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  • 1.
    Björnfot, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Application of line-of-balance and 4D CAD for lean planning2007In: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 200-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to suggest the application of the line-of-balance (LoB) scheduling technique in combination with a 4D CAD workspace model as a method to improve the management of the flow of resources through locations in construction projects, defined as work flow. Current scheduling methods fail to consistently manage work flow, which can disrupt the construction process, leading to waste such as conflicts in time and space by construction crews. Design/methodology/approach - LoB and 4D CAD are applied to a case study of multi-story timber housing project involving the construction of 95 apartments in five six-storey buildings. Based on the case study results, the benefits and limitations of the combined use of both methods are discussed. Findings - The majority of the problems experienced during the actual construction process quickly become evident from an analysis of a relatively simple LoB diagram. Furthermore, the 4D CAD workspace model provides additional insights in the scheduling of construction activities, such as workspace availability, the spatial context of workspaces and partial overlap of workspaces. Practical implications - Virtual design and construction methods based on principles from lean construction can contribute significantly to the value of the product and the elimination of waste in any construction project. Originality/value - The paper refers to the guiding principles from lean construction in relation to virtual design and construction methods, such as simulations with 4D CAD. Additional research and studies of practical applications are suggested to facilitate the combination of principles from lean construction with virtual design and construction methods.

  • 2.
    Blokpoel, Sjoerd
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Cooperation and product modelling systems2004In: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference of Product and Process Modelling in the Building and Construction Industry / [ed] Attila Dikbas; Raimar Scherer, Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 2004, p. 423-430Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the introduction of product modelling in today's building process. The main potentials of these systems are facilitating open communication, configuration management, reuse of information, virtual prototyping in 4D and allowing numerous analyses on e.g. life cycle, energy use and accurate estimates of project costs. The modelling systems have prerequisites for application that are not fulfilled by the construction industry. Therefore, the potential benefits cannot be derived at the moment. Most unfulfilled prerequisites are related to the way of cooperation. New building process organisation types, like partnering, offer a better way to approach a project and a good basis to use the systems. The development of these organisation types should be integrated in the application of models because the systems could be a good tool, and maybe even an enabler. Legal issues are no roadblock for application, but need attention. The current contracts are sufficient, but need an add-on for procedures in the use of ICT. A third party should keep an encrypted logfile to ensure tracebility of changes. Model errors in exchange files can occur and cause problems. Producers of data should be responsible for the produced data and check its consistency. Middleware is needed to exchange only core model information and to allow company based ICT systems that connect through a shared modelling system. The main strength of the application is configuration management and a database with information to improve communication. The main weakness is the lack of clear, measurable benefits and costs Key Performance Indexes (KPI's). The main opportunities are current developments in partnering, which make the application of systems better possible. Main threats are the fragmentised view in the sector, both in phases, in a project and of projects by a company and the lack of good cooperation.

  • 3.
    Emborg, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Produktmodeller för platsgjuten betong2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Applikation av IT-baserade produktmodeller på byggande med platsgjuten betong för att medge optimerad och industrialiserad byggprocess. Två delområden har studerats: a) utvecklande av ett erfarenhetsbibliotek och b) konstruktions- och planeringsstöd för entreprenör och materialleverantör. Rapporten är en sammanfattning av utförlig rapport av Jongeling R: Product Models för Cast in Place Concrete, Avdelningen för Konstruktionsteknik, Teknisk Rapport 2003:01, 104 sid

  • 4.
    Emborg, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dorbell, Thorbjörn
    Innovative construction with cast in place concrete using product models2004In: Concrete Structures: The Challenge of Creativity. Proceedings of FIB symposium on Concrete Structures, 2004, p. 220-221Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Hartmann, Timo
    Department of Construction Management and Engineering, University of Twente.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Development of 4D public participation GIS to improve communication of city transformation processes2012In: Construction Research Congress 2012: Construction challenges in a flat world : proceedings of the 2012 Construction Research Congress, May 21-23, 2012, West Lafayette, Indiana / [ed] Hubo Cai, Reaston, Va.: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2012, p. 1242-1251Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a case study of the city transformation of Kiruna we concluded that the information about the urban planning processes; (1) was scattered and hard to understand and (2) not communicated properly for the public to be able to participate. Here public participation geographical systems (PPGIS) and modeling of a project delivery timeline, also known as 4D, are possibilities to improve communication with stakeholders in urban planning and construction processes. As a result, we set up three requirements for the development of a 4D PPGIS communication platform. Firstly, time-space urban planning information must be available and understandable for the citizens to comprehend. Secondly, the communication platform must support two-way asynchronous communication for collecting public opinions and proposals. Finally, the user interface, operations and management of the platform must engage citizens to participate in the urban planning process. An experimental 4D PPGIS based on Google Earth and Facebook services was developed to visualize geo-referenced past, current and future urban activities and support public discussions regarding planning proposals. The prototype is currently being evaluated in the first iterative cycle of the information system development method

