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  • 1.
    Bodin, Ulf
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Jonsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    On creating proportional loss-rate differentiation: predictability and performance2001In: Quality of Service - IWQoS 2001: 9th International Workshop Karlsruhe, Germany, June 6-8, 2001 Proceedings / [ed] Lars Wolf, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2001, 372-386 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent extensions to the Internet architecture allow assignment of different levels of drop precedence to IP packets. This paper examines differentiation predictability and implementation complexity in creation of proportional lossrate (PLR) differentiation between drop precedence levels. PLR differentiation means that fixed loss-rate ratios between different traffic aggregates are provided independent of traffic loads. To provide such differentiation, running estimates of loss-rates can be used as feedback to keep loss-rate ratios fixed at varying traffic loads. In this paper, we define a loss-rate estimator based on average drop distances (ADDs). The ADD estimator is compared with an estimator that uses a loss history table (LHT) to calculate loss-rates. We show, through simulations, that the ADD estimator gives more predictable PLR differentiation than the LHT estimator. In addition, we show that a PLR dropper using the ADD estimator can be implemented efficiently.

  • 2.
    Bodin, Ulf
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Drop strategies and loss-rate differentiation2001In: Proceedings: Ninth International Conference on Network Protocols, ICNP 2001 : 11 - 14 November 2001, Riverside, California, USA, Los Alamitos, Calif: IEEE Communications Society, 2001, 146-154 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When offering loss-rate differentiation in IP networks, the drop strategy used can have a considerable influence on packet loss and delay. In particular, a strategy of dropping packets only as they arrive can cause bursty loss patterns and high jitter. When only arriving packets are dropped, the router may need to wait for low priority packets to arrive before dropping any packet. This results in larger queue oscillation than if low priority packets were dropped immediately from the queue. Queue oscillation gives bursty loss patterns and delay jitter. We present simulations showing that dropping packets from the queue gives smoother loss patterns and less jitter than if packets are dropped only as they arrive. These simulations cover both TCP Sack and TCP Reno. WRED with and without the gentle modification is used to make drop decisions.

  • 3.
    Bodin, Ulf
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Load-tolerant differentiation with active queue management2000In: Computer communication review, ISSN 0146-4833, E-ISSN 1943-5819, Vol. 30, no 3, 4-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current work in the IETF aims at providing service differentiation on the Internet. One proposal is to provide loss differentiation by assigning levels of drop procedence to IP packets. In this paper, we evaluate the active queue management (AQM) mechanisms RED In and Out (RIO) and Weighted RED (WRED) in providing levels of drop precedence under different loads. For low drop precedence traffic, FIO and WRED can be configured to offer sheltering (i.e., low drop precedence traffic is protected from losses caused by higher drop precedence traffic). However, if traffic control fails or is inaccurate, such configurations can cause starvation of traffic at high drop precedence levels. Configuring WRED to instead offer relative differentiation can eliminate the risk of starvation. However, WRED cannot, without reconfiguration, both offer sheltering when low drop precedence traffic is properly controlled and avoid starvation at overload of low drop precedence traffic. To achieve this, we propose a new AQM mechanism, WRED with Thresholds (WRT). The benefit of WRT is that, without reconfiguration, it offers sheltering when low drop precedence traffic is properly controlled and relative differentiation otherwise. We present simulations showing that WRT has these properties.

  • 4.
    Bodin, Ulf
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vemmervik, Claes
    Operax AB.
    End-to-End QoS control architectures from a wholesale and retail perspective: benefits and challenges2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Borg, Niklas
    et al.
    Telia Research AB.
    Svanberg, Emil
    Telia Research AB.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Efficient multi-field packet classification for QoS purposes1999In: 1999 Seventh International Workshop on Quality of Service: IWQoS '99, London, England, May 31 - June 4, 1999, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 1999, 109-118 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanisms for service differentiation in datagram networks, such as the Internet, rely on packet classification in routers to provide appropriate service. Classification involves matching multiple packet header fields against a possibly large set of filters identifying the different service classes. In this paper, we describe a packet classifier based on tries and binomial trees and we investigate its scaling properties in three QoS scenarios that are likely to occur in the Internet. One scenario is based on integrated services and RSVP and the other two are based on differentiated services. By performing a series of tests, we characterize the processing and memory requirements for a software implementation of our classifier. Evaluation is done using real data sets taken from two existing high-speed networks. Results from the IntServ/RSVP tests on a Pentium 200 MHz show that it takes about 10.5 μs per packet and requires 2000 KBytes of memory to classify among 11000 entries. Classification for a virtual leased line service based on DiffServ with the same number of entries takes about 9 μs per packet and uses less than 250 KBytes of memory. With an average packet size of 2000 bits, our classifier can manage data rates of about 200 Mbit/s on a 200 MHz Pentium. We conclude that multi-field classification is feasible in software and that high-performance classifiers can run on low-cost hardware

