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  • 1.
    Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Diener, Silvia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Hydraulic performance of a land-fill top cover based on steel slag2014Ingår i: Sardinia 2013: 14th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Forte Village, S. Margherita di Pula (CA), Italy, 30 September - 4 October 2013 ; CD-ROM: Symposium proceedings / [ed] Raffaello Cusso, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    HYDRAULIC PERFORMANCE OF A LAND¬FILL TOP COVER BASED ON STEEL SLAGThe steel industry is expanding and following the amount of produced steel, more and more by-products and residuals are generated. About 17.6 million tonnes of steel slags arise in Europe every year. In Sweden about 18 % of the iron- and steelmaking slags are landfilled (Jernkontoret, 2012). One application for steel slags are landfill covers where large amounts of virgin materials are needed. The legal requirement in Sweden is directed towards the maxi¬mum amount of lea¬chate generated at the bottom of the landfill: < 5 and < 50 l (m2*a)-1 for landfill class 1 and 2, respec¬ti¬vely. To secure these demands, a layer of low permeability is needed to reduce water infiltration. The hydraulic load of this layer ought to be controlled by a protective water balance layer and an effective drainage layer.Previous investigations indicate that steel slags can be used as construction material for both liner and drainage layer (Herrmann et al., 2010). In order to verify this in full scale, five tests areas (A1-5) were constructed at a municipal landfill in Sweden between 2005 and 2011. The areas were designed using different mixtures of steel slags from the local steel company in the liner. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydraulic performance of the cover during the first years after installation.The design of the cover construction was varied like this: a mixture of 50 % electric arc furnace slag (EAFS) and 50 % ladle slag (LS) was tested as liner material in the first test area (A1). A2 and A3 were built using less LS and coarser fractions of EAFS since laboratory tests had given satisfactory results also for these recipes. High infiltration rates in A2 and 3 led to a return to the original weight proportions in A4 and 5, yet another EAF slag was introduced in these areas. The mixing and construction techniques were refined during the first years of the project time: while A1 was built with rather poorly conceived technique, as of A3 the method can be considered as technically mature and approved.The liner performance was evaluated by lysimetry: 10 lysimeters were installed below each test area. The infiltration below the liner corresponded to 44, 74, 71, 19 and 0.4 l/m2*year for A1 to A5. Compared to the legal limit of 50 l/m2*year, the covers of A2 and A3 allowed about 50 % more water to enter the landfill than stipulated.An initial increase of the infiltration was observed, which most likely is related to increasing water saturation of the liner material in the first period after construction. The saturation occurred fastest in A2, where basically no initial increase was observed, probably due to the long time that elapsed between construction and the first sampling event (260 days). In contrast, the saturation in A1 and A4 was quite slow which can be related to the smaller particle size of the slags in these areas and, hence, a less porous liner material. The decrease in A2 and A3 might be explained by mineral transformations within the slag matrix such as carbonation of calcium and magnesium leading to the precipitation of carbonates in the pores of the liner material. Future observations will show if the decreasing trend in A2 and A3 remains such that the infiltration eventually reaches a level falling below the legal limit.The results show that the infiltration criteria can be fulfilled under the condition that at least 50 % of the liner mix consists of ladle slag, a fine-grained slag with cementitious properties. With few adaptations the steel slag can be used with standard construction processes.

  • 2.
    Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Diener, Silvia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Steel slags in a landfill top cover: Experiences from a full-scale experiment2014Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 692-701Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A full scale field study has been carried out in order to test and evaluate the use of slags from high-alloy steel production as the construction materials for a final cover of an old municipal landfill. Five test areas were built using different slag mixtures within the barrier layer (liner). The cover consisted of a foundation layer, a liner with a thickness of 0.7 m, a drainage layer of 0.3 m, a protection layer of 1.5 m and a vegetation layer of 0.25 m. The infiltration varied depending on the cover design used, mainly the liner recipe but also over time and was related to seasons and precipitation intensity. The test areas with liners composed of 50% electric arc furnace (EAF) slag and 50% cementitious ladle slag (LS) on a weight basis and with a proper consistence of the protection layer were found to meet the Swedish infiltration criteria of ⩽50 l (m2 a)−1 for final covers for landfills for non-hazardous waste: the cumulative infiltration rates to date were 44, 19 and 0.4 l (m2 a)−1 for A1, A4 and A5, respectively. Compared to the precipitation, the portion of leachate was always lower after the summer despite high precipitation from June to August. The main reason for this is evapotranspiration but also the fact that the time delay in the leachate formation following a precipitation event has a stronger effect during the shorter summer sampling periods than the long winter periods. Conventional techniques and equipment can be used but close cooperation between all involved partners is crucial in order to achieve the required performance of the cover. This includes planning, method and equipment testing and quality assurance.

