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  • 1.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Bagcilar, Turkey.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis2018In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 512-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work. POLICY RELEVANCE The empirical basis for an egalitarian rule of equal emissions per capita in the design of global climate agreements is not solid; this supports the need to move beyond single allocation rules, and increase knowledge about the impacts of combined scenarios. However, even in the context of the 2015 Paris Agreement with its emphasis on voluntary contributions and ‘national circumstances’, different equity-based principles could serve as useful points of reference for how the remaining carbon budget should be allocated

  • 2.
    Ahlborg, Helene
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Environmental Systems Analysis.
    Broäng, Frida
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Provision of electricity to African households: The importance of democracy and institutional quality2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 87, p. 125-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can differences in per capita household electricity consumption across African countries be understood? Based on theories that highlight the importance of democracy and institutional quality for provision of public goods, the aim of the paper is to analyse the degree to which the level of per capita household electricity consumption in African countries can be attributed to the countries’ democratic status and their institutional quality. We rely on regression analysis employing a pooled data set for 44 African countries over the time period 1996–2009. The analysis shows that democracy and institutional quality both have significant positive effects on per capita household consumption of electricity. Our results have implications for how energy sector reforms are promoted in developing countries. At a more general level they illustrate that institution-building policy efforts are relevant also in areas where contemporary debates have tended to primarily centre on economic development, financial prerequisites and ownership issues.

  • 3.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Norrbottens malm- och mineralresurs och dess potentiella betydelse för innovation, samhälle och miljö2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gruvindustrins betydelse för samhällsutveckling och infrastruktur i Sverige och inte minst i Norrbottens län är mycket stor. De geologiska förutsättningarna att hitta nya brytvärda förekomster i Norrbotten är goda. Länet är tillsammans med Västerbotten en av Europas viktigaste regioner för utvinning av metaller. Det syns också i den nyligen framtagna regionala mineralstrategin för Norrbotten och Västerbotten. Visionen för den regionala mineralstrategin: ”Genom långsiktigt hållbart nyttjande av Norrbottens och Västerbottens läns mineralresurser har ytterligare tillväxt skapats i regionen och hela Sverige. Vi har utvecklat och stärkt vår ställning som ledande gruv- och mineralnation.”Eftersom framtidspotentialen för gruvnäringen är mycket god men okunnigheten hos både allmänhet och beslutsfattare om näringens betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling är stor, kopplat med en utbredd oro för miljöpåverkan, måste dessa viktiga framtidsfrågor belysas. Med finansiering från Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten bedrevs därför under första hälften av 2014 en förstudie som syftade till att sammanfatta kunskapsläget om framtidens gruvindustri i Norrbotten. Resultaten av förstudien redovisas i den här rapporten. En viktig slutsats är att det under nästa strukturfondsperiod (med start 2015) behövs ett framtidsinriktat forskningsprogram för att belysa de möjligheter som finns. Denna förstudie utgör grund för en kommande ansökan till strukturfonderna. Kompetensen som finns vid Luleå tekniska universitet, Sveriges centrum för gruvrelaterad forskning och utbildning, bör användas för att studera troliga framtidsmöjligheter och hur de ska kunna användas för att få en så positiv utveckling som möjligt för länet. Projektet bör innehålla följande tre huvudinriktningar, som naturligtvis hör ihop:Vilka malm- och mineralresurser finns det potential för i Norrbotten, och vilka kommer sannolikt att exploateras i framtiden?Vad kommer den exploateringen att ha för betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling?Vad kommer den exploateringen att få för miljöeffekter och hur ska man göra för att minska miljöbelastningen?En annan slutsats är att nedlagda gruvområden inte måste ses som förstörd natur. Betydande mervärden som gruvturism skulle kunna skapas om vilja, kreativitet och beslutsamhet finns. Detta är ett givet utvecklingsområde där småföretag och entreprenörer kan göra stor insats om de politiska och myndighetsmässiga förutsättningarna finns. Dessa aspekter skulle också kunna belysas i det föreslagna forskningsprogrammet eller i ett eget projekt.

  • 4.
    Berg, Charlotte
    et al.
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mjuklänkning mellan EMEC och TIMES-Sweden: en metod för att förbättra energipolitiska underlag2012Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Vattenfall.
    Hage, Olle
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Household recycling and the influence of norms and convenience2010In: Environmental Policy and Household Behaviour: Sustainability and Everyday Life, London: Earthscan / James & James, 2010, p. 193-209Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    An econometric analysis of global waste paper recovery and utilization2003In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 429-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide aneconometric analysis of the most importantdeterminants of inter-country differences inwaste paper recovery and utilization rates. Byemploying pooled time series and cross-sectiondata over 49 countries worldwide and sevenyears, the paper concludes that relative wastepaper recovery and use depend largely onlong-standing economic factors such aspopulation intensity and competitiveness in theworld market for paper and board products. Wealso find evidence that supports the conjecturethat rich countries tend to recover relativelymore waste paper than is the case in low-incomecountries, reflecting the higher demand forwaste management and environmental policies inmore developed economies. As recovery andutilization rates are determined by economicand demographic characteristics the degree ofpolicy flexibility in affecting these rates maybe limited. In particular, an ambitiousutilization rate target may be very costly toenforce as it can conflict with existing tradepatterns of paper and board products as well aswith other environmental goals. Additionalpolicy targets may therefore be desirable,especially since paper recycling is motivatedprimarily by environmental concerns and seldomis a benign activity in itself.

  • 7. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Complementing empirical evidence on global recycling and trade of waste paper2003In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 743-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This comment provides a critical analysis of Van Beukering and Bouman’s [World Development 29 (2001) 1717] article on global paper recycling and trade. We first question their notion that developing countries specialize in waste paper utilization and developed countries in recovery activities primarily because of different patterns of waste paper trade. An increased focus on relative waste paper availability, we argue, provides us with a better understanding of global paper recycling. We also criticize some of the implicit assumptions made in their regression analysis of waste paper utilization rates. An alternative regression model is therefore derived and estimated. In contrast to the approach used by Van Beukering and Bouman our analysis (a) is consistent with basic microeconomic theory; (b) distinguishes clearly between short- and long-run impacts; and (c) produces results that support our initial conjecture that waste paper availability is the most important determinant of waste paper use.

