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  • 1.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Aircraft scheduled maintenance programme development: decision support methodologies and tools2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The air transport business is large in its operations, integrated, automated and complex. Air carriers are constantly striving to achieve high standards of safety and simultaneously to attain an increased level of availability performance at minimal cost. This needs to be supported through an effective maintenance programme which has a major impact on the availability performance and which ultimately can enhance the aircraft’s capability to meet market demands at the lowest possible cost. The development of a maintenance programme is challenging, but can be enhanced by supporting methodologies and tools. The purpose of this study is to develop decision support methodologies and tools for aircraft scheduled maintenance programme development within the framework of Maintenance Review Board (MRB) process. To achieve the purpose of the research, literature studies, case studies, and simulations have been conducted. Empirical data have been collected through document studies, interviews, questionnaires, and observations from the aviation industry. For data analysis, theories and methodologies within risk, dependability and decision making have been combined with the best practices from the aviation industry. One result of the research is the identification of potential areas for improving the use of MSG-3 methodology in aircraft scheduled maintenance development. Another result is the development of a systematic methodology guided by the application of an Event Tree Analysis (ETA) for the identification and quantification of different operational risks caused by aircraft system failures, to support decision making for maintenance task development. A third result is a proposed methodology, based on a combination of different Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methodologies, for selecting the most effective maintenance strategy for aircraft scheduled maintenance development. Finally, the fourth result is a proposed Cost Rate Function (CRF) model supported by a graphical approach. The approach can be used to identify the optimum maintenance interval and frequencies of Failure Finding Inspection (FFI) and to develop a combination of FFI and restoration tasks for the aircraft’s repairable items which are experiencing aging. These results are related to some of the specific industrial challenges, and are expected to enhance the capability of making effective and efficient decisions during the development of maintenance tasks. The results have been verified through interaction with experienced practitioners within major aviation manufacturers and air operators.

  • 2.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    An assessment of operational consequences of failures to support aircraft scheduled maintenance program development2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of the direct and indirect maintenance costs in the life cycle of aircraft stems from the consequences of decisions taken during the initial maintenance program development. In particular, the preventive and corrective maintenance requirements, which greatly influence both the system availability and life cycle cost, need to be defined in order to perform only those preventive actions that are absolutely necessary and costeffective. Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a systematic methodology used to identify the preventive maintenance tasks that are necessary to realize the inherent reliability of equipment at the lowest possible cost. Developing a scheduled maintenance program by means of RCM consists of identifying those preventive tasks which are both applicable (technically feasible) and effective (worth doing). An applicable maintenance task must satisfy the requirements of the type of failure to restore the item's initial performance capability. To be effective, a preventive maintenance task must lead to a reduced risk (or expected loss) of the consequence classes to a level which is acceptable to the user. In the design development phase, in order to identify the most cost effective solution, a design trade-off study is needed. This involves choosing the correct balance of the cost of consequences of failure and its correction, with their cost of prevention. However, during initial aircraft maintenance program development, lack of a methodology that supports the assessment of the operational consequences of failures has made the costeffectiveness analysis of maintenance tasks a challenging issue. This might reduce the accuracy of the analysis, which results in higher maintenance costs and may decreases the punctuality of operation, which ultimately increases the total aircraft life cycle cost. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology for identifying different operational consequences and associated costs caused by aircraft system failure, in order to facilitate and enhance the capability of taking correct and efficient decisions when analyzing the cost-effectiveness of maintenance tasks. Some empirical studies of possible scenarios involving aircraft failures and their operational consequences for a commercial airline have been performed. Empirical data were extracted through document studies and interviews, guided by the application of an Event Tree Analysis (ETA). The analysis was performed together with experienced practitioners from both an aircraft manufacturer and commercial airlines, which contributed to a continuous verification of the outcomes of the study. Finally, the study has also estimated the associated cost of the identified operational consequences of failures. In order to quantify the operational consequences of failures, in the absence of adequate and reliable data, a methodology using pair-wise comparison technique has been applied to extract judgments of experts efficiently

  • 3.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Arasteh Khouy, Iman
    Kumar, Uday
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Selection of maintenance strategy, using analytical hierarchy process2009In: Communications in Dependability and Quality Management, ISSN 1450-7196, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 121-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selection of appropriate maintenance strategy is key to economic viability of aviation and manufacturing industries. The study discusses and presents an approach to facilitate the selection of the most appropriate maintenance strategy on the basis of the cost-benefit analysis by using Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). The goal is to select the most cost-effective alternative, among Run-To-Failure (RTF), Preventive Maintenance (PM), incorporating Prognostic Health Management(PHM) capability, or any possible Design-Out Maintenance (DOM) strategies, which positively affects on aircraft operational availability. In this paper we proposed a stepwise algorithm to guide the selection process, based on two criteria of operational availability (benefit) and cost of failure.

  • 4.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Block, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Garmabaki, Amir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Project: Efficient Performance Based Air Vehicle Maintenance, Supported by VINNOVA (NFFP-6), Luleå University of Technology, Saab Support and Services, SAAB Aeronautics2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Block, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Garmabaki, Amir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Project: Enhanced Life Cycle Assessment for Performance-Based Logistics, Supported by Vinnova (NFFP-5), Saab Support Service and Luleå University of Technology2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Block, Jan
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Risk based maintenance deferral for components subject to hidden failure2012In: 2012 proceedings: Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS 2012) : Reno, Nevada 23-26 Jan. 2012, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the aviation industry, it may be necessary to employ a combination of Failure Finding Inspection (FFI) and a scheduled discard task at a specific threshold, when a component is aging and its failures are hidden and exert a “safety effect”. This is to ensure an adequate level of availability of hidden functions, and to reduce the risk of multiple failures to an acceptable level. However, in some situations, operators prefer to extend the discard life of components beyond their recommended life limit, due to operational needs or logistic issues. This necessitates the definition of an optimal Failure Finding Inspection interval for the extended life period. The main purpose of this paper is to develop analytical and graphical methodologies to identify the optimal FFI interval for extension of the discard life of aircraft components. The paper considers repairable components which are periodically tested. The methodology assumes that the inspection and repair actions lead to as-bad-as-old (ABAO) reliability characteristics.The graphical approach proposed in this paper considers inspection and repair times, as well as the costs associated with accidents, inspection, and repair, and it takes into account the opportunity losses due to the maintenance downtime. The analytical approach for calculating the unavailability of the hidden function is based on the Mean Fractional Dead Time (MFDT).

