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  • 1.
    Drugge, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Interaction aspects of wearable computing for human communication2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the use of wearable computers for aiding human communication over a distance, focusing on interaction aspects that need to be resolved in order to realize this goal. As wearable computers by definition are highly mobile, always on, and always accessible, the ability to communicate becomes independent of place, time and situation. This also imposes new requirements on the user interface of the wearable computer, calling for natural and unobtrusive interaction with the user.One of the key challenges in wearable computing today is to streamline the user’s interaction, so that it is tailored for the situation at hand. A user interface that takes too much effort to use, interrupts or requires more than a minimum of attention, will inevitably hamper the user’s ability to perform tasks in real life. At the same time, human communication involves both effort, interruptions and paying attention, so the key is to find a balance where wearable computers can aid human communication without being intrusive. To design user interfaces supporting this, we need to know what roles different aspects of interaction have in the field of wearable computing. In this thesis, the use of wearable computing for aiding human communication is explored around three aspects of interaction.The first aspect deals with how information can be conveyed by the wearable computer user, allowing a user to retrieve advice and guidance from experts, and remote persons to share experiences over a distance. The thesis presents findings of using wearable computing for sharing knowledge and experience, both for informal exchange among work colleagues, as well as enabling more efficient communication among health-care personnel. The second aspect is based on findings from these trials and concerns how the wearable computer interacts with the user. As the user performs tasks in the real world, it is important to determine how different methods of notifying the user affects her attention and performance, in order to design interfaces that are efficient yet pleasant to use. The thesis presents user studies examining the impact of different methods of interruption, and provides guidelines for how to make notifications less intrusive. The third and final aspect considers how the user’s physical interaction with the wearable computer can be improved. The thesis presents rapid prototyping of systems employing user centric design. Furthermore, a framework for ubiquitousmultimedia communication is presented, enabling wearable computers to be dynamically configurable and utilize resources in the environment to supplement the user’s equipment.All in all, the thesis presents how wearable communications systems can be developed and deployed, how their human-computer interaction should be designed for unobtrusive operation, and how they can come to practical use in real world situations.

  • 2.
    Drugge, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Wearable computer interaction issues in mediated human to human communication2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the use of wearable computers as mediators for human to human communication. The user of a wearable computer can deliver live video, audio and commentary from a remote location, allowing local participants to experience it and interact with people on the other side. In this way, knowledge and information can be shared over a distance, passing through the owner of the wearable computer who acts as a mediator. One of the main problems of today is that the virtual world offered by wearable computers can become too immersive, thereby distancing its user from interactions in the real world. At the same time, the very same immersion serves to let the user sense the remote participants as being there, accompanying and communicating through the virtual world. The key here is to get the proper balance between the real and the virtual worlds; remote participants should be able to experience a distant location through the user, while the user should similarly experience their company in the virtual world.

  • 3. Drugge, Mikael
    et al.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Parnes, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Wearable systems in nursing home care: prototyping experience2006In: IEEE pervasive computing, ISSN 1536-1268, E-ISSN 1558-2590, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 86-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a wearable prototype systems after studies conducted in a nursing home care is discussed. The specific problems encountered by medical workers at nursing homes includes communication, information dissemination, access to patient charts and organizational issues. The failure of which may cause stress, discomfort, and dissatisfaction among caretakers and patients as well as possible detrimental health consequences for patients. A Wizard of Oz experiments was used to retrieve information, process interrupting phone calls, to simplify communication with others, and to minimize the interaction needed with the wearable computer.

  • 4. Drugge, Mikael
    et al.
    Hallberg, Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Parnes, Peter
    Relieving the medical workers' daily work through wearable and pervasive computing2005In: ICE2005: the 11th International Conference on Concurrent Enterprising : integrated engineering of products, services and organisations, Munich, Germany 20-22 June 2005, Nottingham: Centre for concurrent enterprising, University of Nottongham , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We intend to relieve the daily work at care-centers, allowing medical workers to focus on the patients and their needs. This goal can be achieved by employing technology that automate and simplify tasks previously requiring tedious interventions, giving more time for the important human to human interaction. For any technology to become accepted by the medical workers, we must ensure that it is highly natural and unobtrusive, without interfering with their caregiving. By studying the medical workers’ daily work, we can draw conclusions on what problems they encounter, allowing us to develop prototypes which can be deployed and used at the care-centers. In doing this, we can proceed to study the acceptance and usability of our proposed solution, and see whether and how it solves the problem. In this position paper, we present our current and future research in wearable and pervasive health-care.