  • 8. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Källsortering i Eskilstuna Kommun: hushållens aktiviteter, erfarenheter och attityder inför försöket med insamling efter materialströmmar2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturvårdsverket har utsett Eskilstuna som försökskommun för att testa ett nytt system för avfallshantering. Syftet är att studera hur insamlingen påverkas av att hushållen källsorterar efter materialströmmar till skillnad från idag efter förpackningar. Försöket inbegriper hårdplast och metall och innebär att dessa material utöver alla hårdplast- och metallförpackningar, t ex diskborstar, kastruller, bestick, mm., ska slängas vid återvinningsstationer och/eller i behållare i de fastighetsnära utrymmena. Försöket pågår från september 2007 till september 2008. Ett viktigt mål är att ett eventuellt nytt system baserat på materialströmmar ska vara lättillgängligt och betraktas som legitimt utifrån hushållens synvinkel. Syftet med denna rapport är att göra en så kallad "nollmätning", dvs. en undersökning av hushållens källsorteringsaktiviteter, erfarenheter och attityder inför försöket med materialinsamling. Resultaten bygger på en postenkät som skickades ut i augusti 2007 till 798 hushåll i de bostadsområden i Eskilstuna som omfattas av försöket. Undersökningen inbegriper hushållens erfarenheter av och attityder gentemot källsorteringen i Eskilstuna i stort, men speciellt utrymme ges åt hushållens källsortering av avfall baserat på metall och hårdplast.

  • 9. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Modeling technical change in energy system analysis: analyzing the introduction of learning-by-doing in bottom-up energy models2006In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 34, no 12, p. 1344-1356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview and a critical analysis of the recent literature on incorporating induced technical change in energy systems models. Special emphasis is put on surveying recent studies aimed at integrating learning-by-doing into bottom-up energy systems models through so-called learning curves, and on analyzing the relevance of learning curve analysis for understanding the process of innovation and technology diffusion in the energy sector. The survey indicates that this model work represents a major advance in energy research, and embeds important policy implications, not the least concerning the cost and the timing of environmental policies (including carbon emission constraints). However, bottom-up energy models with endogenous learning are also limited in their characterization of technology diffusion and innovation. While they provide a detailed account of technical options—which is absent in many top-down models—they also lack important aspects of diffusion behavior that are captured in top-down representations. For instance, they often fail in capturing strategic technology diffusion behavior in the energy sector as well as the energy sector's endogenous responses to policy, and they neglect important general equilibrium impacts (such as the opportunity cost of redirecting R&D support to the energy sector). Some suggestions on how innovation and diffusion modeling in bottom-up analysis can be improved are put forward.

  • 10. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Modeling technical change in energy system analysis: analyzing the introduction of learning-by-doing in bottom-upenergy models2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview and acritical analysis of the recent literature on incorporatinginduced technical change in energy systems models. Special emphasisis put on surveying recent studies aiming at integrating learning-by-doing into bottom-up energy systems models through so-calledlearning curves, and on analyzing the relevance of learning curveanalysis for understanding the process of innovation and technologydiffusion in the energy sector. The survey indicates that this modelwork represents a major advance in energy research, and embedsimportant policy implications, not the least concerning the costand the timing of environmental policies (including carbon emissionconstraints). However, bottom-up energy models with endogenouslearning are also limited in their characterization of technologydiffusion and innovation. While they provide a detailed accountof technical options - which is absent in many top-down models -they also lack important aspects of diffusion behavior that arecaptured in top-down representations. For instance, they fall incapturing strategic technology diffusion behavior in the energysector, and they neglect important general equilibrium impacts(such as the opportunity cost of redirecting R&D support to theenergy sector). For these reasons bottom-up and top-down modelswith induced technical change should not be viewed as substitutes but rather as complements.

  • 11. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Swedish Competition Authority.
    A note on inter-country differences in waste paper recovery and utilization2002In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 175-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries worldwide express waste paper recycling targets in terms of recovery and utilization rates. The main purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the most important determinants of inter-country differences in these waste paper rates. By employing two regression models and using data for 89 and 81 countries, respectively, the paper concludes that relative waste paper recovery and use are largely market-determined, and depend thus on long-standing economic factors such as population intensity and competitiveness in the world market for paper and board products. We also find evidence that supports the conjecture that rich countries tend to recover relatively more waste paper than is the case in low-income countries, reflecting the higher demand for waste management and environmental policies in more developed economies. As recovery and utilization rates are determined largely by long-standing economic and demographic characteristics the degree of policy flexibility in affecting these rates may be limited. In particular, an ambitious utilization rate target may be very costly to enforce as it can conflict with existing trade patterns of paper and board products as well as with other environmental goals. Additional policy targets may, therefore, be desirable, especially since paper recycling is motivated primarily by environmental concerns and seldom is a benign activity in itself.

  • 12.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Kinneryd, Hanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Command-and-control revisited: environmental compliance and innovation in Swedish industry 1970-19902012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of environmental policy instrument choice for achieving deep emissions reductions in the industrial sector. Specifically, it provides: (a) a theoretical review of the conditions under which performance standards can provide efficient incentives for environmental compliance and innovation ; and (b) an analysis of the design and the outcomes of the standards-based regulation of industrial pollutants in Sweden during the period 1970 - 1990. The empirical findings suggest that the Swedish regulatory approach comprised many key elements of an efficient policy-induced transition towards radically lower emissions in the metal smelting and pulp and paper industries. The regulation relied heavily on performance standards, thus granting flexibility to firms in terms of selecting the appropriate compliance measures, and the standards were implemented in combination with extended probation periods. R&D projects and the new knowledge that was advanced incrementally in interaction between the company, the environmental authorities and the research institutions provided a direct catalyst to the regulatory process. As such the Swedish regulatory approach provided scope for creative solutions, environmental innovation, and permitted the affected firms to coordinate pollution prevention measures with productive investments.