  • 3. Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Shimaoka, T.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Characterizing landfill phases at full-scale with the aid of test cells1999Ingår i: Sardinia 99: proceedings / Seventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, [4 - 8 October 1999, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy]. / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1999, Vol. 1, s. 145-152Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4. Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mácsik, Josef
    Ecoloop, Stockholm.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB.
    Use of secondary materials in landfill constructions2007Ingår i: SARDINIA 2007: Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [1 - 5 October 2007, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many landfills are subject to closure in the near future. Roughly 2,000 hectares of land­fill area have to be covered only in Sweden, equivalent to about 100 million tonnes of construction material. In addition to material costs in the order of tens of billions Euro, this also puts a strain on the environment through the exploitation of non-renewable virgin construction materials. Many landfill operators are considering alternative cover designs and materials in order to reduce resource spending. However, there is a fair amount of uncertainty with regard to functional and environmental consequences of using alternative (secondary) materials, both from the side of the companies and the authorities. This paper gives an overview over potential waste based construction materials and the use of some of them in projects presently ongoing in Sweden.Research on the use of secondary materials in landfill covers is quite recent. Substitutes for natural or synthetic materials in a landfill cover can be various types of waste from process industry, construction and demolition, or comparable activities. Alter­na­tive mate­rials that have been investigated are ashes, slags, sewage and fibre sludges, treated soils and com­post. Table 1 gives an overview over potential waste based construction materials. The total of potential materials is well in excess of the material needs for landfill construction, but they may not be available at the right time, place or quality.Besides being economically viable, the substitute materials should have suitable technical and environmental properties in order to secure a proper function of the construction. Experiences from three field studies (landfills at Tveta/Södertälje, Hagfors and Alvkarleby) are discussed looking at relevant issues during 1) construction, 2) active after care phase, and 3) long term processes.Using SCM poses additional problems compared to using conventional materials. Often, the supply of material has to be planned in advance and the materials may have to be stored on site. Storing, however, can cause problems if the materials have properties that change over time e.g. due to climate. For other materials storing may be necessary in order to achieve desired properties. One example is the ageing of strongly alkaline materials that react with atmospheric carbon dioxide and thus obtain better leaching properties. Table 1 Overview over potential waste based construction materials and examplesSourceExamplesMining and mineral industryWaste rock, flotation sand, etc...Construction and demolition (C&D)Crushed concrete, gypsum, asphalt, reinforced polymers, woodProcess industryDifferent types of slag from steel making, green liquor and fibre sludge from paper production, ashes and foundry wastesWastewater treatmentDigested sewage sludge, sandIncinerationBottom ash, fly ashThe evidence is mounting that the desired technical function of a landfill cover can be attained using suitable combinations of secondary construction materials. So far, all three field tests indicate leachate amounts between less then one and 30 l (m2 yr)-1 below the liner. In comparison with the average annual precipitation of about 600 mm yr-1 at the Swedish East coast, only 0.2-5 % of the precipitation seeped through the liner so far; i.e. the leachate generation is reduced with about 90 % or more.The issue is more if the materials may cause adverse impacts of the landfill and its recipients. A low water infiltration through the liner means that the most of infiltrating water is removed as drainage water and thus the leaching of the layers above the liner are of the greatest concern.Infiltrating water will yield a liquid to solid ratio of about 1-2 l kg-1 in the layers above the liner after about 10 years. The most mobile elements, such as nitrogen, will be leached to a great extent already at such low L/S ratios, so a forecast with regard to the need of treatment of drainage water points at about two to three decades.In the long term perspective the mineral changes of the construction materials become important. E.g. one of the incentives for using fly ash in liners is their capacity for chemical-mineralogical changes leading to the formation of clay-like structures. This could mean that a liner built of ashes will attain a lower permeability over time. Other mineral changes that can occur in ashes include the trapping of metals in the structure, e g in clay and carbonate phases.Much is still to be learned about the long term processes and the factors that control them. Ongoing studies include the assessment of climatic variables, different material combinations as well as the impact of landfill gases.The following conclusions can be drawn:The use of secondary materials in construction is important due to substantial resource and environmental impacts. An increased use should be beneficial, provided that the problems of using such materials can be managed.In addition to legislative and bureaucratic barriers, there are also practical issues which need to be dealt with in order to pave the way for a wider use of alternative construction materials. In the construction phase more planning is needed due to temporal and geographical limitation of the material availability. Some materials are not ready for immediate use but need to be pre-treated. All of these factors may cause a need for more space and time. A system for quality assurance comparable to that of traditional construction materials is another issue that needs to be resolved. Most likely some kind of legislative pressure is needed for this.In the medium term leaching of pollutants from the construction materials may be the most important issue when using secondary construction materials, which underlines the double standards applied, since traditional construction materials will not be scrutinized in the same manner. Anyhow, the long term interactions between materials and their environment need to be considered and further studies are necessary for secondary construction materials as well as for conventional materials. Existing data indicate both possibilities and problems.In the long term issues of material interactions will remain and the mechanical impact of mineral changes in the secondary construction materials may be added to the list of issues to clarify. Some of the material changes may be beneficial for the function of the construction, e.g. clay formation in liner materials may make them more impervious, but there may also be negative changes caused by deteriorated material properties. The rate and extent of such processes and the factors that enhance or retard them need to be understood better.Secondary construction materials have always been used and some of the "traditional" materials used today were wastes before. There is no reason to believe that this development should not continue.

  • 5.
    Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Travar, Igor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Tham, Gustav
    Sweco AB.
    Leaching behaviour of ashes in a landfill cover construction2012Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012 / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, s. 39-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Arm, Maria
    et al.
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Vestin, Jenny
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Lind, Bo
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Hallgren, Per
    Skogsstyrelsen.
    Pulp mill fly ash for stabilization of low-volume unpaved forest roads: field performance2014Ingår i: Canadian journal of civil engineering (Print), ISSN 0315-1468, E-ISSN 1208-6029, Vol. 41, nr 11, s. 955-963Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased temperatures and rainfalls will give more settlements and less bearing capacity in gravel roads, which will have implications for the forestry. Pulp mill fly ash without additives was used for stabilizing the road base of a low-volume gravel road. A two-year monitoring of the road was conducted, including measurements of achieved ash content, density, water infiltration capacity, and load bearing capacity. The results showed that the ash-stabilized sections performed better than conventionally upgraded sections and also achieved increased bearing capacity over time. Hydration of the fly ash increased the stiffness and decreased the permeability of the road base. The differences were more pronounced during spring thaw. Best performance was achieved in the section with thicker ash stabilized layer.