  • 6.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    A communication platform to support decision making in Kiruna city relocation process2011In: Proceedings of the 2011 eg-ice Workshop / [ed] Timo Hartmann; Pieter de Wilde; Yaqub Rafiq, Twente: University of Twente , 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The city of Kiruna in Sweden needs to be relocated due to mining related subsidence which is affecting major parts of the urban environment. Using 4D modelling environment for visualisation of urban planning can support the communication and decision making between the different stakeholders. This paper identifies principles from the definition of wicked problem and rational decision making theory in order to create a communication platform to support the city relocation process. A combined approach consisting of Google Earth for visualisation of 4D plans combined with social networks for enhanced communication and participatory urban planning is suggested to be the main ingredients of the communication platform.

  • 7.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    A process model for work-flow management in construction2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes a novel approach for management of work-flow in construction, based on the combination of location-based scheduling and modelling with 4D CAD. Construction planners need to carefully design a process that ensures a continuous and reliable flow of resources through different locations in a project. The flow of resources through locations, termed work-flow, and the resultant ability to control the hand-over between both locations and crews, greatly empowers the management of construction operations. Today’s scheduling practice for construction work shows that planning for work-flow is deficient due to practical and methodological reasons. Focus is mainly placed on planning of transformations and flow management is not explicitly addressed, but is rather being realized as a side-product of short-term task management. In addition, today’s scheduling techniques provide limited insight in the spatial configuration of construction operations, thereby limiting the communication among project stakeholders and, as a result, limiting the planning and control of work-flow. I present a novel process model for the management of work-flow in construction, which provides project stakeholders with spatial insight in the flow of construction work. The model is based on a combination of two concepts: Lean Construction and Virtual Design and Construction. The suggested process model provides mechanisms for two levels of work-flow management: macro- and micro-management. Scheduling of work-flow on a macro- level is based on a combination of location-based scheduling and 4D CAD and is suggested as an alternative to today’s common discipline-oriented work breakdown scheduling approach. This level of work-flow management is best initiated in early stages of a project and aims to provide insight in the overall flow of work on a construction site. The micro-management of work- flow is intended to be an instrument in the planning and control of day-to- day construction tasks. Based on the macro-management work-flow plan, more detailed look-a-head schedules can be constructed for the purpose of micro- management where necessary prerequisites for efficient and safe execution of construction tasks can be controlled, using a space-based 4D model. Five test cases have been used to develop, apply and validate my suggested process model. The first test case is of an explorative character and provides theoretical and practical insights in the application of Virtual Design and Construction techniques. The second test is based on case one and explores modelling with 4D CAD in further detail. Test Case II suggests that data extracted from 4D models can be used in planning and analyses of construction work. Based on theoretical studies of Lean Construction and Virtual Design and Construction and results from the first two test cases I developed a process model for planning of work-flow management. The applicability of the process model is validated in the third test case. The fourth test case presents an application and validation of the suggested process model for work-flow management. Finally, the fifth test case extends and applies the developed method from Test Case III and results in a formal process description for the management of work-flow in construction. Application of the proposed process model in the test cases shows that the combined use of location-based scheduling and 4D CAD is a suitable method to plan and control work-flow. The location-based scheduling technique allows planners to gain insight in the flow of resources through locations in projects. The 4D CAD model is a valuable supplement to the location- based schedule and allows users to quickly and clearly gain insight in the spatial configuration of construction work. I believe that this and other combinations of Virtual Design and Construction methods with principles from Lean Construction can contribute significantly to the value of the end product and the reduction of waste in the construction process.