  • 7.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Franson, Torbjörn
    Saab Aerosystems, Linköping.
    Crona, Anneli
    Saab Aerosystems, Linköping.
    Klein, Markus
    Saab Aerosystems, Linköping.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Integration of RCM and PHM for the next generation of aircraft2009In: 2009 IEEE Aerospace Conference: Big Sky, Montana, USA, 7 - 14 March 2009, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With global cuts in defense budgets, air forces have to sustain the same level of readiness with a reduced number of aircraft. To succeed with this challenge, it is not sufficient to improve current maintenance concepts, but new ones also have to be introduced.Traditionally, the development of on-board functions and maintenance concepts has been performed rather independently. The new approach is to focus on an integration of these two developments and to adapt a life cycle view together with a disregard of organizational boundaries.To facilitate the necessary change, a study is performed by Saab and Luleå University of Technology. The study focuses on the possibilities to integrate RCM and PHM in a cost-effective way. The aim is to reduce the workload of maintenance development and to find out how to combine RCM and PHM to achieve a joint development of the aircraft and its maintenance program throughout the aircraft's whole life cycle.The paper describes some similarities and differences between RCM and PHM. Furthermore, the paper describes some aspects of how RCM and PHM are complementing each other and what kind of adaptations that has to be done to achieve a successful integration. For example, a good application of RCM early in system design might generate a pull for PHM-technology integration and motivate design changes of the aircraft. Simultaneously, available PHM-technologies might strongly affect the selection of applicable and effective maintenance tasks in the development of the initial maintenance program. PHM might also support a surveillance of the maintenance program's performance. The description is highlighted with examples and experiences from the Swedish Gripen fighter aircraft. Finally, the paper also outlines some suggestions for further research.

  • 8.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Garmabaki, Amir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ghodrati, Behzad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Optimum inspection interval for hidden functions during extended life2015In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 45-49Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ghodrati, Behzad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Garmabaki, Amir Soleimani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Optimum inspection interval for hidden functions during extended life2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ghodrati, Behzad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Optimum Failure Finding Inspection During Extended Operation Life2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a complex system such as railway and aviation equipment’s, it may be necessary to employ a combination of Failure Finding Inspection (FFI) and a scheduled discard task, as suggested by Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM). This strategy ensures an adequate level of availability of hidden functions, as well as the reduction of the risk of multiple failures to an acceptable level. However, in some situations, operators prefer to extend the discard life of components beyond their recommended life limit, due to the operational restrictions. This necessitates the definition of an optimal Failure Finding Inspection interval for the extended life period. This paper aims to provide a mathematical model for defining optimal FFI interval, during the extended period of the replacement life. A cost function (CF) is developed to identify the cost per unit of time associated with different FFI intervals, for the proposed extended period of life, i.e. postponement period. The proposed method concerns as-bad-as-old (ABAO) inspection and repairs (due to failures found by inspection). It considers inspection and repair times, and takes into account the costs associated with inspection and repair, the opportunity cost of lost production due to maintenance downtime created by inspection and repair actions, and also the cost of accidents due to the occurrence of multiple failure

  • 11.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Gupta, Suprakash
    Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
    Ghodrati, Behzad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Galar, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Estimation of economic consequences of aircraft system failures2012In: Communications in Dependability and Quality Management, ISSN 1450-7196, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 39-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large portion of the direct and indirect aircraft operational costs stems from the consequences of decisions made during the maintenance program development. Decision on maintenance task selection for non-safety category of failures, is based on the cost effectiveness, in which the cost of preventive maintenance should be less than the costs associated with the corrective action and failure consequence. Although the assessment of the direct cost for preventive and corrective maintenance is quiet straightforward, however quantification and estimation of the cost associated with the consequence of failure is a great challenge. This is due to a long list of contributory factors and lack of adequate data regarding the cost headings. This study attempts to estimate the economic consequences of aircraft system failures which lead to a technical delay. The paper considers financial losses, mostly due to the additional unexpected costs related to the flight crew, passengers, aircraft itself, ramp and airport, when one of the cost headings, e.g. the pre-fixed crew cost is known. The experience of the field experts has been used following a pairwise comparison technique to compare the cost headings, and to estimate the contribution of each one to the total cost of a delay. The study shows that the proposed model can be a tool to assess the cost of failure consequences in aircraft operation, when there is a limited data and information regarding the cost headings.

  • 12. Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Gupta, Suprakash
    Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
    Karim, Ramin
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Selection of maintenance strategy for aircraft systems using multi-criteria decision making methodologies2010In: International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering (IJRQSE), ISSN 0218-5393, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 223-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper, proposes the Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methodology for selection of a maintenance strategy to assure the consistency and effectiveness of maintenance decisions. The methodology is based on an AHP-enhanced TOPSIS, VIKOR and benefit-cost ratio, in which the importance of the effectiveness appraisal criteria of a maintenance strategy is determined by the use of AHP. Furthermore, in the proposed methodology the different maintenance policies are ranked using the benefit-cost ratio, TOPSIS and VIKOR. The method provides a basis for consideration of different priority factors governing decisions, which may include the rate of return, total profit, or lowest investment. When the preference is the rate of return, the benefit-cost ratio is used, and for the total profit TOPSIS is applied. In cases where the decision maker has specific preferences, such as the lowest investment, VIKOR is adopted. The proposed method has been tested through a case study within the aviation context for an aircraft system. It has been found that using the methodology presented in the paper, the relative advantage and disadvantage of each maintenance strategy can be identified in consideration of different aspects, which contributes to the consistent and rationalized justification of the maintenance task selection. The study shows that application of the combined AHP, TOPSIS, and VIKOR methodologies is an applicable and effective way to implement a rigorous approach for identifying the most effective maintenance alternative.

  • 13.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Gupta, Suprakash
    Kumar, Uday
    Assessment of the cost of operational consequences of failures in aircraft operation2007In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Reliability and Safety, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance decisions regarding aircraft require consideration of the operational impact of failures. The cost of the operational impact of failure is difficult to assess due to the influence of a large number of contributory factors. This study attempts to assess the cost of operational consequences of failures using the expertise of the field experts following a pairwise contribution technique. The study shows that the proposed model can be a tool to assess the cost of operational consequences of failures in aircraft operation, when there is not sufficient and reliable data

  • 14. Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Barabady, Javad
    Prerequisites for a business-oriented fleet availability assurance program in aviation2010In: Proceedings of the 1st international workshop and congress on eMaintenance, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2010, p. 168-175Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The air transport business is a large, integrated, automated and complex domain with high requirements on safety, security and dependability. In order to achieve customer satisfaction and gain a global competitive advantage, provision of services is essential. In air transport business with an extensive competition, the consequences of unreliable services become more critical which may increase cost of operation and reduce productivity. Furthermore, occurrence of unreliable services might also lead to annoyance, inconvenience and a lasting customer dissatisfaction that can create serious problem with regarding the responsible company‟s marketplace position. Hence, it is crucial for air transport companies to continuously improve the quality of the services they provide to customer. In the context of air transport, maintenance process and maintenance-related services have a high impact on effectiveness, productivity and costs. Maintenance departments are required to ensure that their fleet is expected to meet, or continues to meet, airline‟s established availability performance goals (e.g. operational readiness, dispatch reliability and cost affectivity) and to ensure that demands for deliveries will met. One way to align maintenance decisions and business objectives and at the same time highlight where the potential weakness in the systems and maintenance performance can be expected, is through Fleet Availability Assurance Program (FAAP). However, an effective implementation of FAAP needs adaptation to the usage context. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to present an availability assurance program in airline industries, in which the essential functional elements of such a program are discussed. The paper also proposes an integrated information logistic infrastructure for this management system.