  • 7.
    Asplund, Erik
    et al.
    inno Scandinavia AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Heydebreck, Peter
    inno AG.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Norberg, Anna
    Umeå universitet.
    Framsyn för Norrbotten och Västerbotten: en idéskrift om utvecklingsinsatser idag och imorgon2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapport från DARE delprojekt regional framsyn. Etapp 1; scenarier och förslag på aktiviteter.Detta dokument är slutrapporten från den regionala framsynsprocessen som drevs 2008-2009 inom projektet DARE – Development Arena for Research and Entrepreneurship.Framsynen har verkat efter ett normativt och handlingsinriktat angreppssätt. Ledmotiv för processen har varit frågor som: Hur vill vi ha det? Varför är det inte så nu? Vad behöver vi göra nu och i framtiden? Regionen kan sägas kännetecknas av att den är rik på naturresurser och fattig på folk. Det är bakgrunden till de fokusområden som framsynen behandlat- Grönare näringsliv (hur kan nya och miljöeffektivare produkter och tjänsterutvecklas effektivare?)- Demografiutveckling (hur kan samhällsfunktionerna bestå med inverteradebefolkningspyramider och hur kan utvecklingen mot en åldrande befolkningvändas?)Lite tvärs över båda frågorna ovan hamnar ett annat fokus; regionens attraktivitet. Inom detta område har en ung framsyn genomförts med deltagare från olika delar av Norrbotten.Framsynen har gått steg för steg genom visioner, analys av framgångsfaktorer, scenarieskapande, förslag på åtgärder och prioritering av dessa. Under genomförandet har det uppstått ett antal avknoppningar i form av t ex nya samarbeten och projekt. Ett av de sistnämnda var den unga framsynen som genomfördes med finansiering av Norrbottens läns landsting.Bland de prioriterade förslagen som redovisas i denna rapport dominerar olika aktiviteter för att knyta samman olika aktörer och grupper inom regionen och på så sätt göra mer av mindre. Många av förslagen visar regionala aktörers förväntningar på universitetens roll i den regionala utvecklingen och markerar ett intresse av tätare samverkan meduniversiteten. Förslagen berör alla verksamheter inom universiteten, såväl utbildning, forskning och förvaltning. Bland de prioriterade förslagen finns:• Stimulera gröna affärs och teknikutvecklingsallianser för regionens småföretag• Stimulera ”den lille forskaren” – en modell för småföretagens forskarkollektiv• Utred grönare näringsliv som gemensamt profilområde för regionens universitet• Stärk företagsnyttig forskning & utvecklingsinsatser kring ”age management”• Etablera ett ”integrationsnätverk” för universitetens studenter & det regionalasamhället• Utveckla dialogen mellan universiteten & avnämargrupper i utvecklingen avutbildningar • Skapa regionalt utvecklingslab för bättre samverkan mellan universiteten ochomgivande samhälleInom DARE-projektet kommer nu det material som utvecklats inom framsynsprocessen att användas för utveckling av samverkan inom universiteten, mellan universiteten och med andra intressenter av den regionala utvecklingen, inte minst då de som deltagit i framsynen.

  • 8.
    Barlaz, Morton
    et al.
    North Carolina State University.
    Lagerkvist, AndersLuleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.Matsuto, ToshihikoHokkaido University.
    Proceedings from the 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Toya Lake, Japan, November 29 - December 2, 2004. ICLRS proceedings2004Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Carbonate precipitation in alkaline wastes1996Ingår i: 12th International conference on solid waste technology and management, 1996Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbonate precipitation is known to occur in landfilled ashes and is often reported as a problem because of the precipitates tendency to clog drains and other leachate transport facilities. The Up-take of carbon dioxide by alkaline wastes and leachates will influence their properties e.g.; The hydraulic and gas conductivity of solid wastes will decrease as carbonates precipitate in the pores of the waste. The pH will change towards neutral values as carbonates form changing the mobility of metals and other elements A neutral pH will also allow biological reactions to act on the waste, especially if the waste contain organic material as e.g. ashes often do. Adding carbon dioxide to wastes can thus be a cheap and powerful treatment, yielding a less hazardous waste.

  • 10.
    Bjurström, Henrik
    et al.
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Lind, B.B.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Unburned carbon in combustion residues from solid biofuels2014Ingår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 117, nr Part A, s. 890-899Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unburned carbon (UC) in 21 combustion residues from solid biofuels has been examined using several methods of analysis (including LOI and TOC) as well as micro-Raman spectroscopy. The concentration of unburned carbon in the residues varied over an order of magnitude and in several samples accounted for about 10% of the ash mass. It was observed that TOC had a poor correlation to organic carbon, especially for fly ashes. LOI at all tested temperatures showed a better correlation than TOC to the organic carbon content, whereas the TOC is better correlated to elemental carbon. LOI550 gave a larger variation and a less complete mobilisation of unburned carbon than LOI at 750 or 975 °C did, but at the highest temperature metal oxidation was notably affecting the mass balance to the extent that some samples gained mass. For this reason, and of the temperatures tested, LOI750 seem to be the most stable indicator for organic remains in the incineration residuals. Most of the unburned carbon is elemental, and only slowly degradable, so the potential emissions of organic compounds from ashes should not be assessed by using a TOC test. The structure of the detected elemental carbon in UC is similar to that of activated carbon, which indicates a potentially large specific surface. This should be borne in mind when assessing the environmental impact of using ash for different purposes, including use as a construction material. Field studies are needed to verify the actual impact as it may depend on environmental conditions.

  • 11.
    Bogner, Jean E.
    et al.
    Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Early diagenesis of garbage: landfills as engineered anoxic basins1996Ingår i: Geological Society of America, 28th annual meeting, Denver, CO, United States, Oct. 28-31, 1996, Geological Society of America, 1996, s. 257-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Early diagenesis of buried organic carbon in anoxic basins is dominated by microbial decomposition processes at temperatures and pressure slightly above ambient. Such conditions also describe decomposition of refuse in sanitary landfills and provide a reasonable model for systematic studies of their long-term geochemistry. For shorter time frame (decades), controlled high-solids anaerobic digestion systems provide a second model for investigation of optimized landfill systems. In this paper, we introduce both models through a series of preliminary mass-balances to develop a realistic overview of landfill processes, especially emphasizing carbon cycling in field settings over various time-frames. The terminal product of short-term anaerobic decomposition is methane--produced by methanogenic bacteria from some fraction of organic carbon landfilled. Laboratory studies of optimized landfill systems (ours and from the literature) indicate that, at best, 25-45% of organic carbon is converted to biogas carbon (methane and carbon dioxide); such percentages are rarely attained in field settings. Most of the methane is produced from cellulosic substrates while lignin substrates are recalcitrant, with lignin carbon entering sedimentary storage for time frames longer than the four decades of widespread landfilling experience in the U.S. and western Europe. Over time frames in excess of centuries, further transformations via kerogen pathways are possible but highly speculative. Certainly, exhumation of old refuse at archeologic sites indicates that organic carbon preservation can be documented for at least one or two millenia. From controlled incubation of unamended field samples and from field studies of net methane emissions, it is clear that rates of methane production and consumption both vary of several orders of magnitude in field settings; their dynamic are rapid and complex spatially and temporally. Unraveling these dynamics is necessary to suggest the overall relevance of these engineered anoxic basins to issues of atmospheric methane increases and terrestrial carbon storage.