  • 8.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    BIM istället för 2D-CAD i byggprojekt: en jämförelse mellan dagens byggprocesser baserade på 2D-CAD och tillämpningar av BIM2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redovisar resultat av en jämförelse mellan användandet av Byggnadsinformationsmodeller (BIM) och 2D-CAD i byggprojekt. Syftet är att skapa ett beslutsunderlag för aktörer i byggbranschen genom att lyfta fram exempel på fördelar och vinster med tillämpningar av BIM i form av tid, kvalitet, ekonomi. Studien har med hjälp av intervjuer med aktörer i ett 5- tal byggprojekt identifierat nyttan i ett antal delprocesser: Underlag som tas fram under projekteringsprocessen har konsekvent högre till mycket högre kvalitet, är tydligare och mer integrerat. Projekteringsprocessen är i snitt 20% effektivare och upplevs dessutom som mer inspirerande och attraktiv jämfört med 2D-CAD-projektering. 3D-visualisering som stöd för beslutsprocessen anses av beslutsfattare som kommit i kontakt med BIM en förutsättning och en självklarhet i deras arbete. Kommunikation är tydligare och besluts- och försäljningsprocessen snabbare och enklare. Eftersom 3D-visualisering är en biprodukt av BIM- projektering är den kostnadseffektivt och direkt tillgängligt för användaren. Kostnader för interaktiv visualisering minskar med 30% om projekteringen görs med hjälp av BIM. Samordningsprocessen är mycket effektivare, kvalitén högre och resulterar i snabbare revideringsprocessen. Färre missförstånd uppstår och fler aktörer kan vara delaktiga. Teknikkonsulter uppskattar att samordningsfel minskar med minst 50%. Kvalitén på mängdavtagningsprocessen är högre och tiden för mängdavtagningen och kostnadskalkyler minskar med omkring 50%. Teknikkonsulter påstår att de nu genomför fler analyser än vad de har gjort vid projektering i 2D, eftersom analyser är enklare och snabbare att genomföra. Analyserna bygger på ett mer exakt underlag från BIM-modellen jämfört med användningen av generella nyckeltal och antaganden. Teknikkonsulter och beställare är övertygade om att det bidrar till kvalitén av slutprodukten. Tillämpning av BIM under planering och produktion leder till enklare och snabbare kommunikationsprocesser mellan de olika aktörerna på arbetsplatsen. Underlaget från projekteringen anses vara av mycket högre kvalitet än i vanliga fall. Produktionen flyter bättre bland annat på grund av färre fel i underlaget. Entreprenörer som intervjuats uppskattar att kostnader för ändrings- och tilläggsarbeten minskar med ca 50%. Areahantering med hjälp av BIM för beställare och förvaltare blir effektivare. Användaren kan snabbt och enkelt ta fram area-information med tydlig representation; ett arbete som annars hade tagit för mycket tid. Relationen mellan olika typer av information och integrationen av informationen blir bättre när fler användare har tillgång till samma information. Nyttan med BIM-användning kvantifieras med hjälp av ett räkneexempel. Exemplet, som grundar sig på uttalande och uppskattningar från intervjuade aktörer, visar att det finns vinster för alla aktörer i projekt där BIM används. En konservativ uppskattning är att minst 4% av byggkostnader kan sparas. Nettobesparingen för arkitekter och teknikkonsulter är 0 - 20% och för entreprenören 4%. Exemplet utgår från en oförändrad process där många potentiella besparingar inte har tagits med. Exemplet visar att BIM- teknologin redan kan ge en relativ stor effekt vid en begränsad tillämpning av BIM. Den potentiella nyttoeffekten av BIM är med stor sannolikhet mycket större. Studien har inte kunnat få fram underlag för att kunna göra en säker kvantitativ uppskattning av nyttan för beställaren och förvaltare. Istället har ett räkneexempel används där nyttan har beräknas utifrån ett livscykelperspektiv. Min rekommendation är att framtida studier bör genomföras som fokuserar på nyttoeffekterna ur byggherrens och förvaltarens perspektiv. Vidare behövs det fler studier för att ta fram parametrar som mäter processutvecklingen. Utan objektiva mätningar är det mycket svårt att driva utvecklingsarbete av en BIM-driven byggprocess. Andra typer av rutiner och processer behöver tas fram för hantering av information i byggprocessen. Även rollen för en modellmanager och en Information Delivery Manual (IDM) bör utvecklas för att koordinera informationshanteringen i processerna. Nyttoeffekter från BIM-tillämpningar i mark- och anläggningsprojekt bör lyftas fram.

