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  • 1. Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Shimaoka, T.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Characterizing landfill phases at full-scale with the aid of test cells1999Ingår i: Sardinia 99: proceedings / Seventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, [4 - 8 October 1999, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy]. / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1999, Vol. 1, s. 145-152Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2. Carlsson, My
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    Electroporation for enhanced methane yield from municipal solid waste2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Chen, H.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Ecke, Holger
    Kylefors, K.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Biochemical methane potential assays of solid waste samples1995Ingår i: Sardinia 95: proceedings ; [2 - 6 October 1995, S. Margherita di Pula - Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1995, Vol. 1, s. 615-627Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Accelerated carbonation of ashes and steel slags in a landfill cover construction2008Ingår i: Proceedings of Second International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering / [ed] Renato Baciocchi; Giulia Costa; Alessandra Polettini; Raffaella Pomi, University of Rome "La Sapienza" , 2008, s. 389-400Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fly ash from biofuel incineration and slags from steel production were used in two full scale applications of cover constructions on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The long-term stability of the cover materials is studied in a designed laboratory experiment. The impact of six environmental factors on accelerated carbonation is investigated over a period of three years. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity, mineral composition (XRD) and thermo gravimetrical behaviour (TG) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions. By now samples were taken after three and ten months of ageing. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate the factors material, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere to be most relevant.

  • 5. Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Accelerated carbonation of steel slags in a landfill cover construction2010Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 132-139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Steel slags from high-alloyed tool steel production were used in a full scale cover construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. In order to study the long-term stability of the steel slags within the final cover, a laboratory experiment was performed. The effect on the ageing process, due to i.e. carbonation, exerted by five different factors resembling both the material characteristics and the environmental conditions is investigated. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity and mineralogy (evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction, XRD, and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, TG/DTA) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions.Samples aged for 3 and 10 months were evaluated in this paper. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate that among the investigated factors, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere were able to exert the most relevant effect. However, further investigations are required in order to clarify the role of the temperature.

  • 6. Ecke, Holger
    Aktivitet: Miljöriktig användning av askor, Värmeforsk2006Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 7. Ecke, Holger
    Anaerobic processes for control of metal fluxes from solid wastes1997Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8. Ecke, Holger
    Analys av anaerobt behandlat hushållsavfall genom sekventiell utlakning1993Ingår i: Symposium om svensk upplagsforskning / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Malmö: Svenska renhållningsverksföreningen , 1993, s. 45-51Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9. Ecke, Holger
    Behandling av metaller i förbränningsaskor2002Ingår i: Avfallsdagar, Sweco VBB Viak , 2002Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10. Ecke, Holger
    Carbonation for fixation of metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash2001Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The waste management is in need of a reliable and economical treatment method for metals in fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). However, no state-of-the-art technique has gained wide acceptance yet. This Doctoral Thesis aimed at assessing the possibilities and limitations of carbonation as a stabilization method. Factors that were studied are the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, the addition of water, the temperature, and the reaction time. Laboratory experiments were performed applying methods such as factorial experimental design, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and leaching assays including titration at static pH and sequential extraction. Leaching data were verified and complemented using chemical equilibrium calculations. Data evaluation was performed by means of multivariate statistics such as multiple linear regression, principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squares (PLS) modeling. It was found that carbonation is a good prospect for a stabilization technique especially with respect to the major pollutants lead (Pb) and zink (Zn). However, a mobilization of cadmium (Cd) was observed, which requires further research on possible countermeasures such as e.g. metal demobilization through enhanced silicate formation.