  • 12.
    Brundin, Herman
    et al.
    SÖRAB.
    Kihl, Anders
    Rang-Sells Avfallsbehandling AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Rihm, Thomas
    RVF service AB.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Långtidsegenskaper hos tätskikt innehållande bentonit2001Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bentonit är en starkt vattenupptagande och svällande naturlig lera med låg vattengenomsläpplighet. Huvudkomponenten är mineralet montmorillonit, som tillhör gruppen smektiter och som ger bentoniten dess unika egenskaper. Syftet med uppdraget är att söka identifiera vilka mekanismer och faktorer som kan vara begränsande för funktionen på kort och lång sikt hos tätskikt innehållande bentonitmattor samt blandningar av bentonit och andra material. I rapporten ges underlag för projektering, utformning och drift av deponier med tätskikt innehållande bentonit. Där redovisas också tre fallstudier från Högbytorp, Löt och Tveta.

  • 13. Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Diener, Silvia
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB, Södertälje.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Influence of accelerated ageing on acid neutralization capacity and mineralogical transformations in refuse derived-fuel fly ashes2009Ingår i: SARDINIA 2009: Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [5 - 9 October 2009, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2009, Vol. 1Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a part of a long-term collaboration between Telge Återvinning AB at Södertälje in South Sweden and Lulea University of Technology (LTU) in the Northern part of Sweden. Ashes and other industrial wastes used for landfill cover construction have been studied for several years. However, there is a need for further investigations with regard to the long-term mechanical and chemical stability of ash liners in landfill cover constructions. Long-term changes of ashes are investigated by laboratory studies on accelerated weathering (ageing) using experimental design. With regard to weathering, several stages can be identified: hydration and carbonation are well known processes while the processes surrounding the conversion of ash to clay minerals are less well known. There are a number of studies showing that the process of mineral transformation during the ageing of coal or MSWI ashes is quite similar to that of volcanic ashes in nature. Yet, the time frames are quite different: while volcanic ashes need several thousands of years for clay mineral development, there are evidences as well that e.g. clay illite is formed from glass phases in MSWI bottom ash after only 12 y or that clay like amorphous material can be formed in micro-scale throughout the surfaces of coal ash particles after 8 y of natural weathering (Zevenbergen et al., 1999; Zevenbergen et al., 1998). There are a lot of studies performed on rapid fly ash conversion into zeolites by hydrothermal alkaline treatment, the success of which strongly depends on alkaline conditions and the silica-alumina composition of the fly ash source (Inada et al., 2005). These results provide further support to the hypothesis that the observed rapid clay like mineral formation arose as a result of the initially high pH of ash, which promotes rapid dissolution of certain components of aluminosilicate glasses. Furthermore, in a long term perspective these aluminosilicates can transform into zeolites, smectites or halloysites dependent on the solution pH and leaching rate. Based on these studies on volcanic, coal or MSWI ashes we presume that refuse derived fuel (RDF) ashes, like those that are used in the Tveta landfill cover, will be subject to analogical weathering and mineral transformation processes.In order to investigate the mineral transformation in RDF fly ashes, a designed laboratory experiment was performed. A reduced factorial experimental design for accelerated ageing has been applied to evaluate the influence of five factors: carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative air humidity, time and, quality of added water (Table 1). Table 1 Factors and levels tested in the reduced multivariate factorial design for the study of accelerated ageing of RFD fly ashesFactorLowMiddleHighCarbon dioxide, CO2 (%)Atmosphere (0.038)20*100Temperature, ºC5 3060Relative air humidity, Rh (%)3065100Time, months31022Water qualityDistilled -LeachateThe influence of these factors on mineralogical composition, leaching behaviour and acid neutralization capacity (ANC) is analysed and evaluated with the aid of multivariate data analysis. The MVDA modelling was performed with SIMCA-P+ 11.5 version program developed by Umetrics AB (Eriksson and Umetrics Academy, 2006). Principle component analysis (PCA) technique was used and presented in this paper. PCA is an interdependence model where all variables are analysed simultaneously as a single set in a data matrix X. Triplicates were tested for each factor combination. Sampling was performed after 3, 10 and 22 months of accelerated ageing. Mineral composition was analysed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Acid neutralisation capacity was performed at 8.3 and 4.5 pH with 0.1 M HCl solution. The experimental set-up of accelerated ageing of RDF fly ashes is showed in Fig. 1. Preliminary evaluation of the mineral transformations in aged RDF fly ashes revealed that the carbonation process was not yet completed in the some of the specimens (Fig.2). This still caused high pH (pH=12.7) in the solution even though a calcite phase was found in all aged fly ashes. Multivariate data analysis confirmed that carbon dioxide affects the pH and ANC of fly ashes during ageing of RDF fly ashes. The specimens prepared with leachate water had higher ANC than the specimens with distilled water. The ANC8.3 was most influenced by 30 ºC temperature and 65 % relative humidity (ANC8.3 = 0.05 mmol/g) and this well corresponds to the results found in the literature. The ageing time factor has the highest influence on ANC4.5. A more detailed analysis of other mineral phases including clay-like minerals in aged fly ashes will be performed later.The results of this study will contribute to the better understanding of ash formation processes and improved possibilities to make beneficial use of ashes as an alternative to landfilling.Figure 1. Experimental set-up for investigations of the long-term behaviour of the ashes under different environmental conditions. Figure 2. XRD patterns of RDF fly ashes at different ageing conditions. a) N33, b) N71, c) N15, d) N85, and e) N51. The peaks are labelled A (anhydrite), C (calcite), E (ettringite), F (Friedel's Salt), Ge (gehlenite), H (halite), He (hematite), P (portlandite), Q (quartz), S (sylvite), V (vaterite).