  • 13.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Department of Economic History, Umeå university.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Kinneryd, Hanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Department of Economic History, Umeå university.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Command-and-control revisited: environmental compliance and technological change in Swedish industry 1970-19902013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 85, p. 6-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of environmental policy instrument choice for achieving deep emission reductions in the industrial sector. Specifically, it provides: (a) a theoretical and empirical review of the conditions under which performance standards can provide efficient incentives for deep emission reductions and technology adoption; and (b) an analysis of the design and the outcomes of the standards-based regulation of industrial pollutants in Sweden during the period 1970–1990. Our empirical findings suggest that the Swedish regulatory approach comprised many key elements of an efficient policy-induced transition towards radically lower emissions in the metal smelting and pulp and paper industries. The regulation relied solely on performance standards, thus granting flexibility to firms in terms of selecting the appropriate compliance measures. These standards were implemented in combination with extended compliance periods. R&D projects and the new knowledge that was advanced incrementally in interaction between the company, the environmental authorities and research institutions provided a direct catalyst to the regulatory process. In these ways the Swedish regulatory approach provided scope for creative solutions, environmental innovation, and permitted the affected companies to coordinate pollution abatement measures with productive investments.

  • 14.
    Bladh, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Ek, Kristina
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Shared or individual responsibility: eco-labelling and consumer choice in Sweden2010In: Environmental Policy and Household Behaviour: Sustainability and Everyday Life, London: Earthscan / James & James, 2010, p. 173-192Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Bladh, Mats
    et al.
    Energimyndigheten.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    UP-rapport Allmänna energisystemstudier: Rådgivande underlag från utvecklingsplattformen Allmänna energisystemstudier till Energimyndighetens FOKUS-process2015Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Blomberg, Jerry
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Factor demand flexibility in the primary aluminium industry: Evidence from stagnating and expanding regions2011In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 238-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to analyse and compare short-run factor demand responses to price changes in the primary aluminium industry in Western Europe and the Africa-Middle East (AME) region. We outline a Translog variable cost function model, which is estimated employing a panel data set at the individual smelter level over the time period 1990-2003. The empirical results show evidence of limited - but far from insignificant - price-induced factor demand responses in the short-run. Overall aluminium smelters in the AME-region show evidence of higher estimated short-run own- and cross-price elasticities than their competitors in Western Europe, at least when it comes to labour and electricity demand. One important reason for this result is the greater number of pot lines with slightly different technologies at each smelter as well as the more intense use of the Prebake technology in the AME-region making retrofits in existing plants less costly than in Western Europe. The results also suggest that in both regions the demand for electricity has over time become less sensitive to short-run price changes, while the labour and material demand responses to price changes have increased but only in the AME-region. The liberalisation of the Western European electricity markets in combination with the rigid labour markets in this part of the world suggest that the shift in production capacity from the western world to the AME-region as well as China may continue

  • 17. Blomberg, Jerry
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The economics of secondary aluminium supply: an econometric analysis based on European data2009In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 58, no 8, p. 455-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the economics of secondary aluminium supply in Western Europe. We derive a supply model of secondary aluminium recovery and recycling, which integrates microeconomic theory of production with a dynamic model of scrap generation and accumulation. The supply function contains the secondary output price, a vector of input prices, and a measure of the size of the stock of old aluminium scrap. The model is estimated using pooled cross-section and annual time-series data for four European countries, Germany, France, Italy and the United Kingdom, over the time period 1983-2000. The estimated own-price elasticity of secondary aluminium supply is low (0.21) as is the supply response to changes in the stock of old scrap. The empirical results are useful for analyzing market behavior and policy impacts in the secondary aluminium market. The low supply responses to changes in the output price can - in combination with the high-income elasticity of material demand - help explain the observed price volatility of secondary aluminium prices. They also suggest that price-based policies influencing the supply side of the market may only have limited impacts on aluminium recycling rates, and that national collection of aluminium scrap is likely to have small influences on secondary aluminium production internationally.

  • 18.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    Umeå universitet.
    Bäckstrand, Karin
    Lunds universitet.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Vetenskapliga rådets utblick2012In: Miljö, ekonomi och politik 2012, Stockholm: Konjunkturinstitutet , 2012, p. 189-194Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19. Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Leck, Caroline
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Vetenskapliga rådets utblick2014In: Miljö, ekonomi och politik 2014, Stockholm: Konjunkturinstitutet , 2014, p. 117-123Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20. Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Vetenskapliga rådets utblick2013In: Miljö, ekonomi och politik, Stockholm: Konjunkturinstitutet , 2013, p. 145-151Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21. Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    Leck, Caroline
    Mickwitz, Per
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Vetenskapliga rådets utblick2015In: Miljö, ekonomi och politik 2015, Stockholm: Konjunkturinstitutet , 2015, p. 113-119Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22. Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Karimu, Amin
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Convergence in carbon dioxide emissions and the role of growth and institutions: A parametric and nonparametric analysis2014Report (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umea School of Business and Economics, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
    Karimu, Amin
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umea School of Business and Economics, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Convergence in carbon dioxide emissions and the role of growth and institutions: a parametric and nonparametric analysis2017In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 359-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines convergence of per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emission for a panel of 124 countries taking into account the impact of economic growth and the quality of government institutions. The analysis builds on both parametric and non-parametric panel data techniques, and we examine the β-convergence hypothesis in a neoclassical growth model setting with institutional quality as one of the independent variables influencing both emissions and output growth. The results reveal evidence in support of β-convergence of per capita CO2 emissions for the global sample, and for the sub-samples comprising OECD versus non-OECD countries and high- versus low-income countries, respectively. There is, however, heterogeneity in β-convergence and it tends to vary with the level of the initial per capita CO2 emissions. We also report evidence of a negative direct effect of institutional quality on growth in per capita CO2 emissions, especially for the global and high-income samples. However, institutional quality also promotes economic growth, thus generating a positive indirect effect on emissions growth. Overall the empirical results suggest a positive net effect of institutional quality on growth in per capita CO2 emissions in the global sample. Finally, the non-parametric approach reveals some evidence of bias in the parametric approach, in particular in the case of the estimates for the convergence parameter at either end of the distribution.