  • 9.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    BIM istället för 2D-CAD i bygprojekt2008In: V-byggaren : väg- och vattenbyggaren, ISSN 0283-5363, no 2, p. 32-34Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    IT-stomme - produktmodeller i stombyggnadsprojekt2004In: Betong, ISSN 1101-9190, no 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Product models for cast in place concrete2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research it is explored whether product models are a feasible instrument to be applied in the cast in place concrete industry to improve its effectiveness and competitiveness. Analyses are made of today's construction practice and the area of product modelling, after which a new process approach is proposed and studied. Based on the outcome of these analyses, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made concerning the conditions for the applications of product models in the cast in place concrete industry. The research work has mainly been conducted at Luleå University of Technology (LTU) in close co-operation with Betongindustri and JM AB. Betongindustri, representing the cast in place concrete industry in this study, is the main concrete supplier of JM. JM's core activity is the development of residential structures. JM and Betongindustri co-operate closely together and occasionally encounter unfavourable situations that are typical to today's construction practice. Several studies have shown that the construction industry in general suffers from inadequate information management, leading to process and product inefficiencies, such as the duplication of work and false information. From an analysis of the current building practice of JM and Betongindustri it becomes clear that the shortcomings of the building processes are concentrated in two key areas: the current information flow leads to inefficiencies in projects and the lack of a data standard leads to difficulties in managing data. Betongindustri for example experiences difficulties in providing product knowledge support in projects by JM. Plans and solutions have often already been decided on and budgeted for when Betongindustri provides input. As a result, valuable product and process knowledge is often not fully adapted and used in a project. Improved data exchange and the overall management of information appear to be key solutions in this respect. A promising technology for data exchange and data sharing is product data technology and product modelling. In product models the information about a building, such as the geometry and additional data needed for production of the building, is stored as information objects in databases. Product models have numerous advantages such as automatic quantity take-off, quick costs analyses of a design, integration of product property data in a design and construction simulation. The Finnish construction company YIT for example already applies a model based construction approach, leading to savings up to 15% of the total project costs. Within this research project two areas of the processes of JM and Betongindustri are taken into account in which product modelling can contribute significantly. 1. A model based knowledge library, in which information is stored in a well structured and neutral format, can support adequate case based reasoning by different actors in various project stages with different applications. Old solutions can be adapted to solve or comment new demands. Valuable process and product knowledge is structurally (re)used in this way, contributing to the efficiency of projects; 2. Product and process knowledge of Betongindustri, which supports the early design- and planning process of JM can to a large extend be integrated over the Internet in a product model that is managed by JM. In this research the information related to the drying process of concrete slabs is taken into account, serving as an example for a broader approach. This early design- and planning support enables more efficient processes and products. In this feasibility study it is shown that the application of product models in the cast in place concrete industry as an instrument to improve its effectiveness and competitiveness is possible. It is unlikely that a single shared model is adapted and completely feasible in the near feature. Instead, several islands of integration are possible, which can lead to an integration and industrialisation of today's construction practice. It must be noted that adapting IT in construction is not only a model- and computer related issue, but also requires a transition on an organisational- and building technology level. JM is relatively large and integrates a broad range of actors in the construction industry. It is therefore an organisation with potential to facilitate a change towards a model based construction approach.

  • 12.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Asp, Martin
    JM AB.
    Thall, Daniel
    Ceco Interactive Design AB.
    Jakobsson, Pontus
    Sightline Vision AB.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    VIPP: Visualization in Design and Construction2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the VIPP project is to improve the efficiency and quality of the design review and production scheduling process by using VR models based on 3D models from the design process. Visualization is increasingly used in early stages of development projects to facilitate communication processes, but the use of these models during phases such as detailed design, planning and construction is very limited. It is time-consuming and complicated to keep a VR model up-to-date as a result of differences in data structures and formats between the 3D CAD applications and VR applications. The VIPP project aims to facilitate the transfer of 3D CAD models to VR applications, but the main objective is to set a true example for the practical use of 3D models by professionals in the construction industry. The VIPP project shows in a real construction project that VR models are beneficial for design review and construction scheduling purposes. By means of defining scenarios for the early and detailed design review process and for production scheduling purposes the project shows benefits that can be divided in: facilitation of the communication process with project stakeholders, increased process efficiency and higher quality of the design and construction process outcome. The VIPP project shows that the 3D design process is different from the traditional 2D design process, but not radically different. The time required to create 3D and 4D models for the industry case study project was surprisingly little. However, it was found that it is critical to define early and clearly in a project for what purposes the 3D models will be produced. IFC, a neutral exchange format for building model information, is used to capture and transfer graphical and non-graphical data from 3D CAD models to VR applications. An IFC interface was developed for two VR applications in the VIPP project, but is set up in such a way that other VR applications also can benefit from the developed IFC interface. The objective of the VIPP project was to keep the definition of use cases, requirements and processes concrete in order to maximize the practical applicability of the VIPP project for other professional users in the construction industry. The practical approach might have compromised the scientific level of the project work, but we believe that the concrete results from the VIPP project can stimulate the industry to start using 3D models and VR environments in real building projects.