  • 11. Ecke, Holger
    Hydrometallurgical treatment of metal-containing solid waste using anaerobic processes2003Ingår i: Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, ISSN 1404-1049, E-ISSN 1651-2286, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 36-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential to damage the environment is the major motive to treat solid wastes. One main group of pollutants comprises metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc. This paper is a synthesis of five elsewhere published investigations focusing on the possibilities and limits to control the flux of metals from solid wastes using anaerobic processes. In particular, the treatment of sulfide forming elements and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) were studied at both bench-, pilot-, and full-scale. It was found that two-step processes have the potential to significantly improve the quality of solid wastes. In a first step, metals were leached and transferred to the process water. In a second step, the metal-enriched process water was treated under methanogenic conditions facilitating metal trapping through precipitation as sulfides or hydroxides. Anaerobic hydrometallurgy is judged to be a promising technique that has the potential to gain wide acceptance in the treatment of metal-containing solid wastes from a wide variety of sources.

  • 12. Ecke, Holger
    Karbonatstabilisering av flygaska från avfallsförbränning2002Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13. Ecke, Holger
    Sequestration of metals in carbonated municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash2003Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 23, nr 7, s. 631-640Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management is in need of a reliable and economical treatment method for metals in fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). However, no state-of-the-art technique has gained wide acceptance yet. This paper is a synthesis of five elsewhere published investigations covering a project which aimed to assess the possibilities and limitations of adding carbon dioxide (CO2) to fly ash as a stabilization method. Carbonation factors that were studied are the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2), the addition of water, the temperature, and the reaction time. Laboratory experiments were performed applying methods such as factorial experimental design, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and leaching assays including pHstat titration and sequential extraction. Leaching data were verified and complemented using chemical equilibrium calculations. Data evaluation was performed by means of multivariate statistics such as multiple linear regression, principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squares (PLS) modeling. It was found that carbonation is a good prospect for a stabilization technique especially with respect to the major pollutants lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Their mobility decreased with increasing factor levels. Dominating factors were the partial pressure of CO2 and the reaction time, while temperature and the addition of water were of minor influence. However, the treatment caused a mobilization of cadmium (Cd), requiring further research on possible countermeasures such as metal demobilization through enhanced silicate formation.

  • 14. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Multivariat dataanalys (MVDA) inom upplagsforskning1996Ingår i: Symposium om svensk upplagsforskning / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Malmö: Svenska renhållningsverks-föreningens Service AB , 1996, s. 1-19Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Behandling av cyanidhaltigt avfall på upplag: förstudie1993Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Multivariate data analysis (MVDA) in landfill research1998Ingår i: The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, ISSN 1088-1697, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 33-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multivariate data analysis (MVDA), a new statistical approach in terms of landfill research, was performed at the evaluation of data sets from three investigations. The interrelationships among variables as well as variation between observations could be examined. Causal relations between experimental factors and response variables have been identified using scatterpott interpretation. The ease of using MVDA at data evaluation is proved. MVDA techniques as follows were applied: principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares modelling (PLS) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA).

  • 17. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Multivariate data analysis (MVDA) in landfill research1996Ingår i: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 1996Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multivariate data analysis (MVDA), a new statistical approach in terms of landfill research, was performed on the evaluation of three investigations. It gains advantage over classical statistical methods when multiple variables and their interactions have to be considered. In addition, it is tolerant for incomplete datasets. MVDA techniques as follows were applied: principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares modelling (PLS) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The interrelationships among variables as well as variation between observations could be examined and illustrated by a few plots.