  • 5. Drugge, Mikael
    et al.
    Nilsson, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Kristiansson, Johan
    Parnes, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Experiences from mobile e-meetings with the borderland wearable computer2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    People are presented with an increasing number of opportunities to communicate regardless of location as wireless network connectivity becomes more prevalent. Questions that arise are in what form this communication is and what challenges it poses? Can the experience of group communication be enhanced so that a feeling of actual presence can be conveyed? Can we enable participants to experience the world from another person's perspective? We believe so, in this paper we discuss our experiences of group communication when using a wearable computer that is always connected to the network.

  • 6. Drugge, Mikael
    et al.
    Nilsson, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Kristiansson, Johan
    Parnes, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Experiences of conveying knowledge in borderland2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of humankind's most basic needs is that of being able to communicate with other people. As wireless network connectivity becomes more prevalent, factors such as physical location and situation diminish in significance for deciding when and how such communication can take place. What happens when a user is given this freedom to utilize the network regardless of time and place? Questions that arise are how different media can enrich communication and what challenges it poses. Can we enable other users to experience the world from another person's perspective? Can we expand it beyond pure communication and allow other more novel uses to emerge? Can we use this as a way of conveying knowledge in real-time to those in need of it? We believe so, in this paper we discuss our experiences of mobile communication when using a wearable computer that is always connected to the best network available.

  • 7. Drugge, Mikael
    et al.
    Nilsson, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Liljedahl, Urban
    Parviainen, Roland
    Parnes, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Methods for interrupting a wearable computer user2004In: Proceedings: Eighth IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers, ISWC 2004 : 31 October - 3 November 2004, Arlington, Virginia, Los Alamitos, Calif: IEEE Communications Society, 2004, p. 150-157Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wearable computer equipped with a head-mounted display allows its user to receive notifications and advice that is readily visible in her field of view. While needless interruption of the user should be avoided, there are times when the information is of such importance that it must demand the user’s attention. As the user is mobile and likely interacts with the real world when these situations occur, it is important to know in what way the user can be notified without increasing her cognitive workload more than necessary. To investigate ways of presenting information without increasing the cognitive workload of the recipient, an experiment was performed testing different approaches. The experiment described in this paper is based on an existing study of interruption of people in human-computer interaction, but our focus is instead on finding out how this applies to wearable computer users engaged in real world tasks.

  • 8. Drugge, Mikael
    et al.
    Nilsson, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Parviainen, Roland
    Parnes, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Experiences of using wearable computers for ambient telepresence and remote interaction2004In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGMM 2004 workshop on effective telepresence ETP 2004: Toward seamless remote interaction and experience, IEEE Communications Society, 2004, p. 2-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present our experiences of using wearable computers for providing an ambient form of telepresence to members of an e-meeting. Using a continuously running e-meeting session as a testbed for formal and informal studies and observations, this form of telepresence can be investigated from the perspective of remote and local participants alike. Based on actual experiences in real-life scenarios, we point out the key issues that prohibit the remote interaction from being entirely seamless, and follow up with suggestions on how those problems can be resolved or alleviated. Furthermore, we evaluate our system with respect to overall usability and the different means for an end-user to experience the remote world

  • 9. Drugge, Mikael
    et al.
    Nilsson, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Parnes, Peter
    Eventcasting with a wearable computer2004In: Proceedings, 24th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems workshops: 23 - 24 March 2004, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan / [ed] Nian-Feng Tzeng, Los Alamitos, Calif: IEEE Computer Society Press , 2004, p. 408-413Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, interaction methods for wearable computers have focused on input to the computer itself, yet little has been done when it comes to allowing interaction with the surrounding environment. Pervasive computing, on the other hand, offers access to computational power from any place all the time, yet most interaction techniques utilize either physical hardware or monitoring of the user in order to receive input. This paper presents a novel form of interaction by which a wearable computer user can interact with and control a pervasive computing environment in a natural and intuitive manner. Using sensors, the user can be allowed to literally "throw" events into the environment as a way of interacting with devices and computers

  • 10.
    Drugge, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Witt, Hendrik
    TZI, Wearable Computing Lab, University of Bremen.
    HotWire: an apparatus for simulating primary tasks in wearable computing2006In: CHI '06 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2006, p. 1535-1540Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a novel apparatus for simulating real world primary tasks typically found in wearable computing. Additionally, we report on a preliminary interruption study using the new apparatus in a laboratory experiment and compare its results with previous work to show its applicability for research in human-computer interaction for wearable computers.