  • 24. Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Convergence of carbon dioxide performance across Swedish industrial sectors: An environmental index approach2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of the paper is to analyze convergence of CO2 emission intensity across manufacturing sectors in Sweden. Our approach differs from previous work on carbon convergence in that it employs a theoretical framework to construct a CO2 performance index, which explicitly takes into account that industrial firms produce good as well as bad outputs. This index is then used as the dependent variable in a growth-type regression equation. We employ a data set covering 14 industrial sectors over the time period 1990-2008. The results suggest the presence of conditional β-convergence in CO2 performance among the industrial sectors in Sweden. Moreover, the speed of convergence varies significantly in the sense that the higher the capital intensity is, the lower is the convergence rate to the different steady states. This reflects the importance of – and in part the costs associated with – capital turnover to achieve a transition towards lower CO2 emission paths.

  • 25.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Convergence of carbon dioxide performance across Swedish industrial sectors: an environmental index approach2015In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 51, p. 227-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of the paper is to analyze convergence of CO2 emission intensity across manufacturing sectors in Sweden. Our approach differs from previous work on carbon convergence in that it employs a theoretical framework to construct a CO2 performance index, which explicitly takes into account that industrial firms produce good as well as bad outputs. This index is then used as the dependent variable in a growth-type regression equation. We employ a data set covering 14 industrial sectors over the time period 1990–2008. The results suggest the presence of conditional β-convergence in CO2 performance among the industrial sectors in Sweden. Moreover, the speed of convergence varies significantly in the sense that the higher the capital intensity is, the lower is the convergence rate to the different steady states. This is likely to reflect the importance of – and in part the costs associated with – capital turnover to achieve a transition towards lower CO2 emission paths.

  • 26.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Kampen om skogen: koka, såga, bränna eller bevara?2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken ger ett samhällsekonomiskt perpsektiv på utnyttjandet av skogen och dess resurser genom att belysa ett antal centrala ekonomiska och politiska faktorer som påverkar användningen av skogen och till viss del även dess produktionsförmåga. I boken diskuteras också behovet av statlig styrning inom skogssektorn samt analyseras konsekvenserna av olika politiska vägval.

  • 27.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå universitet.
    Elmarknaden och elprisets utveckling före och efter avregleringen: ekonometriska analyser2012Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Bäckström, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Public Policies and Solar PV Innovation: An Empirical Study Based on Patent Data2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to examine the innovation impacts of different renewable energy support policies and their interaction in the empirical context of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. This is achieved using data on patent applications for 13 countries over the time period 1978-2008. Three policies are included in the analysis: public R&D support to solar PV, fixed feed-in tariffs (FIT), and renewable energy certificate (REC) schemes. The results are overall robust to alternative model specifications, and indicate that: (a) both FIT schemes and REC schemes induce more solar PV patenting activity even though the impact of the former policy appears to be more profound; (b) (lagged) public R&D support has an important impact on solar PV innovation; and (c) policy interaction exists in that the impact of public R&D support on innovation is greater at the margin if it is accompanied by the use of FIT schemes for solar PV. A corresponding interaction effect does not emerge in the case of public R&D and the use of REC schemes, possibly due to the relatively strong technology selection pressure under the latter policy.

  • 29. Coria, Jessica
    et al.
    Hennlock, Magnus
    Löfgren, Åsa
    Persson, Martin
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sterner, Thomas
    Wråke, Markus
    The progress of GHG markets: opportunities and risks2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate negotiations at the COP15 in December 2009 did not produce a new international treaty with binding emissions commitments but the Copenhagen Accord for dealing with post-2012 climate change. Given the current climate negotiation process it is unlikely that we will see a global climate agreement soon on a global cap between all Convention members participating in a single carbon market. We may be more likely to see a stepwise process moving towards this scenario, most likely involving linkages between different national policy programs when it comes to mitigation as well as offsetting emissions. In such a process countries will offer commitments based on their domestic abilities, preferences and policies, norms and institutions. National and sub-national policies are thus likely to be the de-facto building blocks of nations' abilities to make and fulfill international commitments. However, also with multilateral mitigation programs without binding commitments, carbon markets will be needed as well as international authorities that support measurement, reporting and verification rules and the international registries. Such markets will necessarily be complicated and temporary in a world without an overarching binding agreement. There will be numerous tradeoffs between different kinds of second-best arrangements. The purpose of this report is to build knowledge about the effects of the development of regional and international carbon markets and the auxiliary technology agreements that might be needed. Among the topics we address are: the evolution and integration of carbon markets, the impacts of policy and technology cost uncertainty on the cost of meeting targets through a carbon market mechanism, the effect of banking, price floors and ceilings, institutional constraints and technological change in the further development of carbon markets and their links to other environmental policy instruments, and the potential of REDD-plus to encourage sustainable forest development and climate mitigation.

  • 30.
    Dahlqvist, Anna
    et al.
    National Institute of Economic Research.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Industrial Energy Use, Management Practices and Price Signals: The Case of Swedish Process Industry2019In: International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, ISSN 2146-4553, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 30-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of the paper are to: (a) derive and discuss indicators of industrial companies’ decision-making and management practices on energy use; and (b) investigate whether these practices can help explain variations in energy intensities across these companies. The data were collected through telephone interviews with 101 large industrial firms in Sweden. The indicators display a significant overall increase in firms’ awareness of energy efficiency issues over time, including the attention devoted to these issues at the top management level. Still, our econometric results show that energy prices constitute the most important determinant of inter-firm differences in energy intensities. Higher energy prices over the time-period, have induced the implementation of energy-relevant management and practices, and led to more systematic decision-making processes. Finally, firms for which so-called ‘hidden’ costs, e.g., the costs of production disruptions, are a large concern, will be more energy intense than others.