  • 14. Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Diener, Silvia
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Formation of secondary mineral phases during the ageing of RDF fly ashes2010Ingår i: The 6th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, 2010, s. 110-112Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Diener, Silvia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Factors influencing chemical and mineralogical changes in RDF fly ashes during aging2014Ingår i: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 140, nr 3, artikel-id 4013014Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of aging should be considered for reliable long-term assessments of the environmental risks of the use of refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) fly ash as landfill top cover liner material. Mineral transformations that occur in RDF fly ash, and the effects of selected factors on these transformations, were studied on compacted fly ash specimens in an accelerated aging experiment using a reduced factorial design. Carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, relative air humidity, time, and the quality of added water were varied in six factor combinations. Acid neutralization capacity and leaching behavior were analyzed after four different periods of time. The results were evaluated with multivariate data analysis. A significant change in the acid neutralization capacity, a decrease in leaching of Ba, Ca, Cl − , Cr, Cu, Pb, K, and Na, and an increase in solubility of Mg, Si, Zn, and SO 2− 4 could be attributed to different aging conditions

  • 16.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Changes of fly ash properties during the ageing2015Ingår i: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 141, nr 5, artikel-id 4014083Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) fly ashes was investigated in a long-term laboratory experiment. Aging affected the chemical stability of RDF fly ash in terms of leaching behavior, ANC, and mineralogical transformations. The design of experiment model evaluation showed that the use of RDF ashes in a top cover liner construction has the following advantages: most of the investigated hazardous elements like Pb, Cl, Cr, Cu, etc., will not be released from the ashes, and their buffer capacity will increase with time. However, aging has the disadvantage that leaching of Zn and SO 4 is likely to increase. The multivariate data analysis of the coefficients of variation did not reveal any systematic errors in the performance of the experiment. However, batch leaching test not always reflect the real situation in the landfill top cover environment.

  • 17.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Travar, Igor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ageing of ashes in a landfill top cover2011Ingår i: SARDINIA 2011: Thirteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy; 3 - 7 October 2011 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA Publisher, Italy , 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on studies on the effects of accelerated ageing on refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) fly ashes, in experiments under controlled laboratory conditions, intended to derive models to predict the stability of RDF fly ashes used in a landfill liner and the mineralogi-cal changes that occur in them. A reduced factorial design was applied, followed by multivariate data analysis, to evaluate the effects of five factors — carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, temperature, relative air humidity (RH), time and the quality of added water — on mineral transformations within the ashes, and leaching behaviour. The pH values of these ash specimens ranged from 7.2 to 7.6, indicating advanced carbonation. Ageing decreased pH values from 12.4 to 7.2, conse-quently affecting the leaching behaviour of most chemicals measured in the leachates. Levels of Ba, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Pb, K and Na decreased over the study period while those of Mg, Zn and SO4 increased. Clay minerals could not be detected neither in fresh nor in aged ashes. However, geo-chemical modelling indicated that such minerals may precipitate.

  • 18.
    Carlsson, My
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Holmström, David
    Profu AB, Mölndal.
    Bohn, Irene
    NSR, North Western Scania Waste Management Company, Helsingborg.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Profu AB, Mölndal.
    Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando
    AnoxKaldnes AB, Klosterängsvägen 11A, 226 47 Lund.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Impact of physical pre-treatment of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste on greenhouse-gas emissions and the economy in a Swedish anaerobic digestion system2015Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 38, s. 117-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several methods for physical pre-treatments of source sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SSOFMSW) before for anaerobic digestion (AD) are available, with the common feature that they generate a homogeneous slurry for AD and a dry refuse fraction for incineration. The selection of efficient methods relies on improved understanding of how the pre-treatment impacts on the separation and on the slurry’s AD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the performance of physical pre-treatment of SSOFMSW on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and on the economy of an AD system including a biogas plant with supplementary systems for heat and power production in Sweden. Based on the performance of selected Swedish facilities, as well as chemical analyses and BMP tests of slurry and refuse, the computer-based evaluation tool ORWARE was improved as to accurately describe mass flows through the physical pre-treatment and anaerobic degradation. The environmental and economic performance of the evaluated system was influenced by the TS concentration in the slurry, as well as the distribution of incoming solids between slurry and refuse. The focus to improve the efficiency of these systems should primarily be directed towards minimising the water addition in the pre-treatment provided that this slurry can still be efficiently digested. Second, the amount of refuse should be minimised, while keeping a good quality of the slurry. Electricity use/generation has high impact on GHG emissions and the results of the study are sensitive to assumptions of marginal electricity and of electricity use in the pre-treatment.

  • 19. Carlsson, My
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    Electroporation for enhanced methane yield from municipal solid waste2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Carlsson, My
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Veolia Water Technologies AB (AnoxKaldnes), Lund, Sweden.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Veolia Water Technologies AB (AnoxKaldnes), Lund, Sweden.
    Energy balance performance of municipal wastewater treatment systems considering sludge anaerobic biodegradability and biogas utilisation routes2016Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 4680-4689Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy balance of a municipal wastewater treatment (WWT) system was evaluated considering the influence of excess biological sludge anaerobic biodegradability (BDAn) and of biogas utilisation as either fuel for co-generation of heat and power (CHP) or for vehicle transport. Sludge thermal pre-treatment prior to anaerobic digestion and high-rate carbon removal were considered as modifications of a reference municipal WWT system to impact the sludge BDAn. Both thermal pre-treatment and a high-rate process with a short sludge retention time (SRT = 1-3d) led to ∼30% higher sludge BDAn than that of untreated sludge from a low-rate WWT system with long SRT ( > 8d), which enhanced methane yields and energy production correspondingly. An efficient separation (40% of CODin) of primary solids promoted biogas production by capturing a significant part of the incoming COD, and lowered aeration energy demands for carbon oxidation due to lower loads of particulate organics into the biological treatment. Thermal pre-treatment can most effectively increase the biodegradability of sludge originating from a low-rate WWT system with a long SRT. Sludge solubilization alone as an indicator of increase biodegradability by a pre-treatment is inadequate for sludge types with inherently high biodegradability. A WWT system with primary separation, sludge pre-treatment, and CHP from biogas can be a net electricity producer and self-sufficient in thermal energy, provided the thermal energy from CHP is available for the pre-treatment. With other types of energy carriers as inputs and outputs, the WWT performance also needs evaluation with respect to the energy economic and environmental value. 