  • 6.
    Börjesson, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Nilsson, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Nolin, Marie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Project: Cloudberry Datacenters2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Köhler, Torsten
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Advance reservations for predictive service1995In: Network and Operating Systems Support for Digital Audio and Video: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Network and Operating System Support for Digital Audio and Video / [ed] Thomas D C Little; Riccardo Gusella, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 1995, 1-15 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend a measurement-based admission control algorithm suggested for predictive service to provide advance reservations for guaranteed and predictive service while keeping the attractive features of predictive service. The admission decision for advance reservations is based on information about flows that overlap in time. For flows that have not yet started, the requested values are used, and for those that have already started measurements are used. This allows us to estimate the network load accurately for the near future. To provide advance reservations we ask users to include durations in their requests. We provide simulation results to show that predictive service with advance reservations provides utilization levels significantly higher than those for guaranteed service.

  • 8.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Köhler, Torsten
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Advance reservations for predictive service in the Internet1997In: Multimedia Systems, ISSN 0942-4962, E-ISSN 1432-1882, Vol. 5, no 3, 177-186 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend a measurement-based admission control algorithm suggested for predictive service to provideadvance reservations for guaranteed and predictive service.while retaining the attractive features of predictive service.The admission decision for advance reservations is based oninformation about flows that overlap in time. For flows thathave not yet started, the requested values are used, and forthose that have already started measurements are used. Thisallows us to estimate the network load accurately for thenear future. To provide advance reservations we ask usersto include durations in their requests. We present simulationresults to show that predictive service with advance reservations provides utilization levels significantly higher thanthose for guaranteed service, and comparable to those forpredicted service without advance reservations. Those utilization levels are reached without any preemption of otheradmitted flows. Finally, we discuss how to setup advancereservations over multiple hops in the Internet using resourcereservation setup protocols.

  • 9.
    Dudin, Alexander
    et al.
    BSU.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Dudin, Sergey
    BSU.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Socio-behavioral scheduling of time-frequency resources for modern mobile operators2013In: Modern Probabilistic Methods for Analysis of Telecommunication Networks: Belarusian Winter Workshops in Queueing Theory, BWWQT 2013, Minsk, Belarus, January 28-31, 2013. Proceedings, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2013, 69-82 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a mathematical foundation for scheduling of batch data produced by mobile end users over the time-frequency resources provided by modern mobile operators. We model the mobile user behavior by Batch Markovian Arrival Process, where a state corresponds to a specific user data activity (i.e. sending a photo, writing a blog message, answering an e-mail etc). The state transition is marked by issuing a batch of data of the size typical to the activity. To model the changes of user behavior caused by the environment, we introduce a random environment which affects the intensities of transitions between states (i.e., the probabilities of the user data activities). The model can be used for calculating probability of packet loss and probability of exceeding the arbitrarily fixed value by the sojourn time of a packet in the system conditional that the packet arrives to the system at moments when the random environment has a given state. This allows to compute the realistic values of these probabilities and can help to properly fix their values that can be guaranteed, depending on the state of the random environment, by a service provider

  • 10.
    Engan, M.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Fransson, Pierre
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Selective truncating internetwork protocol: experiments with explicit framing2000In: Proceedings: Ninth International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks : 16 - 18 October 2000, Las Vegas, Nevada / [ed] Ton Engbersen, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2000, 220-224 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many emerging real-time applications generate layered data streams, which can be used effectively to adapt multicast real-time transmissions to heterogeneous bandwidth environments. However, these applications have not changed with regard to being sensitive to transient congestion and cannot wait a full round-trip time for sender-initiated adaptation. In this paper we propose the selective truncating internetwork protocol (STRIP) supporting layered data transfer, and capable of handling congestion at a finer level of granularity by truncating packets, i.e., stripping off less important data. STRIP inter-operates with the traditional IP infrastructure and can be introduced in a step-by-step fashion, starting where the benefits are obvious, for example with routers which are connected to bandwidth constrained links and which have a surplus of processing capacity. We describe the design and architecture of STRIP and compare it with solutions for differentiated forwarding on a per-packet basis. STRIP provides a simple mechanism that can meet the demands for real-time flows effectively by supporting low delay forwarding, avoiding data-unit reordering, and supporting various drop priorities at the same time