  • 31.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Möjligheter och hinder för en grön energiomställning: erfarenheter från andra regioner med lärdomar för Norrbotten2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report has been prepared for the project Green energy investments, which has been funded by the European Regional Development Fund, the County Council of Norrbotten, the County Administrative Board of Norrbotten, and the Swedish Energy Agency. The project has been managed by North Sweden Energy Agency in collaboration with Luleå University of Technology (Energy Technology, Economics, and Entrepreneurship and Innovation) and Företagarna Norrbotten.

    The objectives of the report are to: (a) increase knowledge about the potential regional and benefits of a green energy transition and the obstacles to such a transition; and (b) identify and discuss various strategies, policy instruments and business models that can contribute to the realization of new green energy solutions. This is achieved by consulting and synthesizing relevant experiences from earlier energy transition processes, as well as by discussing the prerequisites for such a transition in the county of Norrbotten specifically.

    The report contains three main parts. The first part is generic and based on experiences and lessons from other regions and countries. Here we first discuss obstacles to green energy projects, with a focus on financing opportunities, conditions for the development of new technology and obstacles in the form of social constructions such as stereotypical conceptions about gender, ethnicity etc. In a case study of the obstacles to increased use of excess heat we highlight a number of factors that are important to address in several types of energy projects involving actor collaborations. The first part of the report also contains a discussion of how green energy projects can promote regional economic development, and pin-points factors that determine the magnitude of these effects. A key lesson is that these positive effects do not always occur automatically; various measures and strategies may often be needed. For this reason we also discuss a number of such strategies, e.g., regional funds, local ownership, crowdfunding, as well as strategies that aim at explicitly strengthening the actor networks that need to be established around the new energy projects.

    The second part of the report focuses on Norrbotten, and discusses the prerequisites for a green energy transition with significant economic development can be achieved in the county. These prerequisites are described with reference to the existing strategies that are there to promote regional economic growth; a common denominator for these is that they all point to the possibilities to combined regional growth objectives and a sustainable energy transition. We also discuss the regional prospects for inclusive, not least gender equal, innovation in the county of Norrbotten.

    In the third and final part of the report the most significant lessons are summarized. Here we clarify the relevance of earlier experiences for the regional context, and we discuss, based on interviews with project owners, the experiences concerning obstacles and strategies from seven different energy projects that form part of the project Green energy investments. In a final chapter we highlight a number of important lessons and recommendations for future efforts aimed at promoting the energy transition processes in Norrbotten.

  • 32. Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mining investment and regional development: a scenario-based assessment for Northern Sweden2011In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 14-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way in which mineral development contributes to economic development in the region where it takes place is important for the mining industry's relations to the local community. The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment of the regional-economic impacts of a large-scale contemporary iron ore project in Northern Sweden (including two new mines, two processing plants, and one pellet plant). The regional input-output model rAps, provided by the Swedish government agency NUTEK is used, and it explicitly addresses the linkages between demographic development, the labour market, industrial production and the municipal finances in a consistent modelling framework. The simulation results suggest an average employment multiplier of about 2-2.5 during the maximum production phase, indicating that for every 100 jobs in mining about 100-150 jobs are supported elsewhere in the local economy. The positive impacts in this case are made possible in large because of the existing mining cluster and local suppliers in northern Sweden. Still, these results are perhaps best viewed as an indication of the potential for local economic development as they neglect, for instance, potential supply constraints (e.g., attracting the necessary labour force, road infrastructure, etc.). Specific policies to further strengthen the regional linkage effects may therefore be necessary in order for this potential to be realized in practice, and attention would preferably be paid to policy measures that have positive external spillover effects on the surrounding geographical area.

  • 33. Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The regional economic impacts of mining: the case of northern Sweden2009In: 8th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD) and Securing the Future: Mining, Metals & the Environment in a Sustainable Society 2009: Skelleftea, Sweden, 22 - 26 June 2009, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wind power, regional development and benefit-sharing: The case of Northern Sweden2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 47, p. 476-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the question of how investments in wind power can promote regional development and employment, as well as how different benefit-sharing instruments (e.g., community funds etc.) can be used to strengthen the positive impacts. The objectives of the paper are to provide: (a) a survey of previous regional-economic assessments of wind power projects; as well as (b) a quantitative assessment of the employment impacts of an ongoing wind farm investment in the Swedish county of Norrbotten under different benefit-sharing scenarios. Our model-based input–output analysis confirms many of the findings of previous research, such as significant construction work impacts, especially in the presence of local manufacturing. The analysis also illustrates that in the absence of any benefit-sharing mechanism, the employment impacts for Norrbotten during the operating phase will be modest (with an employment multiplier of 1.4). However, even if a relatively low share of the wind power revenues is assumed to accrue to the local government this would have significant positive impacts on employment rates. For this reason, additional research on various types of benefit-sharing instruments is called for, including studies of the associated challenges and trade-offs

