further treated. The effects of thermal treatment on As, Cr and Cu in contaminated soil are evaluated in laboratory and field tests, using leaching test, As speciation and sequential extraction test. In laboratory tests on four particle size fractions, the leaching of As and Cr increased by factors of 18-40 and 2-23, respectively, while the mobility of Cu decreased 12-4 fold after thermal treatment. The concentration of As(V) in the finest soil fraction increased 19 fold, while As(III) remained constant. Arsenic, Cr and Cu associated to the reducible soil fraction decreased, possibly due to enhanced crystallisation of Fe oxides and reduction of available adsorption sites. In the field test, the concentration of As, Cr and Cu was 1-4 times higher in the filter fraction compared to the treated soil.

  • 47.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lindskog, Staffan
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Long term aspects of landfilling and surface disposal: Lessons learned from nuclear and non-nuclear decommissioning, remediation and waste management2013Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 35-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fields of landfilling of conventional waste and that of surface disposal of nuclear waste have developed quite independently and also partly out of phase with each other. The paper analyses what knowledge and experience might be mutually beneficial as well as what further knowledge may be needed.It is found that even though knowledge may exist, and information from lessons learned elsewhere be available, action may be subject to considerable initiation or incubation times. Legislation on financial reporting is summarized and its implications for early technical and financial planning are assessed. Prerequisites for long-term behaviour are analysed for the waste forms as well as for the seals and covers. The rationale for using natural and anthropogenic analogues is compiled, and alternative seals for landfills are analysed based on this information. Lessons learned from nuclear decommissioning are presented, and the difficulties encountered when the decommissioning takes place long times after commissioning and operation of a facility are illuminated. Comparison is made with contaminated soil in which area openly available domestic publications are lass abundant in some areas. The differences between end of license and end of responsibilities are clarified. Uranium-containing waste is presented as an example. Prerequisites are presented for natural uranium together with its progenies and for depleted uranium, initially without any daughters. It is found that both alternatives are associated with a number of issues to consider, and that both call for long-term containment for conventional chemical hazard and radiological hazard reasons.

  • 48.
    Tham, Gustav
    et al.
    Telge AB.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mellström, Anna
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Utilization of ashes in a landfill cover system2004Ingår i: he 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan / [ed] Morton Barlaz; Anders Lagerkvist; Toshihiko Matsuto, Hokkaido: Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, 2004, s. 135-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 49.
    Tham, Gustav
    et al.
    Telge AB, Södertälje.
    Andreas, Lale
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Use of ashes in a landfill covers2006Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of the 4th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, [June 14th to 16th 2006, Gällivare, Sweden] / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, s. 201-202Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 50. Tham, Gustav
    et al.
    Mellström, A.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Utilization of secondary construction materials in a landfill cover system2005Ingår i: SARDINIA 2005: Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; S. Margerita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy, 3 - 7 October 2005 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2005Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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