  • 13.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Asp, Martin
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Modelling and simulation of cast in place concrete construction using N-dimensions2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Product models have long been theoretical models within international research communities, but are now starting to be adapted in the construction industry. Product models are data models that can contain both product and process data, such as geometry and planning data. Their current use in construction is mainly limited to 3D graphics, but product models have many more than three dimensions. In this research project we developed and applied different dimensions of product models beyond their common, but limited, use in 3D. Development and implementation efforts in the project are mainly driven by the interests from a ready-mixed concrete supplier. Product modelling systems imply an object oriented approach to cast in place concrete construction, which is not object oriented as a result of the nature of the product. Product models that are used in the design process differ from models that are used for production simulations. These, and other conditions, pose a number of challenges. However, product models offer also a number of opportunities to cast in place concrete construction. Products and processes can be simulated virtually for example, thereby facilitating the decision-making process regarding the application of new or existing technologies that can improve the construction process. Product models can also be used to link or integrate product data, such as material specifications, casting sequences, etc. Based on these, mainly theoretically identified, possibilities and constraints, a number of dimensions of product models are developed and applied in practice to different case study projects. The following model dimensions are explored in the project:Traditional 2D drawings and documents are partly generated from 3D models and hyperlinked to these models. Various types of 3D models from different disciplines are created by using file-based data transfers and a collaborative client-server environment. Multiple production plannings are linked to 3D models resulting in 4D models. 5D cost estimation is developed by linking different 3D models to cost estimation hierarchies. Model use and configuration of material parameters by a ready-mixed concrete supplier provides an additional dimension to the use of product models.The different dimensions illustrate on the one hand the support for new and existing products and processes for cast in place concrete construction and show on the other hand the potential of product model use beyond 3D graphics. Advantages and possibilities can be identified for the ready- mixed concrete supplier in the different model dimensions and we believe that other actors in construction can do the same. When actors have identified benefits of product modelling for their own business process they might be more willing to participate in shared product model use in search of benefits for the project team as a whole.

  • 14.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    nD modelling in the development of cast in place concrete structures2005In: Electronic journal of information technology in construction, ISSN 1403-6835, E-ISSN 1400-6529, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 27-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish IT-stomme (IT-structure) project is a two year research project, which is aimed at applying product models in practice and developing modelling tools for cast in place concrete structures. Implementations and applications discussed in this paper are mainly driven by the interests from a ready mixed concrete supplier who identified product modelling as a threat and as an opportunity for its business process. A number of product model dimensions is discussed that result from combining different software applications. An example of a potential nth dimension of product model development and use is given, in addition to a product model's 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th dimension. The nth dimension is illustrated by integrating a product model with results from a program used to calculate the optimal drying process for concrete slabs. This paper concludes by discussing main challenges for the uptake of product models in practice in relation to findings and efforts from the IT-stomme project.

  • 15.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Kim, J.
    Mourgues, C.
    Fischer, M.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Quantitative analysis using 4D models: an explorative study2005In: First International Conference on Construction Engineering and Management: ICCEM 2005 / [ed] C. Ford, Korea Institute of Construction Engineering and Management , 2005, p. 830-835Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Kimb, Jonghoon
    Center for Integrated Facility Engineering, Stanford University.
    Fischer, Martin
    Center for Integrated Facility Engineering, Stanford University.
    Mourgues, Claudio
    Engineering School, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Quantitative analysis of workflow, temporary structure usage, and productivity using 4D models2008In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 780-791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents time-space analyses of construction operations supported by quantitative information extracted from 4D CAD models. The application of 4D models is a promising approach to help introduce construction innovations and to evaluate construction alternatives. Current analyses of 4D models are mainly visual and provide project stakeholders with a clear, but limited, insight of construction planning information. This practice does not take advantage of the quantitative data contained in 4D models. We use two 4D models of an industry test case to illustrate how to analyze, compare, and present 4D content quantitatively (i.e., workspace areas, work locations, and distances between concurrent activities). This paper shows how different types of 4D content can be extracted from 4D models to support 4D-content-based analyses and novel presentation of construction planning information. We suggest further research aimed at formalizing the contents in 4D models to enable comparative quantitative analyses of construction planning alternatives. Formalized 4D content can enable the development of reasoning mechanisms that automate 4D-model-based analyses and provide the data content for presentations of construction planning information.