  • 18. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Waste characterisation1999Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Bjurström, Henrik
    Evaluering av jordmånsbildande askbehandlingsprocess (EJA): förstudie2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Deponeringskostnaderna i Japan motsvarar ca. 400 US$ per ton aska, vilket ger ekonomiska incitament att minska mängden deponerad aska. Vid NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) i Tsukuba, Japan, utvecklades den s.k. AMTprocessen) i Tsukuba, Japan, utvecklades den s.k. AMTprocessen (Accelerated Mineralization Technology) som syftar till att behandla askor och producera ett jordmånsliknande material till återanvändning. Målet med projektet EJA var en värdering av denna AMT-process, utgående från den information som finns tillgänglig idag, och de möjligheter som den skulle kunna erbjuda för de svenska förhållandena.Med hjälp av forskare vid NIES sammanställdes, översattes och värderades befintlig litteratur samt opublicerade manuskript om AMT-processen. Behandlingen innebär att askor tvättas, åldras och blandas med upp till 5 vikt-% komposterbart organiskt avfall. Materialet stabiliseras på deponi. Under upp till flera decennier fastläggs metaller genom en kombination av tre mekanismer: karbonatisering, bildning av leror och humifiering. Även svårnedbrytbara organiska föroreningar, som t.ex dioxiner, skall fastläggas genom humifieringsprodukter eller de skall brytas ned genom anaeroba processer. Efter fullbordad behandling skall materialet återanvändas.Den långa behandlingstiden gör AMT-metoden dock oattraktiv för askproducenter i Sverige. På sikt skulle det däremot kunna finnas intresse hos deponeringsföretag, som har erfarenhet att disponera avfall i större tidrymd. Vilket dock förutsätter att den rådande lagstiftningen inte lägger några hinder för metoden, t.ex. vad gäller nödvändigheten att blanda askan med organiskt material. Dessutom kvarstår flera års forskningsarbete om AMT-processen för att förstå och bedöma de underliggande biologiska och kemiska processer och deras samspel i sin helhet.

  • 20. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Hirofumi, Sakanakura
    Akita National College of Technology, Akita.
    Matsuto, Toshihiko
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Tanaka, Nobutoshi
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Effect of electric arc vitrification of bottom ash on the mobility and fate of metals2001Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 35, nr 7, s. 1531-1536Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are treated prior to landfilling or reuse. In Japan, electric arc melting is used for bottom ash vitrification that generates a glasslike slag. The objective of this paper was to assess this pretreatment technique with respect to its effect on metal mobility and metal content. Both bottom ash and slag were sampled and analyzed on total solids (TS), fixed solids (FS), particle density (P), specific BET surface area, particle size distribution, and total element content. A six-step wet sequential extraction procedure was used for assessing metal mobility. The results were qualitatively verified by scanning electron microscopy. The major conclusion was that the availability of various metals was affected differently by electric arc vitrification. Metals were solidified, stabilized, and/or separated from the slag. The mobility of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ca was reduced. In slag, major fractions of these elements were found in moderately reducible phases or in the residual slag lattice. The approximately three-fourths of Pb [174 ± 7 mg (kg of FS)-1] and half of Zn content [676 ± 352 mg (kg of FS)-1] were most likely removed from bottom ash through evaporation. The total content increases of Al, Cr, Ni, and Cd (51 ± 3, 621 ± 27, 138 ± 19, and 99 ± 32%, respectively) were probably caused by the wear of furnace refractories.

  • 21. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Kylefors, K.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Karakterisering och omhändertagande av botten- och flygaska vid Dåvamyrans avfallsanläggning1997Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Anaerobic treatment of hexavalent chromium- and chlorate-bearing industrial filter sludge1996Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Anaerobic treatment of hexavalent chromium- and chlorate-bearing leachate1996Ingår i: 12th International conference on solid waste technology and management, 1996Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 24. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Anaerobic treatment of putrescible refuse (ATPR): a review1997Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Analysis of anaerobically treated MSW by sequential leaching1993Ingår i: Sardinia '93: barrier systems, environmental aspects, upgrading and remediating, siting, monofills, effects of waste pretreatment, landfilling in developing countries ; 11 - 15 October 1993, S. Margherita di Pula (Cagliari), Sardinia, Italy ; proceedings / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1993, s. 1779-1785Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Karbonatstabilisering av flygaska: lovande metod som måste utvecklas vidare2002Ingår i: RVF-nytt, ISSN 0284-1827, nr 2, s. 12-13Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 27. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Koldioxid stabiliserar aska i försök2000Ingår i: RVF-nytt, ISSN 0284-1827, nr 5, s. 23-24Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    I förbränningsanläggningarnas flygaska koncentreras föroreningar från det avfall som förbränts. För att förhindra att dessa föroreningar sprids i samband med deponering kan askan stabiliseras. I Luleå utvecklas en ny metod för stabilisering av flygaska där koldioxid används i en process, så kallad karbonatisering, för att förhindra utlakning av bland annat miljöstörande metaller. Metoden utnyttjar den höga pH-halten i askan. Det är en betydligt enklare och billigare metod än de som tidigare prövats.