  • 15.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Cost based risk analysis to identify inspection and restoration intervals of hidden failures subject to aging2011In: IEEE Transactions on Reliability, ISSN 0018-9529, E-ISSN 1558-1721, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 197-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The analytical model presented in this paper aims to study possible maintenance strategies considering risk constrains, to preserve or assure availability of hidden functions of a repairable unit in aircraft systems considering ageing effect. The paper discusses two known strategies for hidden failure management aviation and other high risk industries, namely Failure Finding Inspection (FFI), and a combination of a series of FFI and restoration after a specific number of FFI cycles ( i.e., FFI-Rs strategy). Based on discussions, the paper introduces a new approach named Dynamic Failure Finding Inspection strategy (DFFI) to assure the acceptable level of risk and also the unit's hidden function availability continuously . The paper presents analytical methods to estimate optimal FFI, and optimal thresholds for restoration of degradation (refreshing risk level) within FFI-Rs strategy. It also discusses criteria used to select appropriate thresholds to change the FFI intervals within DFFI strategy, i.e. reducing inspection intervals after specific thresholds, to reduce the risk. The method is based on the mean proportion of time i.e. (Mean Functional Dead Time, MFDT) that the unit is not functioning during the inspection intervals and the average unavailability behavior within the restoration/discard period. The proposed method considers inspection, repair, and restoration times, and takes in to account costs associated with inspection, repair, restoration, potential losses due to non-availability of aircraft due to maintenance downtime or accident often caused multiple failures.

  • 16. Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Kumar, Uday
    Ghodrati, Behzad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Risk based maintenance decision for periodically tested repairable components subject to hidden failure2011In: Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Reliability, Safety and Hazard - ICRESH 2010: Mumbai Dec 15-16, 2010 / [ed] P V Varde, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, p. 197-204Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to develop a graphical method to facilitate the identification of risk and cost of postponement of restoration for repairable components which are periodically tested and whose failures are hidden, i.e, are detectable by inspection or upon demand. The paper focuses on the items which are under aging, however, the methodology is flexible to implement for any aging pattern. The paper considers Failure Finding Inspection (FFI) with restoration actions (FFI+Res), for the “safety effect” categories of hidden failures. As-bad-as-old (ABAO) inspection effectiveness and as-good-as-new (AGAN) restoration effectiveness are considered. In case of repair due to findings by inspection, as-bad-as-old repair effectiveness is considered. The graphical methodology proposed in this paper considers inspection and repair times, as well as the costs associated with accident, inspection, repair, and restoration, and takes into account the opportunity losses due to the maintenance downtime. The analytical approach is based on the Mean Fractional Dead Time. In the case of an operational limit, when it is not possible to remove the unit for restoration, or one needs to use the unit longer than the expected operating time, the paper introduces an approach to analyzing the possibility of and conditions for providing an extension to the restoration interval that satisfies the risk constraints and the business requirements at the same time.

  • 17.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    On aircraft scheduled maintenance program development2010In: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 229-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present issues and challenges of scheduled maintenance task development within the maintenance review board (MRB) process, and to find potential areas of improvement in the application of the MSG-3 methodology for aircraft systems. Design/methodology/approach – The issues and challenges as well as potential areas of improvement have been identified through a constructive review that consists of two parts. The first part is a benchmarking between the Maintenance Steering Group (MSG-3) methodology and other established and documented versions of reliability-centred maintenance (RCM). This benchmarking focuses on the MSG-3 methodology and compares it with some RCM standards to identify differences and thereby find ways to facilitate the application of MSG-3. The second part includes a discussion about methodologies and tools that can support different steps of the MSG-3 methodology within the framework of the MRB process. Findings – The MSG-3 methodology is closely related to the RCM methodology, in which the anticipated consequences of failure are considered for risk evaluation. However, MSG-3 considers neither environmental effects of failures nor operational consequences of hidden failures. Furthermore, in MSG-3, the operational check (failure-finding inspection) is given priority before all other tasks, whereas in RCM it is considered as a default action, where there is no other applicable and effective option. While RCM allows cost-effectiveness analysis for all failures that have no safety consequences, MSG-3 just allows it for failures with economic consequences. A maintenance program that is established through the MRB process fulfils the requirements of continuous airworthiness, but there is no foundation to claim that it is the optimal or the most effective program from an operator’s point-of-view. The major challenge when striving to achieve a more effective maintenance program within the MRB process is to acquire supporting methodologies and tools for adequate risk analysis, for optimal interval assignments, and for selection of the most effective maintenance task. Originality/value – The paper presents a critical review of existing aircraft scheduled maintenance program development methodologies, and demonstrates the differences between MSG-3 and other RCM methodologies.

  • 18. Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Risk of operational consequences of aircraft system failure2010In: International Journal of Pedagogy, Innovation and New Technologies, ISSN 0973-1318, E-ISSN 2392-0092, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 149-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a methodology for identifying different operational consequences and associated costs caused by aircraft system failure, in order to facilitate and enhance the capability of taking correct and efficient decisions when analyzing the cost-effectiveness of maintenance tasks. The paper focuses on the operational consequences of failures that lead to delay. To identify the operational consequences of aircraft system failures, Empirical studies of possible scenarios involving aircraft failures and their operational consequences for a commercial airline have been performed. Empirical data were extracted through document studies and interviews, guided by the application of an Event Tree Analysis (ETA). In order to effectively utilize the knowledge of field experts in the assessment process, a pairwise comparison technique was adopted for quantifying the contribution of different factors to the operational. The work was performed together with experienced practitioners from both an aircraft manufacturer and commercial airlines, which contributed to a continuous verification of the outcome of the study.The study shows that the proposed methodology based on ETA and pairwise comparison can be used to identify and quantify the cost of operational consequences of failures in aircraft operation, when there is no sufficient and reliable data.

  • 19.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Soleimanmeigouni, Iman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Block, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Letot, Christophe
    University of Mons.
    Optimum failure management strategy for periodically inspected units with imperfect maintenance2016In: IFAC PAPERSONLINE, ISSN 2405-8963, Vol. 49, no 12, p. 799-804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to develop a reliability-based cost model for periodically inspected units subject to hidden functions, with imperfect restoration (overhaul) action after a certain number of inspections. In the model, effectiveness of the consecutive restoration actions is considered, and possible alternative maintenance strategies are identified and compared. The method is based on the Total Cost and identifies the optimum interval and frequency of inspections, as well as restoration that minimize the total life cycle cost. In the proposed model, repair due to failures found by inspection is considered as minimal repair, and restoration/overhaul action is considered as normal repair. The result also shows that for a specific value of restoration effectiveness (θ0), when θ> θ0, the behavior of alternatives tends to as-bad-as-old and for θ< θ0 tends to an as-good-as-new. It is also observed that when the cost of accident is high it is needed to perform inspections at smaller intervals.