  • 17.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    A combination of 4D modeling and location-based scheduling to support work flow management in construction process of a palletizing plant2006In: Procedings of the World IT Conference for Design and Construction, INCITE-ITCED 2006, 2006, p. 403-414Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18. Jongeling, Rogier
    et al.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    A method for planning of work-flow by combined use of location-based scheduling and 4D CAD2007In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 189-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a great potential to improve the flow of resources through locations on construction sites, termed work-flow. Current activity-based scheduling techniques do not provide adequate support for the planning of work-flow due to practical and methodological reasons. Location-based scheduling techniques provide a promising alternative to activity-based scheduling techniques for planning of work-flow. However, neither location-based nor activity-based scheduling techniques provide users with insight in the spatial configuration of scheduled construction operations. A technique that can provide this insight is 4D CAD in which 3D CAD models are combined with data from construction schedules. This article presents a process method for the planning of work-flow by combined use of location-based scheduling and 4D CAD. We suggest that a location-based approach to 4D CAD can improve the usability of the 4D CAD models for work-flow analyses. In addition, the article suggests that 4D CAD can enhance the value of location-based schedules.

  • 19. Jongeling, Rogier
    et al.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    The VIPP project: results from a case study of the practical application of 3D- and 4D-modelling techniques in design and construction2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Modeling cast in place concrete construction alternatives with 4D CAD2004In: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference of Product and Process Modelling in the Building and Construction Industry / [ed] Attila Dikbas; Raimar Scherer, Taylor and Francis Group , 2004, p. 109-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results from a 4D modeling study in which 4D CAD was used to compare two different construction methods for a cast in place concrete structure. Evaluating construction alternatives in a virtual environment is considered to be an effective and cost efficient way to introduce and evaluate innovative construction processes and products. Results from the study show the potential of using multiple virtual prototypes, but also show limitations regarding required modeling effort and evaluation of results. Im-provements are suggested that facilitate and partly automate the 4D modeling process. Evaluation of the out-come of 4D models can be improved by extending the graphical outcome of the modeling process with a vari-ety of analyses. Research and development is needed to quantify results from 4D models, in order to allow comparison of construction alternatives on a range of different criteria.

  • 21.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Product modelling for industrialized cast in place concrete structures2004In: Designing, managing and supporting construction projects through innovation and IT solutions: proceedings of the World IT Conference for Design and Construction, INCITE 2004, Langkawi, Malaysia, 18-21 February 2004 / [ed] Peter Brondon; Heng Li; Noridah Shaffii; Qiping Shen, Kuala Lumpur: Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia , 2004, p. 103-110Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Norberg, Håkan
    Virtual construction: construction planning and simulation with 4D2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Kindt, Jens
    et al.
    NCC Teknik.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Utnyttja möjligheterna med 3D-projektering2007In: V-byggaren : väg- och vattenbyggaren, ISSN 0283-5363, no 5, p. 54-58Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Norberg, Håkan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    A model-based production planning and control method supporting delivery of cast-in-place concrete2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper combines model-based design and construction techniques with principles from location based planning methods. Both concepts are applied in a practical study in which a model-based method is developed for the planning and control of cast in place concrete deliveries to the building site. The overall aim of this paper is to show a method that can be used to make the planning and control of the delivery process for cast in place concrete more efficient. The paper shows examples of changes in the way the concrete delivery process is handled by different actors. Using model-based working methods allow users to have better control of how for example material properties, such as concrete drying time, affect the planning and control of the delivery process. The paper first provides a background of the research including a description of the case study project. This section is followed by a description of the various methods and systems used in the case study. The application of the method is discussed, based on interviews with both a ready-mixed concrete supplier and a contractor that took part in the case study. The paper is concluded with suggestions for how the method can be further developed and improved to support the scheduling and control of cast in place concrete delivery.