  • 28. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Landfill systems for waste conversion1997Ingår i: Sardinia 97: proceedings ; [13 - 17 October 1997, S. Margherita di Pula - Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1997, s. 281-292Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 29. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Swedish city uses anaerobic technology1999Ingår i: Biocycle, ISSN 0276-5055, Vol. 40, nr 6, s. 55-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Discusses the two-step anaerobic degradation (TSAAD) system of the Boras plant in Sweden. Reasons for the decision of the municipality of Boras to choose the source separation refuse system; Anaerobic digestion technology used by the Boras plant; How the TSAAD works; Results of the evaluation of the operation.

  • 30. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lundeberg, S.
    Assarsson, A.
    Full-scale anaerobic digestion and composting of source-separated organic municipal solid waste in a novel process1997Ingår i: ORBIT 97: Organic recovery & biological treatment / [ed] E.I. Stentiford, NCDA , 1997Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 31. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Matsuto, T.
    Sakanakura, H.
    Tanaka, N.
    Pretreatment and sanitary landfilling of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Japan1999Ingår i: Copenhagen Waste and Water '99 including EcoProcura Copenhagen '99: conference proceedings, 1999Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 32. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Anaerobic digestion plants for the treatment of organic MSW1996Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 33. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Carbonation of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and the impact on metal mobility2003Ingår i: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 129, nr 5, s. 435-440Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is considered as hazardous waste that calls for a robust, reliable, and reasonable treatment technique. This investigation aims to assess the impact of CO2 partial pressure, water addition, time, and temperature on the stabilization of MSWI fly ash with particular emphasis on Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr. Carbonation and element mobility were studied by applying thermal analysis and leaching assays on fly ash samples treated according to a 24 factorial design. The relationship between the factors and the response variables was evaluated using partial least squares modeling. Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed so as to complement the experimental findings. Decalcification of carbonated fly ash in a typical Swedish landfill was estimated at 0.13 mm.yr(-1) Treatment through carbonation reduced the availability of Pb and Zn about 100 times and also the carbonate alkalinity of 7.4 eq. (kg.FS)(-1) (FS represents the fixed solids) was remedied successfully. However, shortcomings that need to be resolved are the remobilization of Cr with time and the mobilization of Cd.

  • 34. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Treatment-oriented characterization of dry scrubber residue from municipal solid waste incineration2002Ingår i: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 117-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dry scrubber residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) was characterized to identify critical inorganic pollutants and to suggest a conceptual treatment method. The key methods used were thermal analysis, including thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), pHstat titration, qualitative X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical equilibrium calculations, and statistics such as error propagation, principal component analysis (PCA), and empirical modeling based on factorial designs. Based on EU directives, the major inorganic pollutants Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn were found. In addition, the pH was too high. With dry scrubber residue stabilization in mind, the impact of carbonation and hydration was assessed and judged to be encouraging. In particular, chemical equilibrium calculations showed that carbonation has considerable potential to lower the pH and the availability of Pb, Zn, and Cr. The impact of carbonation on the mobility of Cd was found to be small. During carbonation, a metal-trapping calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C–A–S–H) phase is also formed. Both processes together have the potential to lead to a robust, reliable, and reasonable stabilization method for dry scrubber residue. However, to control these processes, the decisive factors need to be identified and their effects need to be quantified. Ca, Cl, Na, and K might be abundant components which would be mobile even after stabilization.