  • 11. Drugge, Mikael
    et al.
    Witt, Hendrik
    TZI, Bremen.
    Parnes, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Using the "HotWire'' to study interruptions in wearable computing primary tasks2006In: Proceedings: Tenth IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers, ISWC 2006 : Montreux, Switzerland, October 11 - 14, 2006, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2006, p. 37-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As users of wearable computers are often involved in real-world tasks of critical nature, the management and handling of interruptions is crucial for efficient interaction and task performance. We present a study about the impact that different methods for interruption have on those users, to determine how interruptions should be handled. The study is performed using an apparatus called "HotWire" for simulating primary tasks in a laboratory experiment, while retaining the properties of wearable computers being used in mobile, physical, and practical tasks.

  • 12.
    Nilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Drugge, Mikael
    Liljedahl, Urban
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Parnes, Peter
    A study on users' preference on interruption when using wearable computers and head mounted displays2005In: Third IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, PerCom 2005: Kauai Island, HI; 8 March 2005 through 12 March 2005, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society Press , 2005, p. 149-158Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important part of making a wearable computer un-obtrusive is the user interface and the way it interrupts the user. The amount of interruption that have to be made on the users primary task should be minimized. Usage without interruption is of course best for the performance of the primary task but is often not possible as many tasks that the wearable computer is involved in do need interaction with the user. It is therefore important to understand what type of interruption that will benefit the user most. The question about which interruption that causes the least amount of stress for the user is as important as which interruption that gives the best performance. This paper continues on previous work where performance of the users was measured for different types of interruption. In this paper subjective data is analyzed to understand how to build user interfaces for wearable computers and head mounted displays that considers stress and other subjective variables.

  • 13.
    Nilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Drugge, Mikael
    Parnes, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    In the borderland between wearable computers and pervasive computing2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will show the ideas that are the foundation for the Borderland architecture. We have looked at two views of how researchers are thinking about computers in the future, wearable computers and pervasive computing. Wearable computers is the view where the user is wearing a computer and by that augment the user's view on his environment with additional digital information. Wearable computers have their strength in that they mostly do not have any requirements on the environment and that the user is in control of his integrity and security. In the pervasive computing view the digital representation of reality is in the physical environment itself. There are few requirements on the user for him to be able to use this digital augmented environment. There is also no restriction of what can be used in this environment as everything can be used for digital representation. We can see that the problems in one view are often the strengths in the other view. We believe that by combining these views into one we can use the strength of both areas and in that solve some of the problems involved in these two research areas. In this paper we present some of the problems we see in this combined view and also some ideas to solutions that we will evaluate in future work.

  • 14.
    Nilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Drugge, Mikael
    Parnes, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Sharing experience and knowledge with wearable computers2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wearable computer have mostly been looked on when used in isolation. But the wearable computer with Internet connection is a good tool for communication and for sharing knowledge and experience with other people. The unobtrusiveness of this type of equipment makes it easy to communicate at most type of locations and contexts. The wearable computer makes it easy to be a mediator of other people knowledge and becoming a knowledgeable user. This paper describes the experience gained from testing the wearable computer as a communication tool and being the knowledgeable user on different fairs.

  • 15.
    Witt, Hendrik
    et al.
    University of Bremen.
    Lawo, Michael
    University of Bremen.
    Drugge, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Visual feedback and different frames of reference: the impact on gesture interaction techniques for wearable computing2008In: Proceedings of the 10th international conference on Human computer interaction with mobile devices and services / [ed] Henri di Hofte; Ingrid Mulder, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2008, p. 293-300Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of an empirical study investigating the effect of visual feedback and body postures on gesture interaction techniques in a dual task setup found, for example, in wearable computing. The conducted experiment uses a novel apparatus called "Hot Wire" that allows retaining the properties of wearable computing even in laboratory environments. Visual feedback was found to impair user performance and caused users to be caught in an attention demanding closed feedback loop once presented in a head-mounted display. Even though continuous feedback was not necessary for gesture interaction, users were unable to ignore it and remain focused on the primary task. The design of an alternative gesture recognition method using a body-centric frame of reference instead of a conventional static one to improve usability, is shown to have an opposed impact both on the performance and subjective perception of users. The presence of novel devices in gesture interaction, such as data gloves, is found to be a major source of erroneous gesture recognition due to unpredictable user behavior. Our detailed result discussion provides guidelines for designing better gesture interaction.

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