  • 11.
    Forsgren, Nils-Olof
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    An interactive proof system for test congruence between processes1988Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Idowu, Samuel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Saguna, Saguna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Applied Machine Learning: Forecasting Heat Load in District Heating System2016In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 133, 478-488 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forecasting energy consumption in buildings is a key step towards the realization of optimized energy production, distribution and consumption. This paper presents a data driven approach for analysis and forecast of aggregate space and water thermal load in buildings. The analysis and the forecast models are built using district heating data unobtrusively collected from ten residential and commercial buildings located in Skellefteå, Sweden. The load forecast models are generated using supervised machine learning techniques, namely, support vector machine, regression tree, feed forward neural network, and multiple linear regression. The model takes the outdoor temperature, historical values of heat load, time factor variables and physical parameters of district heating substations as its input. A performance comparison among the machine learning methods and identification of the importance of models input variables is carried out. The models are evaluated with varying forecast horizons of every hour from 1 up to 48 hours. Our results show that support vector machine, feed forward neural network and multiple linear regression are more suitable machine learning methods with lower performance errors than the regression tree. Support vector machine has the least normalized root mean square error of 0.07 for a forecast horizon of 24 hour.

  • 13.
    Idowu, Samuel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Saguna, Saguna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Forecasting Heat Load for Smart District Heating Systems: A Machine Learning Approach2014In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm 2014): Venice, 3-6 Nov. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, 554-559 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid increase in energy demand requires effective measures to plan and optimize resources for efficient energy production within a smart grid environment. This paper presents a data driven approach to forecasting heat load for multi- family apartment buildings in a District Heating System (DHS). The forecasting model is built using six and eleven weeks of data from five building substations. The external factors and internal factors influencing the heat load in substations are parameters used as our model’s input. Short-term forecast models are generated using four supervised Machine Learning (ML) techniques: Support Vector Regression (SVR), Regression Tree, Feed Forwards Neural Network (FFNN) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR). Performance comparison among these ML methods was carried out. The effects of combining the internal and external factors influencing heat load at substations was studied. The models are evaluated with varying horizon up to 24-hours ahead. The results show that SVR has the best accuracy of 5.6% MAPE for the best-case scenario.

  • 14.
    Idowu, Samuel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Machine learning in district heating system energy optimization2014In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications workshops: PERCOM WORKSHOPS 2014, Budapest, Hungary; 24-28 March 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, 224-227 p., 6815206Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a work in progress, where we intend to investigate the application of Reinforcement Learning (RL) and online Supervised Learning (SL) to achieve energy optimization in District-Heating (DH) systems. We believe RL is an ideal approach since this task falls under the control-optimization problem where RL has yielded optimal results in previous work. The magnitude and scale of a DH system complexity incurs the curse of dimensionalities and model, hereby making RL a good choice since it provides a solution for the problem. To assist RL even further with the curse of dimensionalities, we intend to investigate the use of SL to reduce the state space. To achieve this, we shall use historical data to generate a heat load sub-model for each home. We believe using the output of these sub-models as feedback to the RL algorithm could significantly reduce the complexity of the learning task. Also, it could reduce convergence time for the RL algorithm. The desired goal is to achieve a realtime application, which takes operational actions when it receives new direct feedback. However, considering the dynamics of DH system such as large time delay and dissipation in DH network due to various factors, we hope to investigate things such as the appropriate data sampling rate and new parameters / sensors that could improve knowledge about the state of the system, especially on the consumer side of the DH network.

  • 15.
    Idowu, Samuel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Brännström, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Machine Learning in Pervasive Computing2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increase in data quantities and number of pervasive systems has resulted in many decision-making systems. Most of these systems employ Machine Learning (ML) in various practical scenarios and applications. Enormous amount of data generated by sensors can be useful in decision-making systems. The rising number of sensor driven pervasive systems presents interesting research areas on how to adapt and apply existing ML techniques effectively to the domain of pervasive computing. In the face of data deluge, ML has proved viable in many application areas such as data mining and self-customizing programs and could bring about great impact in the field of pervasive computing.The objective of this study is to give the underlying concepts of ML techniques that can be applied to problems in the domain of pervasive and mobile computing. The scope of this study covers the three primary types of ML, supervised, unsupervised and reinforcement learning methods. In the process of providing the fundamental knowledge of ML, we present some conceptual terms of ML and the steps required in developing ML system with a great impact on domains outside ML scope.Our findings show that previous works in the area of ubiquitous computing have successfully applied supervised learning and reinforcement learning methods. Hence, this study focuses more on supervised learning and reinforcement learning. In conclusion, we discuss some basic performance evaluation metrics and methods for obtaining reliable classifiers estimates, such as cross-validation and leave-one-out validation.