  • 20.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Soleimanmeigouni, Iman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Letot, Christopher
    Machine Design and Production Engineering Unit, Research Institute for the Science and Manage ment of Risks, University of Mons.
    Block, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Inspection Optimization under imperfect maintenance performance2017In: Proceedings of MPMM 2016: 6th International Conference on Maintenance Performance Measurement and Management, 28 November 2016, Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Diego Galar, Dammika Seneviratne, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2017, p. 139-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scheduled maintenance and inspection development is one of the main requirements for emergency equipment and safety devices. These types of devices have hidden functions which are used intermittently or infrequently, so their failure will not be evident to the operating crew. The analytical model presented in this paper deals with the periodically tested units with overhauls (preventive maintenance) after certain number of inspections and a renewal after a series of overhauls. The cost based optimization method presented in this paper identifies the optimum interval and frequency of Failure Finding Inspection (FFI) and restoration. In the proposed model, repair due to failures found by inspection makes the unit As Bad As Old, and restoration/overhaul action rejuvenates the unit to any condition between As Good As New and As Bad As Old. As Good As New effectiveness also is considered for renewal action. It considers inspection and repair times, and takes into account the costs associated with inspection, repair, restoration, and also the cost of accidents due to the occurrence of multiple failure. The results show that when the unit is not under aging process, the optimal alternative for each inspection interval is the one with highest possible number of inspection without restoration. Finally, it is observed that when the cost of accident is quite high it is needed to perform inspections at smaller intervals to control the risk of accident.

  • 21. Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Assessment of the operational consequences of aircraft failures: using event tree analysis2008In: 2008 IEEE Aerospace Conference: 1-8 March 2008 : [Big Sky, Montana]., Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2008, p. 1-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a methodology that supports an assessment of the operational consequences of failures in aircraft systems and its associated costs, in order to facilitate a correct and efficient decision-making during cost-effectiveness analysis of maintenance tasks within scheduled aircraft maintenance program development. The paper is based on empirical studies of possible scenarios from aircraft failure to operational consequences in commercial airlines. Empirical data was extracted through document studies and interviews, guided by the application of an Event Tree Analysis (ETA). The analysis was performed together with experienced practitioners from both an aircraft manufacturer and commercial airlines, which contributed to a continuous verification of the outcomes of the study. The proposed methodology, which is based on ETA, is considered as a valuable support in the assessment of the operational consequences of failures within a MSG-3 framework. The proposed methodology focuses on assessing the operational consequences of failures and associated economical losses. Hence, in order to enable an estimation of the maintenance tasks' cost-effectiveness, the methodology should be further developed to include a cost assessment of the applicable maintenance tasks. The proposed methodology could be adapted as a support to those involved in the development of aircraft maintenance program. The operational consequences and the probabilities of the proposed event tree can be quantified by the aid of historical data or expert judgment.

  • 22.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Kumar, Uday
    An overview of trends in aircraft maintenance program development: past, present, and future2007In: Risk, Reliability and Societal Safety: Pproceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference 2007 (ESREL 2007), Stavanger, Norway, 25 - 27 June 2007 / [ed] Terje Aven; Jan Erik Vinnem, London: Taylor and Francis Group , 2007, p. 2067-2076Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the trends in aircraft maintenance program development during the last 50 years, including the reasons for the aircraft industry to change its view of maintenance. The major milestones and fundamental reasons for such development are also discussed and illustrated in relation to a flow diagram, which shows the logical and chronological order of the trends. Finally, the paper describes some possibilities and challenges as regards applying Information & Communication Technology (ICT) within the emerging approach of e-Maintenance in order to enhance the surveillance of aircraft maintenance program performance.

  • 23.
    Block, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tyrberg, Tommy
    Saab Support and Services.
    Using Monte Carlo simulation as support for decision making while negotiating a PBL contract2014In: IEEE Aerospace Conference. Proceedings, ISSN 1095-323X, article id 6836495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In connection with performance-based logistics (PBL) contracts for aircraft fleets it is very important to carefully analyse both operations and maintenance before and during the contract negotiation phase. Monte Carlo Simulation is a valuable methodology in this context since it allows delimiting and exploring a complex parameter space in a transparent and relatively easily visualized manner. With timely analyses it is possible to identify both technical and economic risks and minimize the possible consequences, a process that benefits both parties in the negotiation process. This paper describes a part of this process in connection with the negotiation of a PBL contract for the Swedish Air Force SAAB 105 (SK 60) trainer fleet between Saab AB and the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV). The information used in the simulations was largely empirical data derived from previous operations of the aircraft system. The main factors that were simulated were operational requirements, fleet size, spares inventories, turn-around times, failure rates and influence of extraneous factors (e. g. weather). The simulations resulted in considerable savings due to reduction of the active fleet size, and increased reclamation of surplus spares and units from retired aircraft.

  • 24.
    Block, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tyrberg, Tommy
    Saab Support and Services.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Fleet-level reliability analysis of repairable units: a non-parametric approach using the mean cumulative function2013In: International Journal of Pedagogy, Innovation and New Technologies, ISSN 0973-1318, E-ISSN 2392-0092, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 333-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex technical systems are normally repaired rather than replaced when they fail. It is often desirable to analyze the reliability characteristics of these systems based on data generated in a customer use environment, in order to assess the reliability, frequency of failure or other parameters which may be influenced by the systems’ age and usage. Despite the advantages of continuously analyzing reliability data to be able to improve the maintenance programme continuously, methods such as parametric and non-parametric analysis are often ignored due to a belief that the mean time between failures (MTBF) is sufficient to describe the reliability pattern of repairable units. This paper describes the use of the mean cumulative function (MCF) and linear estimates based on the recurrence rate to predict the expected number of failures in the future. Reliability data from two repairable units are used to verify the procedure and comparison. The empirical data used in the paper is based on field data gathered during the operational life of the Swedish military aircraft system FPL 37 Viggen from 1977 to 2006, which essentially is the whole life cycle of the system.

  • 25.
    Block, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tyrberg, Tommy
    Saab Aerotech.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Fleet-level Reliability of Multiple Repairable Units: a Parametric Approach using the Power Law Process2014In: International Journal of Pedagogy, Innovation and New Technologies, ISSN 0973-1318, E-ISSN 2392-0092, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 239-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of parametric reliability analysis methods for repairable units, such as Power law process, is quite clear and straightforward for a single repairable unit. However, in practice, the analyst needs to know the reliability characteristics of units at a fleet level. The application of parametric reliability analysis methods at the fleet level, even if it is limited in scope, is quite complex. The aim of this paper is to describe the use of the power law process for multiple repairable units with differing reliability characteristics, to predict the expected number of failures at fleet level. The empirical data used in the paper are based on field data gathered during the operational life of two types of multi repairable units used in the Swedish military aircraft system FPL 37 Viggen from 1977 to 2006. The paper performs the trend test using TTT-based MIL-HDBK-189 and Laplace tests, and assesses the equality of shape-parameters for the intensity function of the power law process for multiple units. Estimation of the scale- and shape-parameters using maximum likelihood estimation is also performed. The parametric approach using power law process was found to yield relatively accurate estimations of number of failures, compared to empirical data

  • 26.
    Block, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tyrberg, Tommy
    Logistics Analysis and Fleet Monitoring, Saab Support and Services, Linköping.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Part-out-based spares provisioning management: A military aviation maintenance case study2014In: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 76-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the prerequisites for a part-out-based spares provisioning (PBSP) programme during the phase-out of an aircraft fleet. Furthermore, associated key decision criteria are identified and a framework for the phase-out management process is presented. Design/methodology/approach – Once a decision has been taken to phase-out an aircraft fleet, a number of routines for operations, maintenance and storage are affected and new tasks and functions must be introduced before initiating the actual parting-out process. A decision-making system and a management framework is needed to manage spares planning during the end-of-life phase to ensure availability at minimum cost and to ensure a manageable risk of backorders. Findings – For PBSP programme during the phase-out of an aircraft fleet to succeed and be cost-effective, a number of linked processes, tasks and decisions are required, e.g., those included in the framework proposed in this paper (see Figure 3). A successful implementation of PBSP also requires that these processes and tasks are carried out in a timely manner and that the communications between the concerned parties are prompt, clear and direct. One experience from the studied case is that close and trustful contacts and cooperation between the operator and maintenance provider(s) will greatly facilitate the process. Originality/value – Although the PBSP method is fairly commonly applied within both the military and the civilian sector, somewhat surprisingly very literature has been published on the subject. Indeed, remarkably little has been published on any aspects of maintenance during the end-of-life period.