  • 25.
    Norberg, Håkan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Planning for cast-in-place concrete construction using 4D CAD models and line-of-balance scheduling2006In: Procedings of the World IT Conference for Design and Construction, INCITE-ITCED 2006, 2006, p. 403-414Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Toolanen, Bengt
    Woksepp, Stefan
    Project environment and process design of building projects supported by virtual design and construction methods2007In: Bringing ITC knowledge to work: proceedings / [ed] Danielj Rebolj, Maribor: Faculty of Civil Engineering , 2007, p. 233-238Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the project environment and process design of Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) supported building projects. Case studies of the use of VDC methods and tools in construction projects and comparisons made with the evolution of the product development process in the manufacturing industry reveals: (1) Relational contracting in combination with a concurrent engineering process and advanced ICT tools can provide the base for an adaptive Virtual Design and Construction process. (2) There is no single model that contains all project information, but rather a collection of discipline-specific models, including non-model data that can be linked to mod-els. (3) Model information can be exchanged via files or can be available from product model servers. The data format can be proprietary or neutral. (4) An information manager, the Project Information Officer (PIO), is needed who speci-fies the requirements for model use and who ensures integration of models with other models and with non-model data.

  • 27.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Toolanen, Bengt
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Woksepp, Stefan
    Simu, Kajsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Byggande av kulsinteranläggning MK3: processdesign, samverkansformer och IT-stöd2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport beskriver de studier som en grupp av forskare vid Institutionen för Samhällsbyggnad, Luleå tekniska universitet, genomfört beträffande vissa centrala delar av projektupplägget vid byggandet av kulsinteranläggning MK3 vid LKAB:s anläggningar i Vitåfors under perioden Nov. 2004 till Dec. 2006. Vid tidpunkten för investeringsbeslutet för kulsinterverket MK3, som är det första i en rad av planerade stora investeringar, var LKAB i en situation där man hade dragit ner egna projekterings- och projektledningsresurser efter att ha genomfört stora investeringar under 1990-talet. I det läget var det en strategiskt viktig beslutsfråga för företagsledning och styrelse hur MK3 projektet skulle styras och organiseras för att säkerställa projektets höga målsättningar beträffande tid, funktion och ekonomi. Dessutom är projekt av typen MK3 ofta dynamiska till sin natur (kort ledtid, snabba informations- och kommunikationsbehov), tekniskt och administrativt komplexa och med många risker och osäkerhetsfaktorer som måste hanteras kontinuerligt under projekttiden. LKAB har för projekt MK3 valt att söka samverkanslösningar för att med be- gränsade egna resurser kunna följa upp och påverka projektets funktionsut- formning, tid för genomförande samt projektets investeringskostnader. Sålunda har byggdelen av MK 3 upphandlats med transparent ersättningsform och strukturerad samverkansform, typ partnering. Genomförandeformen är totalentreprenad (ABT 94) där byggentreprenören administrativt ansvarar för detaljprojekteringen. Till huvudentreprenör på byggdelen och med samordningsansvar även för installationsfasen av separat upphandlade processdelar har valts NCC. Enligt de resultat från genomförda studier som redovisas i denna rapport anser en stor majoritet av i projekt MK3 medverkande beställar-, entreprenörs- och konsultrepresentanter att valet av upphandlingsmodell med klar samverkansprofil för projektet varit lyckad. En majoritet anser också att detta varit av avgörande betydelse för att kunna nå projektets målsättningar beträffande funktion, tid och ekonomi. Bland de fördelar som upphandlingsmodellen medfört är att samarbetsklimatet mellan aktörerna upplevts som bättre än vid konventionellt upphandlade projekt. Detta har ett egenvärde i sig men är framförallt en nödvändig förutsättning för att kunna nyttja strategiska viktiga kompetenser och kunskaper på ett effektivt sätt för att projektets målsättningar skall säkerställas. Effekterna av det goda samarbetsklimatet är speciellt tydliga i det sätt projekteringen av anläggningen kunnat bedrivas i effektiv samverkan mellan kund, entreprenör och konsulter (Concurrent engineering). Vid projektgenomförandet har även De IT-stödsystem, speciellt 3D modellering och VR använts på innovativt sätt som kommunikations- och informationsverktyg. Användandet av detta i projekteringen har på många sätt bidragit till att skapa mervärde för kunden och minska byggfelen i produktionen. Enbart besparingarna i en effektivare projektsamordning torde ha bekostat investeringen i 3D och VR med råge.