  • 16.
    Jimenez, Lara Lorna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Simon, Miguel Gomez
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Kristiansson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    CoMA: Resource Monitoring of Docker Containers2015In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science (CLOSER 2015), SCITEPRESS Digital Library , 2015, Vol. 1, 145-154 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research paper presents CoMA, a Container Monitoring Agent, that oversees resource consumption of operating system level virtualization platforms, primarily targeting container-based platforms such as Docker. The core contribution is CoMA, together with a quantitative evaluation verifying the validity of the measurements reported by the agent for three metrics: CPU, memory and block I/O. The proof-of-concept is implemented for Docker-based systems and consists of CoMA, the Ganglia Monitoring System and the Host sFlow agent. This research is in line with the rising trend of container adoption which is due to the resource efficiency and ease of deployment. These characteristics have set containers in a position to topple virtual machines as the reigning virtualization technology in data centers.

  • 17.
    Karlsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bodin, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Brodnik, Andrej
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Extended expedited forwarding: the in-time PHB group2003In: Computers and Communication, 2003. (ISCC 2003): Proceedings of the Eighth IEEE International Symposium on Computers and Communications, IEEE Computer Society Press , 2003, Vol. 1, 291-298 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new set of forwarding behaviorsthat fits rate-adaptive and delay-sensitive applications withlimited loss tolerance. We consider an application to havelimited loss tolerance if it needs loss-free forwarding of specificpackets up to a certain rate. The new set of forwardingbehaviors are attractive for developing real-time applicationsfor the Internet. In particular, such applications canbe designed to use reserved forwarding capacity efficientlyand compete for more bandwidth while being fair to best-efforttraffic. To provide the new set of forwarding behaviors,we define a scheduling mechanism that can be implementedefficiently. Through simulations, we show that thismechanism supports the defined forwarding behaviors.

  • 18. Larzon, Lars-Åke
    et al.
    Bodin, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Hints and notifications [for wireless links]2002In: 2002 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference record: Orlando, Florida, USA, 17 - 21 March 2002, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2002, 635-641 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With current Internet protocols, users may experience low and unpredictable forwarding quality at wireless links. This is due to varying link properties caused by changing radio conditions. Decreased forwarding quality can cause severe degradation in utilization. This is undesirable since forwarding capacity often is expensive at wireless links because of the limited radio spectrum. Allowing the application and transport layers to communicate with wireless link layers can improve the forwarding quality and utilization. We propose to enable inter-layer communication by adding hints and notifications (HAN) to the Internet architecture. Hints can be introduced and used without notifications, while notifications need hints or a similar mechanism to operate. By using IP options and ICMP messages to implement HAN, a backward-compatible partial deployment is possible. With HAN, the network layer becomes truly wireless friendly and the radio spectrum can be used efficiently while supporting both real-time and traditional data applications.

  • 19.
    Lindgren, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Abdesslem, Fehmi Ben
    SICS Swedish ICT AB.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    SICS Swedish ICT AB.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Malik, Adeel Mohammad
    Ericsson.
    Design choices for the IoT in Information-Centric Networks2016In: 2016 13th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC): Las Vegas, 9-12 Jan. 2016, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, 882-888 p., 7444905Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper outlines the tradeoffs involved in utilizing Information-Centric Networking (ICN) for Internet of Things (IoT) scenarios. It describes contexts and applications where the IoT would benefit from ICN, and where a host-centric approach would be better. Requirements imposed by the heterogeneous nature of IoT networks are discussed in terms of connectivity, power availability, computational and storage capacity. Design choices are then proposed for an IoT architecture to handle these requirements, while providing efficiency and scalability. An objective is to not require any IoT specific changes of the ICN architecture per se, but we do indicate some potential modifications of ICN that would improve efficiency and scalability for IoT and other applications

  • 20. Lindgren, Anders
    et al.
    Almquist, A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Evaluation of quality of service schemes for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs2001In: Proceedings: LCN 2001, 26th Annual IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks : 14 - 16 November 2001, Tampa, Fl, Los Alamitos, Calif: IEEE Communications Society, 2001, 348-351 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates four mechanisms for providing service differentiation in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs, the point coordinator function (PCF) of IEEE 802.11, the enhanced distributed coordinator function (EDCF) of the proposed IEEE 802.11e extension to IEEE 802.11, distributed fair scheduling (DFS), and Blackburst using the ns-2 simulator. The metrics used in the evaluation are throughput, medium utilization, collision rate, average access delay, and delay distribution for a variable load of real time and background traffic. The PCF performance is comparably low, while the EDCF performs much better. The best performance is achieved by Blackburst. The DFS provides relative differentiation and consequently avoids starvation of low priority traffic