  • 27.
    Garmabaki, Amir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Mahdieh
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Mazandaran University of Science and Technology, Babol.
    Maintenance Optimization Using Multi-Attribute Utility Theory2016In: Current Trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety: An Industry Perspective / [ed] Uday Kumar; Alireza Ahmadi; Ajit Kumar Verma; Prabhakar Varde, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2016, p. 13-25Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several factors such as reliability, availability, and cost may consider in the maintenance modeling. In order to develop an optimal inspection program, it is necessary to consider the simultaneous effect of above factor in the model structure. In addition, for finding the optimal maintenance interval it is necessary to make trade-offs between several factors, which may conflicting each other as well. The study comprises of mathematical formulating an optimal interval problem based on Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT). The aim of the proposed research is to develop a methodology with supporting tools for determination of optimal inspection in a maintenance planning to assure and preserve a desired level of performance measure such as reliability, availability, risk, etc. For verification and validation purposes, the proposed methodology (analysis approach) and tools (models) will be applied in a real case which given by the literature.

  • 28.
    Garmabaki, Amir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Block, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Pham, Hoang
    Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    A Reliability Decision Framework for Multiple Repairable Units2016In: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, Vol. 150, p. 78-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In practice, the analyst is often dealing with multiple repairable units, installed in different positions or functioning under different operating conditions, and maintained by different disciplines. This paper presents a decision framework to identify an appropriate reliability model for massive multiple repairable units. It splits non-homogeneous failure data into homogeneous groups and classifies them based on their failure trends using statistical tests. The framework discusses different scenarios for analysing multiple repairable units, according to trend, intensity, and dependency of the units’ failure data. The proposed framework has been verified in a fleet of aircraft and in two simulated data sets. The results show a reliability model of multiple repairable units may contain a mixture of different stochastic models. Considering single reliability models for such populations may cause erroneous calculation of the time to failure of a particular unit, which can, in turn, lead to faulty conclusions and decisions. When dealing with massive and non-homogeneous multiple repairable units, the application of the proposed framework can facilitate the selection of an appropriate reliability model.

  • 29.
    Garmabaki, Amir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Mahdavi, Iraj
    Mazandaran University of Science and Technology, Babol.
    Ahmadi, Mahdieh
    Mazandaran University of Science and Technology, Babol.
    Reliability modeling of open source software based on adoption behavior under stochastic environment2015In: Safety and reliability of complex engineered systems: proceedings of the 25th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2015, Zürich, Switzerland, 7-10 September 2015 / [ed] Luca Podofilini; Bruno Sudret; Božidar Stojadinović; Enrico Zio; Wolfgang Kröger, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2015, p. 3995-3999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current digitalized world, Open Source Software (OSS) methodology provides greater value to users and leads to increased revenue for the OSS companies. This paper investigates reliability modeling for OSS. Most of software reliability models proposed in literature for OSS projects are based on closed-form methodology and do not consider the properties of OSS in the model structure. This paper models the rate of adoption of volunteers to OSS using diffusion theory and considered as fault detection rate. However, the fault detection rate may vary in such a testing environment; a modified SRGM based on Itô type Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) is proposed to describe realistic situations. The proposed model have been verified on real data sets from open source projects, as the Apache project, which has been released in the market with new features. Results show the proposed model can describe the failure process for open source software accurately.

  • 30.
    Garmabaki, Amir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Mahmood, Yasser Ahmed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Barabadi, Abbas
    Tromsø University.
    Reliability Modelling of Multiple Repairable Units2016In: Quality and Reliability Engineering International, ISSN 0748-8017, E-ISSN 1099-1638, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 2329-2343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a model selection framework for analysing the failure data of multiple repairable units when they are working in different operational and environmental conditions. The paper provides an approach for splitting the non-homogeneous failure data set into homogeneous groups, based on their failure patterns and statistical trend tests. In addition, when the population includes units with an inadequate amount of failure data, the analysts tend to exclude those units from the analysis. A procedure is presented for modelling the reliability of a multiple repairable units under the influence of such a group to prevent parameter estimation error. We illustrate the implementation of the proposed model by applying it on 12 frequency converters in the Swedish railway system. The results of the case study show that the reliability model of multiple repairable units within a large fleet may consist of a mixture of different stochastic models, i.e. the HPP/RP, TRP, NHPP and BPP. Therefore, relying only on a single model to represent the behaviour of the whole fleet may not be valid and may lead to wrong parameter estimation.

  • 31.
    Garmabaki, Amir Soleimani
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Block, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Fleet-level reliability estimation of repairable units2015In: Safety and Reliability: Methodology and Applications / [ed] Tomasz Nowakowski; Marek Mlynczak; Anna Jodejko-Pietruczuk; Sylwia Werbinska-Wojciechowska, London: CRC Press, 2015, p. 1977-1982Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates reliability analysis of a repairable unit at fleet level. In fleet, multiple similar systems are running in different operating environments. In fact, due to the highly censored data as well as high variations in failure rate within the fleet, merging the datasets becomes a challenge. The non-parametric analysis is used to capture the failure trend of repairable units at fleet level. Consequently, fleet data have been aggregated and the actual number of failure has been compared with the expected total number of failures. In addition, parametric models are used to model the reliability trend obtained through a non-parametric approach to identify the reliability parameters at fleet level. Real data are used to demonstrate the applicability and validity of the proposed method. Results shows the accuracy of log-linear process is reasonably acceptable.