  • 21.
    Carlsson, My
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando
    AnoxKaldnes AB.
    The effects of substrate pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion systems: a review2012Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 32, nr 9, s. 1634-1650Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Focus is placed on substrate pre-treatment in anaerobic digestion (AD) as a means of increasing biogas yields using today’s diversified substrate sources. Current pre-treatment methods to improve AD are being examined with regard to their effects on different substrate types, highlighting approaches and associated challenges in evaluating substrate pre-treatment in AD systems and its influence on the overall system of evaluation. WWTP residues represent the substrate type that is most frequently assessed in pre-treatment studies, followed by energy crops/harvesting residues, organic fraction of municipal solid waste, organic waste from food industry and manure. The pre-treatment effects are complex and generally linked to substrate characteristics and pre-treatment mechanisms. Overall, substrates containing lignin or bacterial cells appear to be the most amendable to pre-treatment for enhancing AD. Approaches used to evaluate AD enhancement in different systems is further reviewed and challenges and opportunities for improved evaluations are identified.

  • 22.
    Carlsson, My
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Naroznova, Irina
    Department of Environmental Engineering (DTU Environment), Technical University of Denmark.
    Möller, Jacob Steen
    Department of Environmental Engineering (DTU Environment), Technical University of Denmark.
    Scheutz, Charlotte
    Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Technical University of Denmark.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Importance of food waste pre-treatment efficiency for global warming potential in life cycle assessment of anaerobic digestion systems2015Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 102, s. 58-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A need for improvement of food waste (FW) pre-treatment methods has been recognized, but few life cycle assessments (LCA) of FW management systems have considered the pre-treatment with respect to input energy, loss of organic material and nutrients for anaerobic digestion (AD) and/or further treatment of the refuse. The objective of this study was to investigate how FW pre-treatment efficiency impacts the environmental performance of waste management, with respect to global warming potential (GWP). The modeling tool EASETECH was used to perform consequential LCA focusing on the impact of changes in mass distribution within framework conditions that were varied with respect to biogas utilization and energy system, representing different geographical regions and/or different time-frames. The variations of the GWP due to changes in pre-treatment efficiency were generally small, especially when biogas and refuse were substituting the same energy carriers, when energy conversion efficiencies were high and slurry quality good enough to enable digestate use on land. In these cases other environmental aspects, economy and practicality could be guiding when selecting pre-treatment system without large risk of sub-optimization with regards to GWP. However, the methane potential of the slurry is important for the net LCA results and must be included in the sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, when biogas is used as vehicle fuel the importance of pre-treatment is sensitive to assumptions and approach of modelling marginal energy which must be decided based on the focus and timeframe of the study in question

  • 23.
    Chen, H.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Ecke, Holger
    Kylefors, K.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Biochemical methane potential assays of solid waste samples1995Ingår i: Sardinia 95: proceedings ; [2 - 6 October 1995, S. Margherita di Pula - Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1995, Vol. 1, s. 615-627Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Comparison of total waste flow from households in 35 Swedish municipalities2007Ingår i: SARDINIA 2007: Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [1 - 5 October 2007, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to identify the total waste flow from households in a number of municipalities (cities) in Sweden, make comparisons and discuss methods as well as obstacles to benchmarking. Overall aim is decision support for local authorities in waste management planning. Average amount of household waste per citizen vary widely within Sweden. There is no obvious explanation to the inconsistent amounts. Weight based collection fees has caused a considerable decrease of collected waste amounts in some Swedish municipalities, but no clear effect in others. In general the amounts per capita of separated recyclables, as well as unseparated waste in bins and bags, have levelled out the last few years. In contrast the diverse wastes delivered by the public to supervised Recycling Centers show a trend of increase. 16 sources of error in collection data have been identified and described.

  • 25. Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Evaluation of recycling programmes in household waste collection systems2010Ingår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 28, nr 7, s. 577-586Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study and a literature review have been carried out to address the two questions: how can waste flow data from collection systems be interpreted and compared? and which factors are decisive in the results of recycling programmes in household waste collection systems? The aim is to contribute to the understanding of how recycling programmes affect the quantity of waste and sorting activities. It is shown how the results from various waste sorting systems can be interpreted and made comparable. A set of waste flow indicators is proposed, which together with generic system descriptions can facilitate comparisons of different collections systems. The evaluation of collection systems depends on the system boundaries and will always be site-specific to some degree. Various factors are relevant, e.g. environmental objectives, technical function, operating costs, types of recyclable materials collected separately, property-close collection or drop-off systems, economic incentives, information strategies, residential structure, social codes, etc. Kerbside collection of recyclables and weight-based billing led to increased waste sorting activities in the case study. Forty-three decisive factors are listed and discussed.

  • 26.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Lokala tidningen påverkar återvinningen: insamlingsystem2007Ingår i: Avfall och miljö, ISSN 1654-5087, nr 4, s. 16-17Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 27.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Methods for household waste composition studies2008Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, nr 7, s. 1100-1112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The question is how to conduct household waste composition studies. The review is divided into three parts: overview of known methods, sampling theory, and the waste components. Twenty methods are listed and commented on. There is no adopted, working international standard. In accordance with Pierre Gy’s Theory of Sampling, the seven types of sampling errors, when collecting and splitting solid samples, are described and commented on in relation to sampling of household solid waste. It is concluded that the most crucial choices in household waste composition studies are: to divide the investigation into relevant number and types of strata; to decide the required sample size and number of samples; to choose the sampling location, i.e., sampling at household level or sampling from loads of waste collection vehicles; and to choose the type and number of waste component categories to be investigated. Various classifications of household waste components used in composition studies are listed and discussed. Difficulties and weaknesses of the reviewed methods are discussed and concluded in suggested questions for further research.

  • 28. Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mindre i tunnan om man betalar per kilo2008Ingår i: Avfall och miljö, ISSN 1654-5087, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 17-18Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 29. Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Pay as you throw: strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing in household waste collection systems in Sweden2010Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 23-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Householders' response to weight-based billing for the collection of household waste was investigated with the aim of providing decision support for waste management policies. Three questions were addressed: How much and what kind of information on weight-based billing is discernible in generic Swedish waste collection statistics? Why do local authorities implement weight-based billing, and how do they perceive the results? and, Which strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing have been observed on the local level? The study showed that municipalities with pay-by-weight schemes collected 20% less household waste per capita than other municipalities. Surprisingly, no part of this difference could be explained by higher recycling rates. Nevertheless, the majority of waste management professionals were convinced that recycling had increased as a result of the billing system. A number of contradicting strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing were revealed.