  • 35.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Michanek, Gabriel
    Ödberg, Christer
    Turismen och naturresurserna, konflikt eller samverkan?: en förstudie till ett rättsekonomiskt forskningsprojekt2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Turismen har blivit en viktig näringsgren i Sverige, detta gäller både i storstadsregioner och på landsbygd. Landsbygdens - och inte minst Norrlands - särskilda nisch bygger i hög grad på naturupplevelser, såsom bl.a. forsränning, överlevnadskurser, jakt, fiske, exkursioner, fågelskådning etc. Anspråken på naturresurserna är dock många, och i flera fall finns en ökad risk för intressekonflikter kring utnyttjandet av exempelvis markområden. Denna rapport ut-gör resultatet av en förstudie till ett större forskningsprojekt vars huvudsakliga mål skulle vara att analysera möjligheterna för ett samhällsekonomiskt effektivt nyttjande av de norrländska naturresurserna för turism- och rekreationsändamål, samt i vilken mån den rådande lagstift-ningen utgör ett hinder för att uppnå detta mål. Syftet med denna förstudie är att: (a) ge en översikt av tidigare nationell och internatio-nell forskning som bidragit med kunskap om naturens rekreationsvärden, samt om åtgärder genom vilka dessa värden kan förstärkas; samt (b) identifiera centrala intressekonflikter vilka möjliggör en analys av lagstiftningens roll för ett samhällsekonomiskt effektivt utnyttjande av naturresurserna. Vår genomgång av tidigare forskning visar att det finns ett såväl vetenskapligt som praktiskt värde i att utforma ett rättsekonomiskt forskningsprojekt där dagens lagstiftning och rättstillämpning skärskådas med samhällsekonomiska metoder, men där samtidigt dessa senare metoders begränsningar lyfts fram tydligare än vad som tidigare har varit fallet. Dessa begränsningar består främst i: (a) det begränsade utrymmet för deliberation och diskussion; (b) antagandet om kontinuerliga och exogena preferenser; samt (c) fokus på individuella snarare än kollektiva värden. Detta innebär att existerande värderingsmetoder med fördel kan kompletteras med ett starkare inslag av fokusgruppdiskussioner och s.k. medborgarjurys där preferenser kan skapas endogent via diskussioner med andra (inklusive experter). I rapporten argumenteras för att dessa nya angreppssätt är av stort värde för ett forskningsprojekt som rör den norrländska naturens turism- och rekreationsvärden, och de intressekonflikter som kan beröra realiserandet av dessa. Rapporten identifierar vidare fyra områden inom vilka denna forskning praktiskt bör kunna bedrivas: (a) allemansrätten och turismen; (b) gruvindustrin och turismen; (c) omställ-ningen av energisystemet och turismen; samt (d) markupplåtelser och upplevelseturism. På alla dessa områden finns ett tydligt utrymme för fruktbart mångvetenskapligt samarbete kring ett rättsekonomiskt projekt, där exempelvis lagstiftningens begränsningar och samhällsekono-miska konsekvenser kan belysas och kontrasteras utifrån såväl lagtext, förarbeten, och praxis som kompletterande preferensstudier av "stakeholders" samt allmänhet. Genom att fokusera forskningen på ett eller flera sådana områden lyfts också centrala frågor och problem fram som rör turism- och upplevelseproduktion i Norrland och dess koppling till nyttjandet av landsändans naturresurser och markområden.

  • 36.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Norrbottens roll i samhällsekonomin: En kritisk granskning av indikatorer samt några lärdomar för framtiden2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Framtidens Norrbotten: Fem scenariobeskrivningar över länets utveckling2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport utgör en framåtriktad analys av de regionala förutsättningar som rapporterats inom projektet Regional förnyelse, som finansierats av Länsstyrelsen i Norrbottens län och Luleå tekniska universitet (LTU). Utifrån de studier och rapporter som bidragit till en ökad förståelse kring länets möjligheter och utmaningar resonerar vi i den här studien om möjliga framtidsscenarier för Norrbotten. Vår målsättning är inte att förutspå den regionala utvecklingen utan att i stället lyfta fram ett antal scenarier som det regionala utvecklingsarbetet kan leda till. Syftet blir att skapa ett diskussionsunderlag som kan vara till nytta för framtida utveckling av regionala strategier såsom exempelvis den regionala utvecklingsstrategin och den regionala innovationsstrategin. Regionala strategierDen regionala utvecklingsstrategin ingår i EU:s och Sveriges strategier för hållbar tillväxt och är styrande för de mer operativa programmen i länet. Strategin binder samman planeringsprocesser som har betydelse för en hållbar tillväxt och kan därigenom underlätta samverkan inom och mellan länen. Strategin utgör och ett strategiskt underlag i förhandlingar mellan länet och regeringen och även vid överläggningar på EU-nivå.Den regionala analysen av Norrbottens förutsättningar för utveckling och potential för tillväxt resulterade i fem strategiska områden där ett antal prioriterade åtgärder anges. De största utmaningarna är den demografiska utvecklingen och den framtida kompetensförsörjningen. Avgörande för regionens tillväxt är att det finns arbetskraft och kompetens som matchar arbetslivets behov. Med en allt äldre befolkning ökar försörjningsbördan och det blir allt svårare att upprätthålla välfärden med minskade skatteunderlag.Regionala analyserEtt flertal rapporter och studier har författats inom ramarna för projektet Regional förnyelse. Näringslivsanalyser och analyser av internationell handel stödjer att det finns goda förutsättningar för tillväxt inom länets företag. Företagarna beskriver kompetensförsörjning som en av de största utmaningarna för att uppnå planerad tillväxttakt. Regionala scenarierUtifrån de regionala analyserna har fem scenarier, i form av framtidsbilder, målats upp. Avsikten med scenarierna är att beskriva hur regionala insatser och utveckling kan skapa alternativa framtider för Norrbotten. Avsikten med scenarierna är således inte att förutspå regionens framtida utveckling utan snarare peka på hur olika typer av regional utveckling kan skapa olika förutsättningar. De scenarios som diskuteras i denna rapport är:— Scenario I: Basindustriregionen— Scenario II: Kunskap, kreativitet och kommunikation som regional drivkraft— Scenario III: Förändrat globalt klimat med nya möjligheter— Scenario IV: Smart specialisering baserad på relaterad variation— Scenario V: Diversifiering efter en nationell genomsnittsmodell