  • 32.
    Garmabaki, Amir Soleimani
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kapur, P.K
    Amity University.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Predicting software reliability in a fuzzy field environment2013In: International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering (IJRQSE), ISSN 0218-5393, Vol. 20, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The testing-development phase has been carried out in a given control environment. However, the product will be used in different operating environment by different end-users, which is unknown to the developer. The operating environment may range from a very clean one up to a harsh environment. These uncertain operating environments will impact to the reliability and performance of the software which may differ from the testing phase reliability. We consider that the effect of environment on reliability has a fuzzy nature. The fuzzy effects of the field environments can be captured by a unit-free environmental factor. To overcome this problem, the fuzzy probabilistic theory may be used in the processing of stochastic parameters, taking into account their fuzzy nature. The proposed model is based on Weibull distribution. The aim of this paper is to introduce a fuzzy field environment (FFE) reliability model that covers both the testing and operating phases in the development cycle. Illustration examples of the proposed model have been validated on data collected from two industries. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  • 33.
    Garmabaki, Amir Soleimani
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kapur, P.K
    Amity University.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Predicting software reliability in a fuzzy-random field environment2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a new complex software or industrial system produces a series of prototypes that may contain faults during the processes, including development, design, and production. Therefore, during the early stages of prototyping complex systems, reliability often faces a major challenge in meeting the desired requirements level. For these reasons, a typical reliability improvement process is carried out in order to achieve a specific software/system reliability level. Incorrect estimation of reliability could lead to an inappropriate system design and implementation of incorrect maintenance policies.Many software reliability models have been proposed to help software developers and managers to assess the level of the reliability and estimation of the development cost. Among these software reliability models, Non-Homogenous Poisson Process (NHPP) based models have been successfully applied to model the software failure processes, and predict the number of software failures. NHPP has been used also to determine “time to stop testing” and release the software.Usually, the testing-development phase has been carried out in a given control environment. However, the product will be used in different operating environment by different end-users, which is unknown to the developer. The operating environment may range from a very clean one up to a harsh environment. These uncertain operating environments will impact to the reliability and performance of the software which may differ from the testing phase reliability. Hence the effect of environmental factors on reliability should be considered for estimation of the operational phase reliability. In fact the effect of environment on reliability has a fuzzy nature and quiet random. On the other hand, it is well known that the probability distribution and its parameters cannot be univocally defined. To overcome this problem, the fuzzy probabilistic theory may be used in the processing of stochastic parameters, taking into account their fuzzy nature. In fact, the fuzzy random effects of the field environments can be captured by a unit-free environmental factor. Based on the fuzzy probability distribution and its properties, we can define a fuzzy reliability function. The aim of this paper is to introduce a Fuzzy random field environment (FRFE) reliability model that covers both the testing and operating phases in the development cycle. The proposed model is based on Weibull distribution. It should be noted that the testing costs is one the major concern in software/system development. Several researcher investigated software/System release policies to minimize development cost while satisfying a reliability objective. Although the length of testing phase directly relates to the number of errors removed, but leads to a significant financial loss by increasing testing cost and delay in delivery. Further, releasing software in the market before reaching its desired level of reliability (which is fixed by the manager) may increase the maintenance cost during operational phase as well as create risk to lose future market.For a critical software system, the penalty costs resulting from the software failures are much more significant than the software development costs themselves. Therefore, the total software/ system cost should consist of not only the development costs, but also the penalty costs resulting from the software failure in operational phase. For software developers and managers, the following questions need to be answered (1) How to allocate the resources to ensure the on-time delivery of a software product? (2) When to stop testing and release the software from current software testing activities? (3) Is the software product really reliable in field? To answer the above mentioned questions, the paper proposes a cost function using proposed FRFE reliability model, to determine the optimal release policies.

  • 34.
    Ghodrati, Behzad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Product Support Logistics Based on System Reliability Characteristics and Operating Environment2014In: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management: IEEM 2013, Bangkok, Thailand; 10 - 13 December 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, p. 457-461, article id 6962453Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental conditions in which the equipment is to be operated, such as temperature, humidity, dust, operators’ skill, etc, often have considerable influence directly on the product reliability and indirectly on the product supportability characteristics. This paper, after discussing the factors influencing product reliability, describes a method to estimate spare part requirements based on estimation of the actual reliability of a product under the influence of the product-operating environment using a proportional hazard model. In this research only non-repairable components/parts in repairable systems are studied. Results express a considerable difference between considering and ignoring the operating environmental factor on system performance. So, this factor should be seriously considered while dimensioning product support and service delivery performance strategies, since it will have an impact on operation, maintenance and service quality.

  • 35.
    Ghodrati, Behzad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Galar, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Reliability analysis of switches and crossings: a case study in Swedish railway2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is reported that switches and crossings (S&C) are one of the subsystems that cause the most delays on Swedish Railways while accounting for at least 13% of maintenance costs [6]. It is the main reason why we chose to base our study on this subsystem.Intelligent data processing allows understanding the real reliability characteristics of the assets to be maintained. The first objective of this research is to determine the S&C reliability characteristics based on field data collection. Because field failure data are typically strongly censored, an especial statistics software package was developed to process field failure data, as commercial packages have not been found satisfactory in that respect. The resulting software, named RDAT® (Reliability Data Analysis Tool) has been relied upon for this study: it is especially adapted to statistical failure data analysis.In the next step the availability of studied switches and crossings is estimated based on the reliability characteristics founded in the first step.

  • 36.
    Ghodrati, Behzad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Galar, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Spare parts estimation for machine availability improvement addressing its reliability and operating environment: case study2013In: International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering (IJRQSE), ISSN 0218-5393, Vol. 20, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial operation cost analysis shows that, in general, maintenance represents a significant proportion of the overall operating costs. Therefore, the improvement of maintenance follows the final goal of any company, namely, to maximize profit. This paper studies spare parts availability, an issue of the maintenance process, which is an important way to improve production through increased availability of functional machinery and subsequent minimization of the total production cost. Spare parts estimation based on machine reliability characteristics and operating environment is performed. The study uses an improved statistical-reliability (S-R) approach which incorporates the system/machine operating environment information in systems reliability analysis. For this purpose, two methods of Poisson process and renewal process are introduced and discussed. The renewal process model uses a multiple regression type of analysis based on Cox’s proportional hazards modeling (PHM). The parametric approaches with baseline Weibull hazard functions and time independent covariates are considered, and the influence of operating environment factors on this model is analyzed. The outputs represent a significant difference in the required spare parts estimation when considering or ignoring the influence of the relevant system operating environment. The difference is significant in the sense of spare parts forecasting and inventory management which can enhance the parts and consequently machine availability, leading to economical operation and savings.

  • 37.
    Ghodrati, Behzad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Markeset, Tore
    Centre for Industrial Asset Management, University of Stavanger.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Enhancement of mining machineries performance through supportability2011In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 35-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost analysis of mining operations in general shows that 30 to 50 percent of direct mining costs are related to maintenance and losses related to lost production during equipment downtime. To reduce these losses one first needs to improve the equipment reliability and thereafter to reduce the downtime losses through improved maintainability and supportability. The mining operational environment is often harsh and may severely impact all three of these abilities. In this paper we focus on how to improve the estimation of spare parts by taking into account the operating environment in the estimation models. By having better models to predict spare parts needs, one can avoid logistics delays and thereby reduce downtime. In this study we develop an improved statistical-reliability (S-R) analysis approach that take into account the system/ machine operating environment. The analysis approach is multiple regressions based on Cox’s proportional hazards modeling (PHM). Subsequently, in a case study, the management of the spare parts inventory based on the economic order quantity and required performance of the product is addressed.