  • 21. Lindgren, Anders
    et al.
    Almquist, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Quality of service schemes for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs: an evaluation2003In: Journal on spesial topics in mobile networks and applications, ISSN 1383-469X, E-ISSN 1572-8153, Vol. 8, no 3, 223-235 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates four mechanisms for providing service differentiation in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs. The evaluated schemes are the Point Coordinator Function (PCF) of IEEE 802.11, the Enhanced Distributed Coordinator Function (EDCF) of the proposed IEEE 802.11e extension to IEEE 802.11, Distributed Fair Scheduling (DFS), and Blackburst. The evaluation was done using the ns-2 simulator. Furthermore, the impact of some parameter settings on performance has also been investigated. The metrics used in the evaluation are throughput, medium utilization, collision rate, average access delay, and delay distribution for a variable load of real time and background traffic. The simulations show that the best performance is achieved by Blackburst. PCF and EDCF are also able to provide pretty good service differentiation. DFS can give a relative differentiation and consequently avoids starvation of low priority traffic.

  • 22. Lindgren, Anders
    et al.
    Doria, Avri
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Probabilistic routing in intermittently connected networks2004In: Service Assurance with Partial and Intermittent Resources: First International Workshop, SAPIR 2004, Fortaleza, Brazil, August 1-6, 2004, Proceedings / [ed] Petre Dini; Pascal Lorenz; José Neuman De Souza, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2004, 239-254 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we address the problem of routing in intermittently connected networks. In such networks there is no guarantee that a fully connected path between source and destination exists at any time, rendering traditional routing protocols unable to deliver messages between hosts. There does, however, exist a number of scenarios where connectivity is intermittent, but where the possibility of communication still is desirable. Thus, there is a need for a way to route through networks with these properties. We propose PRoPHET, a probabilistic routing protocol for intermittently connected networks and compare it to the earlier presented Epidemic Routing protocol through simulations. We show that PRoPHET is able to deliver more messages than Epidemic Routing with a lower communication overhead

  • 23. Lindgren, Anders
    et al.
    Doria, Avri
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Probabilistic routing in intermittently connected networks2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the problem of routing in intermittently connected networks. In such networks there is no guarantee that a fully connected path between source and destination exist at any time, rendering traditional routing protocols unable to deliver messages between hosts. We propose a probabilistic routing protocol for such networks.

  • 24. Lindgren, Anders
    et al.
    Doria, Avri
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Routing in intermittently connected networks using a probabilistic approach2003In: Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop - Proceedings: SNCNW 2003, Stockholm, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider the problem of routing in intermittently connected networks. In such networks there is no guarantee that a fully connected path between source and destination exists at any time, rendering traditional routing protocols unable to deliver messages between hosts. There do however exist a number of scenarios where connectivity is intermittent, but where the possibility of communication still is desirable. Thus, there is a need for a way to route through such networks. We propose PROPHET, a probabilistic routing protocol for such networks and compare it to the earlier presented Epidemic Routing protocol through simulations. We show that PROPHET is able to deliver more messages than Epidemic Routing with a lower communication overhead.

  • 25. Lindgren, Anders
    et al.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Infrastructured ad hoc networks2002In: International Conference on Parallel Processing Workshops: 18 - 21 August 2002, Vancouver, B.C., Canada ; proceedings / [ed] Stephan Olariu, Los Alamitos, Calif: IEEE Communications Society, 2002, 64-70 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In traditional ad hoc networks, all nodes are considered equal and take equal part in the routing and forwarding of packets. We believe that this may not always be desirable. Rather, some nodes may be equipped with virtually unlimited power supplies, while others have to rely on battery power Thus, we propose the creation of "infrastructured" ad hoc networks by the deployment of pseudo base-stations (PBSs), which are nodes that have constant power supply (e.g., through a power outlet or a car battery), do not move, and are present just to act as routers and forward packets for other nodes, thus allowing the mobile nodes to save power The paper also presents ISAIAH, an ad hoc routing protocol based on the ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol, which tries to select routes that go through PBSs instead of through mobile nodes to reduce the amount of power spent by these mobile nodes. Furthermore, it allows nodes to enter a power-saving mode, significantly reducing the power consumption compared to AODV

  • 26. Lindgren, Anders
    et al.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Almquist, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Quality of service schemes for IEEE 802.11: a simulation study2001In: Quality of Service: 9th International Workshop Karlsruhe, Germany, June 6-8, 2001 Proceedings / [ed] Lars Wolf, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2001, 281-287 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes and compares four different mechanisms for providing QoS in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs. We have evaluated the IEEE 802.11 mode for service differentiation (PCF), Distributed Fair Scheduling, Blackburst, and a scheme proposed by Deng et al. using the ns-2 simulator. The evaluation covers medium utilization, access delay, and the ability to support a large number of high priority mobile stations. Our simulations show that PCF performs badly, and that Blackburst has the best performance with regard to the above metrics. An advantage with the Deng scheme and Distributed Fair Scheduling is that they are less constrained, with regard to the characteristics of high priority traffic, than Blackburst is.