  • 38.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    Projekt: Regional förnyelse2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Active and passive electricity consumers on the deregulated Swedish electricity market2007In: 9:th IAEE European Energy Conference: Energy Markets and Sustainability in a Larger Europe / [ed] Carlo Andrea Bollino, Italian Association of Energy Economics , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electricity price paid by Swedish consumers has increased significantly during the last years. The increasing electricity costs have been frequently debated in the media and the most common explanation – although probably too simplistic – is weak market performance. Since 1996 when the Swedish electricity market was deregulated the consumers can actively choose between different electricity producers and/or renegotiate the contract with the prevailing supplier; the impact of consumer behavior on the functioning of the market (i.e., on electricity prices) has thus increased. Still, the general understanding as expressed by policy makers is that the average Swedish household is not very active in terms of changing supplier and/or renegotiating contract. There are policies aimed at promoting electricity consumers to become more active that are potentially cost effective. To be able to design such policies is it however important to know more about how the more active consumers differs from the less active ones. Some consumers may, for instance, perceive barriers in the form of high non monetary costs in terms of lack of information and/or high searching costs while others may become active at relatively low costs. The purpose of this paper is to identify the main factors that promotes and prevents increased activity among Swedish electricity consumers; more specifically we study the factors that govern the decision to change supplier and/or renegotiating prevailing contracts. The econometric analysis is carried out in a binary choice framework. Results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1200 randomly selected Swedish households in late 2005, the response rate was 47 percent. The questionnaire collected information about the self-reported behavior on the electricity market, attitudes towards and confidence in the actors of the market, about the perceived functioning of the market, prevailing contract type, perceived costs associated with a more active behavior, electricity consumption levels and costs. In the theoretical model we draw on previous research and claim that the consumer decision whether to change supplier and/or renegotiate contract or not is governed by three different effects: (a) “status quo effects”, factors that motivates the consumer to change supplier/contract; (b) so called “push effects”; and (c) so called “pull effects”, factors that motivates the consumer to stick to the present supplier/contract. The presence off “status quo effects” is heavily influenced by research on individual choices in both psychology and economics and according to central results in this research most of the individuals are not able to – and do not want to – continuously evaluate their consumption decisions. Results show that those who state that they find it difficult to affect the size of their electricity costs and to evaluate the different offers from different suppliers are less likely to be active on the electricity market. We also note - as would be expected – that households with relatively high electricity costs have on average been more inclined to be active on the market. The results imply that measures aimed at facilitating the comparison of the offers from different electric power suppliers may be productive so as to increase the degree of activity among Swedish electricity consumers.

  • 40.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Analyzing energy cnservation behavior among Swedish households: the role of information2008In: Bridging energy supply and demand: Logistics, competition and environment: 31st IAEE International Conference, Istanbul, Turkey, June 18 - 20, 2008, IAEE , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Economics of technology learning in wind power2013In: Encyclopedia of Energy, Natural Resource, and Environmental Economics, Elsevier, 2013, p. 188-194Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to review a number of important theoretical and empirical challenges in measuring technology learning (learning-by-doing rates) in the energy sector. Particular attention is paid to the case of wind power, a technology that is believed to be a key in complying with future climate policy targets and that has been in focus in many previous learning studies. The article discusses the following challenges: (a) the incorporation of other drivers of cost reduction beyond that of cumulative experience, including the roles of returns-to-scale and R&D; (b) the geographical domain of technology learning and R&D spillovers; (c) the interaction between technology diffusion and learning-by-doing; and (d) the overall character of the process of technological progress. We also draw on the existing empirical literature on wind power learning rates to illustrate different ways to model learning, as well as some central results in previous work.

  • 42.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Green electricity consumption in Swedish households: the role of norm-motivated consumer behavior2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide an econometric analysis of the most important determinants of Swedish households' (self-reported) willingness to accept a price premium for "green" electricity. Methodologically, we draw heavily on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behavior into neoclassical consumer theory, and assume that individuals have a preference for keeping a self-image as a responsible person. Consumer behavior in the "green market place" will then be heavily determined by how purchases of different goods affect this self-image. The analysis is based on postal survey responses from 655 Swedish households in four different municipalities, which are analyzed within a binary choice econometric framework. The results indicate that the impact of choosing "green" on the household budget largely influences the willingness to contribute to "green" electricity schemes, as do the degree of perceived personal responsibility for the issue and the felt ability to affect the outcome in a positive way. We find only limited support for the idea that perception about others' behavior affect individual moral norms and ultimately behavior: stronger support is rather found for the hypothesis that the presence of a prescriptive social norm influences the willingness to pay for "green" electricity. The difficulty in observing others' purchases makes it however particularly difficult to distinguish between social and moral norms in the case of "green" electricity.

  • 43.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Households' switching behavior between electricity suppliers in Sweden2008In: Utilities Policy, ISSN 0957-1787, E-ISSN 1878-4356, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 254-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors affecting households' decisions to: (a) switch to a new electricity supplier; and (b) actively renegotiate the electricity contract with the prevailing supplier. The study is based on 536 survey responses from Swedish households and they are analyzed econometrically using probit regression techniques. The analysis is based on a theoretical framework, which embraces both economic and psychological motives behind household decision-making. The results show that households that anticipate significant economic benefits from choosing a more active behavior are also more likely to purse this, while those with smaller potential gains (e.g., households without electric heating) are less likely to change supplier and/or renegotiate their contracts. The impact of overall electricity costs and knowledge about these is particularly important for the latter decision, while respondents that perceive relatively high search and information costs are less likely to switch to an alternative electricity supplier. Moreover, constraints on time, attention, and the ability to process information, may lead to optimizing analyses being replaced by imprecise routines and rules of thumb, and the benefits of the status quo appear to represent one of those simplifying rules. This also opens up for other influences on households' activity such as social interaction and media discourses that raise the attention level. Our results show that these influences are more likely to affect households' choice to switch to new service providers, i.e., the one area of the two investigated here that put the most demand on people's ability to search for and process information.