  • 38.
    Gupta, Suprakash
    et al.
    Department of Mining Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology.
    Rahber, Anjum
    Department of Mining Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    A vector-dissimilarity-based approach for multi-criteria decision making2013In: International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, ISSN 0975-6809, E-ISSN 0976-4348, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 249-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision making in complex environments is influenced by a large number of conflicting and incommensurable factors. It is multidimensional and the influencing factors affect the decision process to varying degrees. The performance measurement of decision alternatives in multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) may be represented as a multidimensional vector in real space. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is a popular MCDM tool. However, sometimes this technique shows its inability to differentiate between decision alternatives. In this paper the limitations of TOPSIS are examined, and an improvement is suggested. The proposed new method uses the vector dissimilarity approach to remove the boundary restrictions and achieve greater sovereignty. The improved method has been demonstrated through a case study of maintenance design for dump trucks deployed in a large surface mine.

  • 39.
    Hamodi, Hussan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Al-Gburi, Majid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ghodrati, Behzad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Model for economic replacement time of mining production rigs including redundant rig costs2015In: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 207-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper presents a practical model to determine the economic replacement time (ERT) of production machines. The objective is to minimise the total cost of capital equipment, where total cost includes acquisition, operating, maintenance costs and costs related to the machine’s downtime. The costs related to the machine’s downtime are represented by the costs of using a redundant machine. Design/methodology/approach - Four years of cost data are collected. Data is analysed, practical optimisation model is developed and regression analysis is done to estimate the drilling rigs ERT. The artificial neural network (ANN) technique is used to identify the effect of factors influencing the ERT of the drilling rigs.Findings - The results show that the redundant rig cost has the largest impact on ERT, followed by acquisition, maintenance and operating costs. The study also finds that increasing redundant costs per hour have a negative effect on ERT, while decreases in other costs have a positive effect. Regression analysis shows a linear relationship between the cost factors and ERT. Practical implications - The proposed approach can be used by the decision maker in determining the economic replacement time of production machines which used in mining industry.Originality/value - The research proposed in this paper provides and develops an optimisation model for economic replacement time of mining machines. This research also identifies and explains the factors that have the largest impact on the production machine’s ERT. This model for estimating the ERT has never been studied on mining drilling rigs.Keywords Decision support model, Life cycle cost, Optimisation, Replacement timePaper type Research paper

  • 40.
    Hamodi, Hussan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Jonsson, Adam
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Case Study: Model for economic lifetime of drilling machines in the Swedish mining industry2015In: The Engineering Economist, ISSN 0013-791X, E-ISSN 1547-2701, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 138-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a practical economic replacement decision model to identify the economic lifetime of a mining drilling machine. A data driven optimisation model was developed for operating and maintenance costs, purchase price and machine resale value. Equivalent present value of these costs by using discount rate was considered. The proposed model shows that the absolute optimal replacement time (ORT) of a drilling machine used in one underground mine in Sweden is 115 months. Sensitivity and regression analysis show that the maintenance cost has the largest impact on the ORT of this machine. The proposed decision making model is applicable and useful and can be implemented within the mining industry.

  • 41.
    Hoseinie, Hadi
    et al.
    Hamedan University of Technology.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ghodrati, Behzad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Reliability-centered maintenance for spray jets of coal shearer machine2013In: International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering (IJRQSE), ISSN 0218-5393, Vol. 20, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spray jets constitute one of the most important parts of each type of rock cutting machine, especially the drum shearer. This system cools the cutting picks and controls the dust emission. The blockage of spray jets causes the coal shearer machine to stop automatically. Therefore, the reliable performance of this system assists the achievement of a smooth coal cutting operation. Field's data shows that the maintenance of this system is time-consuming and causes major downtimes in the production process. Therefore, it is essential to find an optimum preventive maintenance task and intervals, to reduce the downtime and minimize the associated costs of the machine. The aim of this paper is to identify an applicable and effective maintenance task, with its associated interval, for management of the failure modes of the spray jets of coal shearers. A case study has been conducted on spray jets of double-drum shearer machine in Tabas Coal Mine in Iran. In the study, the RCM approach is used to select an applicable and effective maintenance task. The failure data were analyzed using a parametric approach to evaluate the reliability of the spray jets, and to estimate the reliability parameters. A reliability-based cost modeling has been implemented to identify the optimum maintenance interval and frequencies of restoration for the spray jets. In the study, a cost rate function (CRF) has been introduced in which an as-good-as-new (AGAN) effectiveness for restoration actions is considered. The CRF also considers restoration and repair times, and takes into account the costs associated with repair and restoration, and the opportunity cost of the equipment's lost production due to maintenance downtime, to arrive at the most cost-effective maintenance intervals. The results of the analysis have shown that the minimum cost per unit of time, $46.5/h, will be achieved within a range of intervals i.e., T = 210 h to T = 260 h.

  • 42.
    Karim, M.R.
    et al.
    Department of Statistics, University of Rajshahi.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Murthy, D.N.P
    School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia.
    Modelling of Maintenance Data2016In: Current Trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety: An Industry Perspective / [ed] Uday Kumar; Alireza Ahmadi; Ajit Kumar Verma; Prabhakar Varde, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2016, p. 409-424Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modelling of maintenance data starts with the black-box approach (where the model selection is based solely on the maintenance data) and then through the grey-box approach for proper analysis (where one can gain insights to build better models). These models allow for more effective maintenance of the object. This paper deals with the grey-box approach to modelling. It discusses the process of modelling and illustrates this through a real case study

  • 43.
    Letot, Christophe
    et al.
    Machine Design and Production Engineering Unit, Research Institute for the Science and Management of Risks, University of Mons.
    Soleimanmeigouni, Iman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Dehombreux, Pierre
    Machine Design and Production Engineering Unit, Research Institute for the Science and Management of Risks, University of Mons.
    An adaptive opportunistic maintenance model based on railway track condition prediction2016In: IFAC-PapersOnLine, ISSN 2405-8963, Vol. 49, no 28, p. 120-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintaining a track line in a good condition is a continuous challenge since it has to deal with various track line heterogeneities that contribute to accelerate its degradation. As a result, railway tracks should be inspected regularly to detect geometry faults and to plan maintenance actions in consequence. A maintenance plan that minimizes track maintenance cost is highly desirable by infrastructure managers. This paper presents an adaptive maintenance scheduling based on track condition prediction. The degradation indicator is the standard deviation of the longitudinal (SDL) level that is sampled on every 200m-long track section. Standards define some thresholds on this indicator that correspond to different levels of severity and related penalty costs. From collected data, a degradation model that uses a random coefficient Wiener degradation-based process is built. A probabilistic model to simulate the recovery effect after the maintenance action (tamping) is also used. Based on this degradation and recovery models, a cost model is built to find the optimal time for tamping on a single track section. After that we use a Monte Carlo approach to assess the performance of the cost model for the whole track line, considering both calendar based and adaptive opportunistic tamping actions. The results show that the adaptive opportunistic maintenance strategy has a lower cost per unit of time than the systematic preventive maintenance.