  • 27.
    Rao, Akhila
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Lindgren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. SICS Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Performance implications for IoT over information centric networks2016In: CHANTS '16: Proceedings of the Eleventh ACM Workshop on Challenged Networks, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2016, 57-62 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information centric networking (ICN) is a proposal for a future in-ternetworking architecture that is more efficient and scalable. Whileseveral ICN architectures have been evaluated for networks carry-ing web and video traffic, the benefits and challenges it poses forInternet of Things (IoT) networks are relatively unexplored. In ourwork, we evaluate the performance implications for typical IoT net-work scenarios in the ICN paradigm. We study the behavior of in-network caching, introduce a way to make caching more efficientfor periodic sensor data, and evaluate the impact of presence andlocation of lossy wireless links in IoT networks. In this paper, wepresent and discuss the results of our evaluations on IoT networksperformed through emulations using a specific ICN architecture,namely, content centric networking (CCN). For example, we showthat the newly proposed UTS-LRU cache replacement strategy forimproved caching performance of time series content streams re-duces the number of messages transmitted by up to 16%. Our find-ings indicate that the performance of IoT networks using ICN areinfluenced by the content model and the nature of its links, and mo-tivates further studies to understand the performance implicationsin more varied IoT scenarios.

  • 28.
    Sandström, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Bodin, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Adaptive threshold-based admission control2005In: ICC 2005: 2005 IEEE International Conference on Communications ; 16 - 20 May 2005, Seoul, Korea, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2005, 48-52 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an algorithm for performing dynamic per-link admission control. It is designed to be suitable for deployment using existing quality of service and router techniques. The rationale for the algorithm is to find a bitrate limit for reserved capacity, which enables efficient capacity utilization and statistical multiplexing gain. By using simple traffic meters configured with respect to defined service levels, a network resource controller estimates an admission limit. The estimated limit reflects the ratio between reserved capacity and the aggregate behavior of current flows. Simulations indicate that reliable admission limits can be estimated already at low reservation levels.

  • 29.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Quality of service agents in the internet1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet is a multi-purpose communication network supporting users and applications with different service demands. To meet these demands, mechanisms for service differentiation in the network are proposed. This thesis presents an admission control architecture where clients can make resource reservations through agents. For each domain in the network there is an agent responsible for admission control. The architecture provides scalable resource reservations for virtual leased lines. Reservations from different sources to the same destination domain are aggregated in agents as their paths merge toward the destination. We support advance reservations where resources are shared between advance and immediate reservations without being pre-partitioned. Immediate admission control uses information about resources to be allocated for advance reservations in the near future and, if necessary, makes resources available by rejecting immediate requests. In rare cases, immediate reservations are preempted. Simulations show the cost in terms of resource utilization, rejection probability and preemption probability.

  • 30.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Brännström, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    A sensor-data acquisition grid architecture2013In: 2013 IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, 361-366 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents SAGA, a functional software architecture for distributing sensor data. The recursive architecture is dynamically instantiated for collecting, composing and storing data at multiple locations. Objectives are to support devices that are intermittently connected over different access-technologies, to save energy by avoiding repetitive transmission from sensors, and to scale out data compositions for different application services. When the architecture is instantiated the entities form a directed graph across organizational boundaries between sensors and applications. Data may be retrieved from sensors on-demand or be disseminated in real-time, for composition and delivery to the applications. The architecture is based on current sensor network principles such as client-server, representational state transfer and web services. The architecture is presented together with identified key requirements and design choices, and it has been instantiated in a prototype implementation for a smart city application. Some key issues for further research are presented.

  • 31.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Elragal, Ahmed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Haddara, Moutaz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    A roadmap for big-data research and education2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research area known as big data is characterized by the 3 V’s, which are vol- ume; variety; and velocity. Recently, also veracity and value have been associated with big data and that adds up to the 5 V’s. Big data related information systems (IS) are typically highly distributed and scalable in order to handle the huge datasets in organizations. Data processing in such systems includes creation, retrieval, storage, analysis, presentation, visualization, and any other activity that is typical for IS sys- tems. Big data is often associated with business analytics, cloud services, or industrial systems.This document presents a brief overview of the state of the art in selected topics of big data research, with the purpose of providing input to a roadmap for research and education at Lule ̊a University of Technology (LTU). The selection of topics is based on assessments of where LTU can make an impact based on current and anticipated research strengths and position with industry (e.g., process industry, data centers and cloud application providers). Topics include distributed systems, mobility, Internet of Things, and advanced analytics.