  • 35. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Sakanakura, H.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Matsuto, T.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Tanaka, N.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    State-of-the-art treatment processes for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues in Japan1989Ingår i: Svenskt symposium om upplagsforskning 1998: Third Swedish landfill research symposia 1998, 1989, s. 23-24Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 36. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Sakanakura, H.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Matsuto, T.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Tanaka, N.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    State-of-the-art treatment processes for municipal solid waste incineration residues in Japan2000Ingår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 41-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) can be categorized as air pollution control residues (AR) and bottom ash (BA). Both categories pose a particular environmental threat on account of the risk of the release of dioxins and metals. In Japan, handling of MSWI residues is of major concern and the treatment of AR prior to landfilling is stipulated. Accepted treatment: techniques are melting, cementitious S/S (stabilization and solidification), stabilization with a chemical agent and acid extraction. These methods are reviewed and evaluated in this paper with respect to: quality; quantity and utilization of end products; treatment costs; energy demand and process reliability. Thermal processes are superior regarding dioxin removal as well as material recovery and reuse, but treatment costs can be as high as 60 000 Y t(-1), i.e. one order of magnitude higher than for other processes. Cementitious SIS and chemical stabilization are characterized by the ease of operation, but the solid waste mass is increased by up to 40 and 10 wt.-%, respectively. Acid extraction is a proven and reliable technique and is inexpensive: nevertheless, it has the smallest share of the market.

  • 37. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Sakanakura, H.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Matsuto, T.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Tanaka, N.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The effect of electric arc vitrification on the chemical stability ot bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI)1998Ingår i: Svenskt symposium om upplagsforskning 1998: Third Swedish landfill research symposia 1998, 1998, s. 135-136Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Sakanakura, Hirofumi
    Matsuto, Toshihiko
    Tanaka, Nobutoshi
    State-of-the-art treatment processes for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues in Japan1999Ingår i: Svenskt symposium om upplagsforskning 1998: Third Swedish landfill research symposia 1998, 1999, s. 23-24Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 39. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Sakanakura, Hirofumi
    Matsuto, Toshihiko
    Tanaka, Nobutoshi
    The effect of electric arc vitrification on the chemical stability of bottom ash from municipal waste incineration (MSWI)1999Ingår i: Svenskt symposium om upplagsforskning 1998: Third Swedish landfill research symposia 1998, 1999, s. 135-136Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 40.
    Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Svensson, Malin
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues2008Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, nr 8, s. 1301-1309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 26-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon.

  • 41. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Svensson, Malin
    Todorovic, Jelena
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Artificial carbonation for controlling the mobility of critical elements in incineration residues2005Ingår i: Waste Management in the Focus of Controversial Interests: 1st BOKU Waste Conference 2005 / [ed] Peter Lechner, Facultas Universitätsverlag , 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 42.
    Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Åberg, Annika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Quantification of the effects of environmental leaching factors on emissions from bottom ash in road construction2006Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 362, nr 1-3, s. 42-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The re-use of bottom ash in road construction necessitates a tool to predict the impact of trace metals on the surroundings over the lifetime of the road. The aim of this work was to quantify the effect of environmental factors that are supposed to influence leaching, so as to suggest guidelines in developing a leaching procedure for the testing of incineration residues re-used in road constructions. The effects of pH, L / S (liquid-to-solid ratio), leaching time, and leaching atmosphere on the leachate concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were studied using a two-level full factorial design. The most significant factor for all responses was the pH, followed by L / S, though the importance of pH and L / S is often ignored in leaching tests. Multiple linear regression models describing the variation in leaching data had R2 values ranging from 61-97%. A two-step pH-stat leaching procedure that considers pH as well as L / S and leaching time was suggested.