  • 44.
    Lopes, Julio C.O.
    et al.
    Division of Mechanical Engineering, Technological Institute of Aeronautics, São José dos Campo.
    Scarpel, Rodrigo
    Division of Mechanical Engineering, Technological Institute of Aeronautics, São José dos Campo.
    Abrahão, Fernando T.M.
    Laboratory of Logistics Engineering, Technological Institute of Aeronautics, São José dos Campo.
    Galar, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Optmization In Performance-Based Logistics Contracts2017In: Proceedings of MPMM 2016: 6th International Conference on Maintenance Performance Measurement and Management, 28 November 2016, Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Diego Galar, Dammika Seneviratne, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2017, p. 133-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance-based    Logistics    (PBL)    contracts    require  metrics  and  methodologies  set  in  a  systemic  way  to  provide  readiness  for  the  warfighter  at  reasonable  costs.  There  must be a clever and verifiable connection of metrics in order to access  and  analyze  data and  to  deliver  sound  and  consistent  inputs  for  the  entire  support  system  to  accomplish  its  goals.    A  system   of   incentives   and   penalties   usually   takes   place   and   suggests  functions  to  be  maximized  and/or  minimized  in  a  multi-criterion  and  highly  integrated  environment.  This  study  deals  with  the  optimization  of  the  entire  setup  of  Performance-Based Logistics  contracts  and  is  limited  to  a  preliminary  study  in  a  simple  scenario  that  has  showed  a  promises  results.    A  mixed  method, using both the Ɛ-Constraint  and    Goal  Programming  is  proposed to model the case. Results indicate that metrics used for reliability,    maintainability,    availability    and    supportability    (RAMS)  and  costs  can  be  optimized  simultaneously  for  clever  contracts.

  • 45.
    Mahmood, Yasser Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Verma, Ajint K.
    Stord/Haugesund University College.
    Reliability Evaluation of Traction Power Capacity in Converter-fed Railway Systems2016In: IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, ISSN 1751-8687, E-ISSN 1751-8695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Traction Power Supply System (TPSS) supplies electricity for train propulsion on electrified railways. In many countries, electrified railways have single-phase low-frequency AC power systems fed by frequency converters (FCs). Outages of power will significantly weaken the TPSS, cause operational problems and ultimately lead to traffic disruption in the form of speed reduction, train delays, or cancellations. The aim of this study is to propose an approach to analyse the reliability of power conversion capacity to discover the reasons for ‘loss of load”. The paper assumes train delays are caused by converter outages, shortages of reserve power capacity for unexpected train loads, or a combination of the two. It considers the availability performance of the converter station and evaluates the reliability of the conversion power capacity. It proposes a power-traffic factor (PTF) to aggregate and quantify train power demands. The PTF can be related to the availability of traction power capacity and will identify areas with risks of power shortages. The study finds the shortage in power leading to train delays in some regions of the system is due to a shortage of reserve power capacity

  • 46.
    Mahmood, Yasser Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Verma, Ajint
    Stord/Haugesund University College, Haugesund.
    Fransson, Niklas
    Trafikverket.
    Comparison of frequency converter outages: a case study on Swedish TPS system2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to survey the unavailability of the two main types of converters used in the Swedish traction power supply (TPS) system, i.e. the rotary and the static converter. The number of outages and the outage rate has been used to analyze and compare the unavailability of rotary and static converters. The mean cumulative function (MCF) has been used to analyze the number of outages and the unavailability trends, while the forced outage rate (FOR) concept has been used to analyze the outage rates. The study shows that the outages due to converter failure occur at a constant rate by calendar time at most of the converter stations, while very few stations have an increasing or a decreasing rate. It has also been found that the static converters have a higher number of outages and a higher outage rate by calendar time compared to the rotary converter types. The results of the study show that combining the number of outages and the forced outage rate gives a better view of the converters’ performance, and provides support for the maintenance decision. In fact, using one of them alone does not reflect reality. Comparing these two indexes is also helpful in identifying the areas where extra resources are needed to improve maintenance planning and where improvements can reduce the outage in the TPS system.

  • 47.
    Mahmood, Yasser Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Verma, Ajint K.
    Stord/Haugesund University College.
    Identification of Frequency Converter Models For Availability Improvement2013In: International Journal of Electrical Engineering, ISSN 1812-3031, Vol. 20, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Mahmood, Yasser Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Verma, Ajint
    Stord/Haugesund University College.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Fuzzy fault tree analysis: a review of concept and application2013In: International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, ISSN 0975-6809, E-ISSN 0976-4348, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 19-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault tree analysis (FTA) is a widely used method for analyzing a system’s failure logic and calculating overall reliability. However, application of conventional FTA has some shortcomings, e.g. in handling the uncertainties, allowing the use of linguistic variables, and integrating human error in failure logic model. Hence, Fuzzy set theory has been proposed to overcome the limitation of conventional FTA. Fuzzy logic provides a framework whereby basic notions such as similarity, uncertainty and preference can be modeled effectively.The aim of this paper is to present a review of the concept of fuzzy theory with fault tree analysis and their applications since 1981, to reflect the current status of Fuzzy Fault Tree Analysis (FFTA) methodologies, their strengths, weaknesses, and their applications. This paper explains the fundamentals of fuzzy theory and describes application of fuzzy importance for using FFTA. The concept of the failure possibility and uncertainty analysis by using FFTA is discussed, and concludes with discussion on the application of FFTA in different fields. The review reveals the effectiveness of the FFTA in comparison with conventional FTA, when there is inadequate amount of accurate reliability oriented information.

  • 49.
    Mahmood, Yasser Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Verma, Ajit
    University of Haugesund.
    Identifying the critical of frequency converter models2013In: 10th International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies 2013, CM 2013 and MFPT 2013, 2013, p. 784-792Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish traction power supply system (TPSS) has approximately 134 frequency converters; there are two main types, static and rotary, with ten different models. Previous work performed a Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) analysis of the converters to estimate their performance. The aim of this article is to use these RAM components to rank the converter models and identify the models that need more attention to improve overall operational availability. The study finds that the performance factor aggregated from IEEE Std 762 indexes can rank the converters. Furthermore, the paper has been found that the rotary models Q48 and TGTO have a low performance from RAM point of view.

  • 50.
    Mahmood, Yasser Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Verma, Ajit
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Availability and reliability performance analysis of traction frequency converters: a case study2013In: International Review of Electrical Engineering, ISSN 1827-6660, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 1231-1242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The frequency converter is one of the main parts of the traction power supply system (TPSS) and converts adequate traction power from the power company to the electric vehicle. In the Swedish railway network, this system comprises around 133 frequency converters with a total capacity reach of 1,295 MVA and covers around 9,543 km of electrified railway. The aim of this article is to evaluate and compare the reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) performances of the ten models of converters used in the Swedish railway system. The key performance indicators introduced by the IEEE Std 762 methodology have been used to measure and compare the RAM performance of the converters. Moreover, the mean cumulative function (MCF) has also been used for the monitoring and comparison of the field reliability of converters versus the operating time, capacity factor and converted power. The study shows that, in general, both the static and the rotary types have a high level of availability ranging from 97%-99%. The results also show that the TGTO model (a static type) has the lowest RAM performance among all the models. In addition, it has been found that using IEEE Std 762 or the MCF alone does not always provide a complete answer. Therefore, the study suggests using both the IEEE Std 762 and the MCF methodology to arrive at a more realistic result. The study has shown that the MCF based on the capacity factor gives a good result compared with the results obtained using the MCF based on the operating time and on the converted power as a measure of the usage intensity.

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