  • 32.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Norrgård, Joakim
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Performance of QoS agents for provisioning network resources1999In: 1999 Seventh International Workshop on Quality of Service: IWQoS '99, London, England, May 31 - June 4, 1999, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 1999, 17-26 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have designed an agent-based architecture for quantitative service provisioning in differentiated services capable networks. For each link-state routing domain in the network there is a topology-aware QoS agent (also known as a bandwidth broker) responsible for admission control. The architecture provides resource reservations for aggregated virtual leased lines between network domains. In this paper, we present performance measurements for resource provisioning in a prototype QoS agent. This includes an evaluation of two data structures for advance reservations and accompanying algorithms. We also compare the cost for on-demand route computations with pre-computation of routes. The objective in this paper is to evaluate the performance of end-to-end admission control within a single link-state routing domain. In a domain with 15 routers, 28 transition networks and 64 stub networks, our prototype performs approximately 25000 end-to-end admission decisions per second. The results show that an ordinary PC can be used for running a QoS agent that performs path-sensitive admission control and maintains per link resource reservations in a link-state routing domain.

  • 33.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Aggregating resource reservations over multiple routing domains1998In: Sixth International Workshop on Quality of Service: IWQoS 98 Napa, California, USA, May 18 - 20, 1998, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 1998, 29-32 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presents an agent-based architecture for resource reservations. For each domain in the network, there is an agent that is responsible for admission control. The architecture provides scalable per-link resource reservations in agents and low per-packet overhead in routers. The key ideas are the following. First, reservations from different sources to the same destination are aggregated as their paths merge toward the destination. Second, an agent in charge of resources at the final destination can generalize reservations for specific end-points so that they are valid for any end-point in the destination domain, thereby allowing more aggregation. Third, agents can do bulk reservations in advance with neighboring agents, thereby allowing aggregation over time. Fourth, agents are responsible for setting up policing points at edge routers for checking commitments. Agents can minimize the per-packet policing overhead in routers by varying the granularity of policing over time

  • 34.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    An agent-based architecture for advance reservations1997In: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 1997, 451-459 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose an architecture where clients can make advance reservations through agents. For each routing domain in the network there will be an agent responsible for admission control on behalf of the routers in the domain. Requests involving several routing domains are forwarded for admission control with agents along the path for the requested service. Agents maintain hard reservation state using a reliable protocol for agent intercommunication. Agents start allocating resources for advance reservations in the routers by setting up forwarding state shortly before resources are needed for packet forwarding. Resources are made available for advance reservations by means of rejecting further immediate requests and ultimately by preempting some immediate reservations. We have shown that the risk of preemption can be kept very low. Thus, agents can set up packet classifiers and schedulers in their routers, allowing routers to get on with their main task, packet forwarding.

  • 35.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Resource reservation agents in the Internet1998In: 8th International Workshop on Network and Operating Systems Support for Digital Audio and Video: New Hall, Cambridge ; 8 - 10 July, 1998, Cambridge, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Resource sharing in advance reservation agents1998In: Journal of High Speed Networks, ISSN 0926-6801, E-ISSN 1875-8940, Vol. 7, no 3-4, 213-229 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an architecture where clients can make end-to-end resource reservations through agents. For each domain in the network, there is an agent responsible for immediate and advance admission control. Reservations from different sources to the same destination domain are aggregated as their paths merge toward the destination. We show that network resources can be shared between immediate and advance reservations without being pre-partitioned. Admission control for immediate reservations use information about resources to be allocated for advance reservations in the near future. An important parameter in the admission control algorithm is the so called lookahead time, i.e., the point at which we actually start making resources available for approaching advance reservations by rejecting immediate requests. In our model, preemption of immediate reservations is made in cases where the admission control cannot make resources available through rejection of immediate requests. The risk of preemption can be varied by changing the lookahead time. We explore, with simulations, the effects of providing advance reservations with this model. The results show the cost in terms of resource utilization, rejection probability and preemption probability.