  • 43. Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lidström-Larsson, Margareta
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Reuse of steel industry slag in a landfill top cover2006Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of the 4th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, [June 14th to 16th 2006, Gällivare, Sweden] / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, s. 88-89Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 44.
    Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Svensson, Malin
    Ecke, Holger
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Hydraulic conductivity of fly ash: sewage sludge mixes for use in landfill cover liners2009Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, nr 14, s. 3541-3547Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary materials could help meeting the increasing demand of landfill cover liner materials. In this study, the effect of compaction energy, water content, ash ratio, freezing, drying and biological activity on the hydraulic conductivity of two fly ash - sewage sludge mixes was investigated using a 27-1 fractional factorial design. The aim was to identify the factors that influence hydraulic conductivity, to quantify their effects and to assess how a sufficiently low hydraulic conductivity can be achieved. The factors compaction energy and drying, as well as the factor interactions material×ash ratio and ash ratio×compaction energy affected hydraulic conductivity significantly (α = 0.05). Freezing on 5 freeze-thaw cycles did not affect hydraulic conductivity. Water content affected hydraulic conductivity only initially. The hydraulic conductivity data were modelled using multiple linear regression. The derived models were reliable as indicated by R2adjusted values between 0.75 and 0.86. Independent on the ash ratio and the material, hydraulic conductivity was predicted to be between 1.7 × 10-11 m s-1 and 8.9 × 10-10 m s-1 if the compaction energy was 2.4 J cm-3, the ash ratio between 20 and 75 % and drying did not occur. Thus, the investigated materials met the limit value for non-hazardous waste landfills of 10-9 m s-1.

  • 45.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    Maurice, Christian
    Impact of grassed swales on the fate of metals leached from roads built with municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes2006Ingår i: Coal Combustion Byproducts and Environmental Issues: [Seventh International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements held at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden, from June 15-19, 2003], New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2006, s. 87-98Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 46.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Robinson, Ryan
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Nordmark, Desiree
    Bjurstöm, Henrik
    ÅF-Engineering AB.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Ecke, Holger
    Carbon speciation in ash, residual waste and contaminated soil by thermal and chemical analyses2011Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 18-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon in waste can occur as inorganic (IC), organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) each having distinct chemical properties and possible environmental effects. In this study, carbon speciation was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), chemical degradation tests and the standard total organic carbon (TOC) measurement procedures in three types of waste materials (bottom ash, residual waste and contaminated soil). Over 50% of the total carbon (TC) in all studied materials (72% in ash and residual waste, and 59% in soil) was biologically non-reactive or EC as determined by thermogravimetric analyses. The speciation of TOC by chemical degradation also showed a presence of a non-degradable C fraction in all materials (60% of TOC in ash, 30% in residual waste and 13% in soil), though in smaller amounts than those determined by TGA. In principle, chemical degradation method can give an indication of the presence of potentially inert C in various waste materials, while TGA is a more precise technique for C speciation, given that waste-specific method adjustments are made. The standard TOC measurement yields exaggerated estimates of organic carbon and may therefore overestimate the potential environmental impacts (e.g. landfill gas generation) of waste materials in a landfill environment.

  • 47.
    Kylefors, K.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Relevancy of a discharge limit of COD for landfill leachates1999Ingår i: Sardinia 99: proceedings / Seventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, [4 - 8 October 1999, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy]. / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1999, Vol. 1, s. 201-205Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 48.
    Kylefors, Katarina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Accuracy of COD test for lanfill leachates2003Ingår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 146, nr 1-4, s. 153-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    COD (chemical oxygen demand) has historically been considered to be an estimate of organic matter, and though this is no longer the case, for most kinds of water it is still a fair approximation. Landfill leachates may, however, be one of the exceptions. Landfill leachate contains many inorganic substances and, in certain circumstances, high concentrations of volatile organic compounds like acetic acid; the COD value may be affected by these conditions. Designed experiments were performed to determine how COD could be affected by the composition of landfill leachates. The factors studied include the content of iron(II), manganese(II), sulphide, ethanol, acetic acid, ammonia, and chloride as well as different aspects of the COD analysis design. The results show that up to about one-third of COD may be due to the inorganic components of leachates. The main conclusion from the experiments is that COD cannot be used solely as a measure of the organic matter of landfill leachate since inorganic substances as well as interactions between substances may interfere with the COD results.

  • 49.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    Deponierungsstrategie, Versuchsfelder und die Zukunft1995Ingår i: Barbara-Gesprächen: Geogen-Anthropogen, 1995Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 50.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    Landfill strategy, test-cells, and the future: initial investigations1996Ingår i: 19th Annual landfill gas symposium: March 19-21, 1996 : conference proceedings, Silver Spring, MD: Solid waste association of North America , 1996, s. 101-116Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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