  • 44. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Norms and economic motivation in the Swedish green electricity market2008In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 68, no 1-2, p. 169-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an econometric analysis of the most important determinants of Swedish households' choice to pay a price premium for "green" electricity. We draw on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behavior into neoclassical consumer theory, and assume that individuals have a preference for keeping a self-image as a morally responsible person. Consumer behavior in the "green market place" will then be heavily determined by how purchases of different goods affect this self-image. The analysis is based on postal survey responses from 655 Swedish households, which are analyzed within a binary choice econometric framework. The results indicate that the impact of choosing "green" on the household budget largely influences the choice between "green" and "brown" electricity, as does the degree of perceived personal responsibility for the issue and the felt ability to affect the outcome in a positive way. We find limited support for the notion that perceptions about others' behavior in general affect individual moral norms and ultimately expressed behavior, but this is also complemented by the influence of explicit social influence. The difficulty in observing others' purchases makes it however difficult to distinguish between social and moral norms in the case of "green" electricity.

  • 45.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Public support for renewable electricity: the importance of policy framing2008In: Ecological economics research trends, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2008, p. 83-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals' contribution to electricity generation based on remewable energy sources can be channelled in two ways. The "green" market approach relies on an 'unconditional' contribution to renewable power while the certificate scheme represents a corresponding 'conditional' support (i.e., I can only contribute if the scheme is at place, and if so many others will also contribute). In both systems the support to renewable power is made possible through a price premium paid for these types of energy sources. In this chapter we draw on the economics literature on individual contributions to public goods and empirically test the overall hypothesis that the framing of renewable power support in a 'conditional' and an 'unconditional' scenario, respectively will tend to trigger different types of moral deliberations. In thr former case the delibarations concern mainly the division of efforts between individuals, while the delibarations in the latter case relate more to the characteristics of the public good in question and the perceived personal responsibility and ability to contribute to this good. This implies also that the variables determining the willingness to accept price premiums for renewable power may differ across schemes considered. We analyze the response to dichotomous willingness to pay (WTP) questions from two different versions of a postal survey sent out to 1200 Swedish house owners. A random effects binary logit model is applied, and the estimated marginal effects support the notion that different types of factors tend to dominate choices depending on the support scheme considered. From these results follow a number of important implications for measures undertaken to increase the public's valuation of renewable power as well as the legitimacy of measure to increase renewable power production.

  • 46. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Technology diffusion and innovation in the European wind power sector: the impact of energy and R&D policies2008In: International Energy Workshop 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an econometric analysis of innovation and diffusion in the European wind power sector. We derive models of wind power innovation and diffusion, which combine a rational choice model of technological diffusion and a learning curve model of cost reductions. The learning model attempts to account for the presence of both domestic learning-by-doing as well as international knowledge spillovers (global learning), and test the extent to which the respective learning-by-doing rates differ. The models are estimated using pooled annual time series data for five European countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, Swe-den and the United Kingdom) over the time period 1986-2001. The empirical results indicate that reductions in investment costs are an important determinant of increased diffusion of wind power, and these cost reductions are in turn explained by both domestic and global learning-by-doing but less so by knowledge accumulating as a result of public R&D support. Feed-in tariffs also play a role in the innovation and diffusion processes. The higher is the feed-in price the higher is, ceteris paribus, the rate of diffusion, and we also test the hypothesis that the impact on diffusion of a marginal increase in the feed-in tariff will differ depending on the support system used. The results support the notion that the UK competitive bidding system was (ceteris paribus) less effective in inducing wind power diffusion compared to the other countries' fixed tariff support schemes. Overall the estimates generated by the learning models are sensitive to the way in which learning-by-doing impacts are included, and the results indicate that the global learning-by-doing rate is significantly higher than the domestic rate. The analysis also indicates that empirically it is difficult to separate the impacts of R&D and learning-by-doing on cost reductions, respectively.

  • 47. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Technology learning in the presence of public R&D: the case of European wind power2010In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 69, no 12, p. 2356-2362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the role of technology learning in European wind power generation in the presence of public R&D. A Cobb-Douglas cost function is employed to derive a learning curve model for wind power, thus illustrating how the investment costs for this technology are influenced by global learning-by-doing, scale effects, and a European R&D-based knowledge stock. We assume that public R&D expenses targeting wind power add to the above stock, and these R&D outlays are in turn hypothesized to be influenced by technology cost levels, the opportunity cost of public R&D as well as by government budget constraints. We estimate the learning and the R&D model, respectively, using a panel data set covering five European countries over the time period 1986-2002. The empirical results confirm the importance of both learning-by-doing and public R&D support in the cost reduction process, and governments' R&D expenses have declined in response to lowered investment costs. This is efficient in the sense that public funds are best targeted at technologies which are far from being commercial. The results also illustrate that governments in Europe have been sensitive to the opportunity cost of public R&D in the energy R&D budget process.

  • 48. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The devil is in the details: household electricity saving behavior and the role of information2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 1578-1587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze Swedish households' willingness to increase their daily efforts to save electricity. The analysis builds on a broad theoretical framework, which embraces both economic and norm-based motivations in explaining household behavior. The paper pays particular attention to the role of information about the availability of different behavioral changes that can be undertaken at the household level. The empirical results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1200 Swedish households, and the econometric analysis is carried out within a so-called ordered probit framework. Our results indicate that costs, environmental attitudes and social interactions are all important determinants of electricity saving activities within Swedish households. We tested the hypothesis that information about available savings measures that is presented in a more concrete and specific way is more likely to affect (stated) behavior than is more general information, and the data collected support this notion. The paper ends by discussing some implications of these results for the design of future informative policy measures in the energy-efficiency field.

  • 49.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    The political economy of integrating markets for tradable renewable energy credits: lessons from the Swedish-Norwegian case2007In: Critical issues in environmental taxation: International and comparative perspectives, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 427-453Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Amundsen, Eirik
    Bergen University.
    Långsiktiga konsekvenser av en utvidgad norsk-svensk elcertifikatmarknad2004Report (Refereed)
123456 1 - 50 of 255
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