  • 30.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    The choice of waste components in household waste composition studies2006Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of the 4th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, [June 14th to 16th 2006, Gällivare, Sweden] / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, s. 67-68Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31. Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Utvärdera och jämföra källsorteringssystem för hushållsavfall: P12/052006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Vukicevic, Sanita
    Nordvästra Skånes Renhållnings AB.
    Meijer, Jan-Erik
    Nordvästra Skånes Renhållnings AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Comparison of different collection systems for sorted household waste in Sweden2007Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, nr 10, s. 1298-1305Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Composition and quantity per person of municipal solid waste (MSW) have been analyzed in six municipalities in southern Sweden with similar socio-economic conditions but with different collection systems. Samples of residual waste have been sorted, classified and weighed in 21 categories during 26 analyses that took place from 1998-2004. Collection data of the total waste flow, including source sorted recycling materials, in the same area have been compiled and compared. Multivariate data analyses have been applied. Weight-based billing reduced delivered amounts of residual household waste by 50%, but it is unknown to what extent improper material paths had developed. With curbside collection more metal, plastic and paper packaging was separated and left to recycling. When separate collection of biodegradables was included in the curbside system, the overall sorting of dry recyclables increased. The large uncertainty associated with waste composition analyses makes it difficult to draw strong conclusions regarding the effects on specific recyclables or the changes in the composition of the residual waste.

  • 33.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Vukicevic, Sanita
    NSR Research/Nordvästra Skånes Renhållnings AB.
    Meijer, Jan-Erik
    NSR Research/Nordvästra Skånes Renhållnings AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Manual för plockanalys av hushållsavfall i kärl och säckar2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är resultatet av ett samarbete mellan NSR och Luleå Tekniska Universitet. Här föreslås en metod för plockanalys av hushållsavfall avsedd för svenska förhållanden. Den bygger på egna praktiska erfarenheter och litteraturstudier. Stor vikt har lagts vid vilken arbetsinsats som är praktiskt och ekonomiskt rimlig i förhållande till resultatets precision. Första delen av rapporten beskriver bakgrunden och diskuterar varje steg i en plockanalys med referenser till tidigare genomförda analyser i Sverige och utomlands. Kostnader och behov av utrustning och personal diskuteras. Rapportens andra del är skriven som en manual, som steg för steg ger instruktioner för genomförande av plockanalys. Här ingår även skyddsåtgärder med hänsyn till risker i arbetsmiljön. Det finns också detaljerade sorteringsinstruktioner, en mall för sorteringsprotokoll samt en mall för utvärdering av resultaten.

  • 34.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Vukicevic, Sanita
    Meijer, Jan-Erik
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Trends in municipal solid waste composition2004Ingår i: The 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan / [ed] Morton Barlaz; Anders Lagerkvist; Toshihiko Matsuto, Hokkaido: Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, 2004, s. 157-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Åberg, Helena
    Department of Food, Health and Environment, University of Gothenburg.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Berg, Per E.O.
    HB Anttilator, Stagnellsgatan 3, SE, 652 23, Karlstad.
    Inconsistent pathways of household waste2009Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 1798-1806Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to provide policy-makers and waste management planners with information about how recycling programs affect the quantities of specific materials recycled and disposed of. Two questions were addressed: which factors influence household waste generation and pathways? and how reliable are official waste data? Household waste flows were studied in 35 Swedish municipalities, and a wide variation in the amount of waste per capita was observed. When evaluating the effect of different waste collection policies, it was found to be important to identify site-specific factors influencing waste generation. Eleven municipal variables were investigated in an attempt to explain the variation. The amount of household waste per resident was higher in populous municipalities and when net commuting was positive. Property-close collection of dry recyclables led to increased delivery of sorted metal, plastic and paper packaging. No difference was seen in the amount of separated recyclables per capita when weight-based billing for the collection of residual waste was applied, but the amount of residual waste was lower. Sixteen sources of error in official waste statistics were identified and the results of the study emphasize the importance of reliable waste generation and composition data to underpin waste management policies.

  • 36. Diaz, Luis F.
    et al.
    Eggerth, Linda L.Lagerkvist, AndersLuleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Proceedings of the 3rd Swedish Landfill Research Symposium: Luleå University of Technology, 6th-8th October 19981999Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37. Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Evaluation and discussion of steel slag mineralogy after ageing under laboratory and field conditions2010Ingår i: The 6th Intercontinental Landfill research Symposium, 2010, s. 107-109Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38.
    Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Accelerated carbonation of ashes and steel slags in a landfill cover construction2008Ingår i: Proceedings of Second International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering / [ed] Renato Baciocchi; Giulia Costa; Alessandra Polettini; Raffaella Pomi, University of Rome "La Sapienza" , 2008, s. 389-400Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fly ash from biofuel incineration and slags from steel production were used in two full scale applications of cover constructions on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The long-term stability of the cover materials is studied in a designed laboratory experiment. The impact of six environmental factors on accelerated carbonation is investigated over a period of three years. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity, mineral composition (XRD) and thermo gravimetrical behaviour (TG) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions. By now samples were taken after three and ten months of ageing. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate the factors material, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere to be most relevant.

  • 39. Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Accelerated carbonation of steel slags in a landfill cover construction2010Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 132-139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Steel slags from high-alloyed tool steel production were used in a full scale cover construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. In order to study the long-term stability of the steel slags within the final cover, a laboratory experiment was performed. The effect on the ageing process, due to i.e. carbonation, exerted by five different factors resembling both the material characteristics and the environmental conditions is investigated. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity and mineralogy (evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction, XRD, and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, TG/DTA) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions.Samples aged for 3 and 10 months were evaluated in this paper. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate that among the investigated factors, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere were able to exert the most relevant effect. However, further investigations are required in order to clarify the role of the temperature.