  • 28.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Woksepp, Stefan
    Jongeling, Rogier
    The use of virtual reality in a large scale industry project2005In: CIB W78 22nd Conference on Information Technology in Construction: July 19 - 21, 2005, the Westin Bellevue, Dresden, Germany / Institute for Construction Informatics, Technische Universität Dresden / [ed] Raimar Scherer; Peter Katranuschkov; Sven-Eric Schapke, Dresden: Institute for Construction Informatics, Technische Universität Dresden , 2005, p. 689-696Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LKAB, a large mining company in Sweden, has decided to invest in a new pelletizing plant in Malmberget, Sweden (MK3). The total expenditure will amount to €280 million and the new plant is expected to be operational around the turn of the year 2006-2007. Contractors are expected to employ about 250 in connection with the construction of the plant, while some 150 consultants and engineers are engaged in the design phase. Since time to market is a crucial factor for LKAB, the contractual agreements for cooperation in the project support collaborative working methods such as concurrent engineering, open information flow and introduction of innovations in the design process. The complexity of the project, the number of actors involved and the desire to involve end users such as industrial workers responsible for the future plant operations in the design makes VR an excellent enriched source of communication in the review process.

  • 29.
    Robertsson, Anders
    et al.
    LTH.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Ekholm, Anders
    LTH.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Zarli, Alain
    CSTB.
    Investigations in the BICT project of state-of-the-art ICT for industrialization of house building processes2007In: Bringing ITC knowledge to work: proceedings / [ed] Danielj Rebolj, Maribor: Faculty of Civil Engineering , 2007, Vol. 1, p. 255-261Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research presented here is part of a project named BICT, "Evaluation of benefits of ICT for the indus-trialization of project and product processes in the construction industry". Its overall objective is to establish a mutual understanding between the construction industry and R&D actors of the needs and possibilities of ICT. The project is a cooperative effort between Swedish and French researchers and industry representatives within the EraBuild program. It includes an investigation of the processes and ICT tools in a representative house building project, together with a study of the State-of-the-Art of ICT for immediate, short and medium term uptake. This paper presents the main results of the State-of-the-Art study with specific focus on: - Visualization and coordination using digital mock-ups of 3D models; - Model based quantity take-off; - Integration of applications for product design; - Reuse of experience based knowledge. The presented study concludes that the use of integrated 3D applications must be introduced early in the project lifecy-cle in order to pave the way for the use of object-oriented information in downstream processes. This requires common standards for 3D based deliveries developed in cooperation between industry and R&D actors through joint analyses of actual information management both in industrialised partnering-like processes, and fully industrial building processes.

  • 30. Woksepp, Stefan
    et al.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Applying virtual reality and 4D CAD models in the scheduling process of a large pelletizing plant2005In: Proceedings of CONVR 2005: 5th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality, 2005, p. 352-360Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LKAB, a large mining company in Sweden, has decided to invest €290 million in a new pelletizing plant in Malmberget, Sweden (MK3). The complexity of the project, the number of multidisciplinary participants and the necessity to coordinate and facilitate the construction site activities according to a tight schedule makes Virtual Reality (VR) and 4D CAD prototyping exceptionally useful in the planning process. This paper describes a case study to explore a practical approach of using VR and 4D CAD to facilitate work site planning in a real large-scale construction project. The research work was performed and evaluated in concordance with the actual work on the building site including the research group, planners and site managers. The evaluation of the case study shows that the use of VR and 4D CAD have facilitated the construction planning process. Besides coordinating and visualizing of the site activities, the virtual prototypes have also improved the understanding of the construction and collaboration among all parties involved. The main drivers for collaboration have been the time pressure in the project resulting in a concurrent engineering approach and a set of common goals, making the involved stakeholders to focus on the overall project performance.

  • 31. Woksepp, Stefan
    et al.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Design reviews and decision-making using collaborative virtual reality prototypes: a case study of the large scale mk3 project2005In: Proceedings: International group for lean construction conference. IGLC 13 / [ed] Russell Kenley, Sydney: International group for lean construction , 2005, p. 145-152Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 31 of 31
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