  • 37.
    Schelén, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sharing resources through advance reservation agents1997In: Proceedings, IFIP Fifth International Workshop on Quality of Service: IWQoS'97, 1997Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose an architecture where clients can make advance reservations through agents responsible for advance admission control. The agents allocate resources in the routers just before they are needed for packet forwarding. In this paper we show that network resources can be shared between immediate and advance reservations without being pre-partitioned. The admission control schemes for immediate and advance reservations still operate with little interaction. Admission control decisions for immediate reservations use information about resources to be allocated for advance reservations in the near future. An important parameter in the admission control algorithm is the so called lookahead time, i.e., the point at which we actually start making resources available for approaching advance reservations by rejecting immediate requests. In our model, preemption of immediate reservations is made in cases where the admission control cannot make resources available through rejection of immediate requests. The risk of preemption can be varied by changing the lookahead time when making immediate admission control. We explore, with simulations, the effects of providing advance reservations according to this model. The results show the cost in terms of resource utilization, rejection probability and preemption probability.

  • 38. Sehlstedt, Martin
    et al.
    Leblanc, James
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Fransson, Pierre
    Jonsson, Andreas
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköpings universitet.
    Transparent cross-layer rate adaption of progressive multimedia streams for wired and wireless networks2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time multimedia transfer through the Internet becomes more difficult when wireless links are in the path, due to the time varying channel capacity, from interference and multipath fading effects which introduce additional stochastic variations beyond the wireline network traffic effects. These wireless variations create problems for existing end-to-end rate adaption using feedback. This paper introduces a framework for cross-layer solutions to the streaming video problem with a focus on graceful degradation under network congestion and/or wireless fading effects without direct coordination between source coder, channel coder, and physical layer modulator. The solution presented includes network transportation and wireless based optimizations and requires little reliance upon end-to-end rate adaption. The suggested method uses progressively coded, leaky prediction source data and physical layer based rate adaption in concert with error tolerant network protocols.

  • 39.
    Synnes, Kåre
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Kranz, Matthias
    University of Passau.
    Rana, Juwel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    User-Centric Social Interaction for Digital Cities2017In: The internet of things: breakthroughs in research and practice, IGI Global, 2017, 41-70 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pervasive Computing was envisioned by pioneers like Mark Weiser, but has yet to become an everyday technology in our society. The recent advances regarding Internet of Things, social computing and mobile access technologies however converge to make pervasive computing truly ubiquitous. The key challenge is however to make simple and robust solutions for normal users, which shifts the focus from complex platforms involving machine learning and artificial intelligence to more hands on construction of services that are tailored or personalized for individual users.This chapter therefore discusses Internet of Things together with Social Computing as a basis for components that users in a ’digital city’ could utilize to make their daily life better, safer, etc. A novel environment for user-created services, such as social apps, is presented as a possible solution for this. The vision is that anyone could make simple service based on Internet-enabled devices (Internet of Things) and encapsulated digital resources such as Open Data, which also can have social aspects embedded.This chapter also aims to identify trends, challenges and recommendations in regard of Social Interaction for Digital Cities. This work will help expose future themes with high innovation and business potential based on a timeframe roughly 15 years ahead of now. The purpose is to create a common outlook on the future of information and communication technologies (ICT) based on the extrapolation of current trends and ongoing research efforts.

  • 40.
    Synnes, Kåre
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Kranz, Matthias
    Rana, Juwel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    User-Centric Social Interaction for Digital Cities2013In: Creating Personal, Social, and Urban Awareness through Pervasive Computing, IGI Global, 2013, 318-346 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pervasive Computing was envisioned by pioneers like Mark Weiser, but has yet to become an everyday technology in our society. The recent advances regarding Internet of Things, social computing and mobile access technologies however converge to make pervasive computing truly ubiquitous. The key challenge is however to make simple and robust solutions for normal users, which shifts the focus from complex platforms involving machine learning and artificial intelligence to more hands on construction of services that are tailored or personalized for individual users.This chapter therefore discusses Internet of Things together with Social Computing as a basis for components that users in a ’digital city’ could utilize to make their daily life better, safer, etc. A novel environment for user-created services, such as social apps, is presented as a possible solution for this. The vision is that anyone could make simple service based on Internet-enabled devices (Internet of Things) and encapsulated digital resources such as Open Data, which also can have social aspects embedded.This chapter also aims to identify trends, challenges and recommendations in regard of Social Interaction for Digital Cities. This work will help expose future themes with high innovation and business potential based on a timeframe roughly 15 years ahead of now. The purpose is to create a common outlook on the future of information and communication technologies (ICT) based on the extrapolation of current trends and ongoing research efforts.

  • 41.
    Synnes, Kåre
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Kranz, Matthias
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Rana, Juwel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Technical foresight report on social interaction for digital cities2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to identify trends, challenges and recommendations in regard of Social Interaction for Digital Cities. This foresight will help expose future themes with high innovation and business potential based on a timeframe roughly 15 years ahead. The purpose is to create a common outlook on the future of ICT and to establish a strong community across EIT ICT Labs nodes and partner organizations.

1 - 41 of 41
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