  • 40.
    Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Herrmann, Inga
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Mineral transformations in steel slag used as landfill cover liner material2007Ingår i: SARDINIA 2007: Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [1 - 5 October 2007, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2007, Vol. 1Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, 15.2 million tonnes of steel slags have been generated in 2004 (Euroslag, 2006) out if which almost 6 million tonnes came from electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking and secondary metallurgical processes. In the presented project from Luleå University of Technology, two types of EAF slag and one slag originating from secondary metallurgical processes named ladle slag are investigated. The chemical and physical properties of these slags have been studied in detail (Herrmann, 2006; Andreas et al., 2005). For utilising steel slags in the liner of a landfill cover the long-term stability of the minerals is of great importance. Therefore, the ageing of steel slag minerals is evaluated with the help of a laboratory experiment. Particularly, the research questions, the experimental set-up and the methodology are presented. The present paper is part of a research project of the Division of Waste Science and Technology at Luleå University of Technology, Sweden in cooperation with Uddeholm Tooling AB, Hagfors municipality and MiMeR (Mineral and Metal Recycling Research Centre). It is investigated if steel slags are stable as a landfill cover liner material. The long-term stability is evaluated by determining the factors influencing the mineralogy of the slags and possible mineral transformations through ageing under the environmental conditions in a liner. The experiment includes two similar types of EAF slag and one ladle slag. Each steel slag sample is made by mixing 50% EAF slag and 50% ladle slag, addition of water and compaction. The specimens are stored in boxes under different atmospheric conditions. A reduced multivariate design has been chosen to determine the impact of different factors on the slag mineralogy. The factors that are varied in the experiment are relative humidity, carbon dioxide and temperature of the atmosphere surrounding the slag material as well as ageing time and the quality of the water used for sample making (see table 1). Table 1. Factorial design for ageing experiment of steel slagsLowMiddleHighRelative humidity30% -100%Carbon dioxide content0.036 (air)20 % * 100 %Temperature5 °C30 °C60 °CTime 1 month6 months1 yearWater quality destilled water -LeachateThe ageing of minerals is expected to initiate mineral transformations in steel slags. Primary phases will alter into secondary mineral phases. Changes in mineralogy can influence the stability of the liner. To evaluate mineralogy and properties of the aged steel slag, different analyses will be performed after the storage time of the specimens. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy as well as shear strength, acid neutralisation capacity and cation exchange capacity will be included. A possible mineral transformation for an alkaline material as steel slags can be the reaction of calcium ions from calcium silicates with the carbon dioxide resulting in the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Through this carbonation reaction, the transport of carbon dioxide into the bulk of the specimen could be hindered by the reaction products. Therefore, surface morphology can influence mineral transformations. First results and evaluations will be presented at the conference. REFERENCES Andreas L., Herrmann I., Lidstrom-Larsson M. & Lagerkvist A. (2005) Physical properties of steel slag to be reused in a landfill cover, Sardinia 2005, Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy; 3 - 7 October 2005Euroslag (2006) Legal status of Slags. Position Paper. January 2006. The European Slag Association - EUROSLAG. Duisburg, Germany.Herrmann I. (2006). Use of Secondary Construction Material in Landfill Cover Liners. Licentiate Thesis. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.

  • 41. Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Results from a field study using steel industry slags in a landfill cover construction2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Dresden University of Technology.
    Andreas, Lale
    Herrmann, Inga
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lidström-Larsson, Margareta
    Mineral phases in steel industry slags used in a landfill cover constuction2006Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of the 4th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, , [June 14th to 16th 2006, Gällivare, Sweden] / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, s. 73-74Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 43. Domeij, Lisa
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Meijer, J-E
    Vukicevic, S.
    How to describe and compare the effects of MSW source sorting systems2005Ingår i: SARDINIA 2005: Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; S. Margerita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy, 3 - 7 October 2005 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 44.
    Domeij, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Vukicevic, Sanita
    NSR.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Meijer, Jan-Erik
    NSR.
    Utvärdering av hushållens källsortering i sex kommuner: Resultat från plockanalyser vid olika insamlings- och sorteringssystem för hushållsavfall2004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 45. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Behandling av cyanidhaltigt avfall på upplag: förstudie1993Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 46. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Multivariate data analysis (MVDA) in landfill research1998Ingår i: The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, ISSN 1088-1697, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 33-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multivariate data analysis (MVDA), a new statistical approach in terms of landfill research, was performed at the evaluation of data sets from three investigations. The interrelationships among variables as well as variation between observations could be examined. Causal relations between experimental factors and response variables have been identified using scatterpott interpretation. The ease of using MVDA at data evaluation is proved. MVDA techniques as follows were applied: principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares modelling (PLS) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA).

  • 47. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Multivariate data analysis (MVDA) in landfill research1996Ingår i: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 1996Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multivariate data analysis (MVDA), a new statistical approach in terms of landfill research, was performed on the evaluation of three investigations. It gains advantage over classical statistical methods when multiple variables and their interactions have to be considered. In addition, it is tolerant for incomplete datasets. MVDA techniques as follows were applied: principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares modelling (PLS) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The interrelationships among variables as well as variation between observations could be examined and illustrated by a few plots.

  • 48. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Waste characterisation1999Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 49. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Hirofumi, Sakanakura
    Akita National College of Technology, Akita.
    Matsuto, Toshihiko
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Tanaka, Nobutoshi
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Effect of electric arc vitrification of bottom ash on the mobility and fate of metals2001Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 35, nr 7, s. 1531-1536Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are treated prior to landfilling or reuse. In Japan, electric arc melting is used for bottom ash vitrification that generates a glasslike slag. The objective of this paper was to assess this pretreatment technique with respect to its effect on metal mobility and metal content. Both bottom ash and slag were sampled and analyzed on total solids (TS), fixed solids (FS), particle density (P), specific BET surface area, particle size distribution, and total element content. A six-step wet sequential extraction procedure was used for assessing metal mobility. The results were qualitatively verified by scanning electron microscopy. The major conclusion was that the availability of various metals was affected differently by electric arc vitrification. Metals were solidified, stabilized, and/or separated from the slag. The mobility of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ca was reduced. In slag, major fractions of these elements were found in moderately reducible phases or in the residual slag lattice. The approximately three-fourths of Pb [174 ± 7 mg (kg of FS)-1] and half of Zn content [676 ± 352 mg (kg of FS)-1] were most likely removed from bottom ash through evaporation. The total content increases of Al, Cr, Ni, and Cd (51 ± 3, 621 ± 27, 138 ± 19, and 99 ± 32%, respectively) were probably caused by the wear of furnace refractories.

  • 50. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Kylefors, K.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Karakterisering och omhändertagande av botten- och flygaska vid Dåvamyrans avfallsanläggning1997Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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