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  • 1.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Broberg, Anders
    Umeå universitet.
    Lassinantti, Josefin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Davoli, Lorenzo
    Umeå universitet.
    Kuenen, Stoffel
    Umeå universitet.
    Palmquist, Lena
    Umeå universitet.
    Parnes, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Wennberg, Paula
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    User toolkits for citizen-centric mobild service innovation2012In: eChallenges e-2012 Conference Proceedings / [ed] Paul Cunningham; Miriam Cunningham, IIMC International Information Management Corporation , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Around the world, there is an ongoing shift from en economy focusing on product development to an economy with focus on digital service development. An ongoing initiative in Europe to support this shift is the Internet of Services (IoS) which strives for a situation where everything that is needed to use a software is available as a service. The aim of this paper is to present a toolkit that non-programmers can use develop their own innovative mobile services. This environment strives to put forth a situation where technologies are made available as components that easily can be composed into a mobile services by just about anyone. This has tremendous impact on the feasibility of citizen-centric services where citizens create apps based on their current needs in their contemporary situation.

  • 2.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Eriksson, Carina Ihlström
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Halmstad University.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Places and Spaces within Living Labs2015In: Technology Innovation Management Review, ISSN 1927-0321, E-ISSN 1927-0321, Vol. 5, no 12, p. 37-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we propose the concepts of places and spaces as conceptual tools to facilitate the organization of innovation activities within living labs. We have taken a pragmatic perspective on these concepts regarding how they are integrated in design situations, and how different types of places and spaces can facilitate or hinder innovation. We have found that, by applying openness, realism, and influence in the different spaces of our living lab milieus, they have transformed into many different places depending on the stakeholders involved, the methods chosen, and the facilitation of activities. Hence, by understanding this line of reasoning, living lab managers can make more informed decisions and plans for innovation activities.

  • 3.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Eriksson, Carina Ihlström
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Svensson, Jesper
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    A milieu for innovation: defining living labs2009In: Proceedings of the 2nd ISPIM innovation symposium: Simulating recovery - the Role of innovation management, New York City, USA 6-9 December 2009 / [ed] K.R.E. Huizingh; S. Conn; M. Torkkeli; I. Bitran, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new trend of user involvement in open innovation processes has emerged. Concurring with this trend the Living Lab concept has been revitalized.This concept has attracted attention lately, but there exist no coherentview. In this paper we discuss and define the concept and propose five keycomponents and five key principles for Living Labs based on experiences fromover 30 development and research projects within two Living Labs, Botnia Living Lab and Halmstad Living Lab. The key components are: ICT &Infrastructure; Management; Partners & Users; Research; and Approach. Thekey principles are: Openness; Influence; Realism; Value; and Sustainability.Our proposed definition of a Living Lab is: A Living Lab is a user-centricinnovation milieu built on every-day practice and research, with an approachthat facilitates user influence in open and distributed innovation processesengaging all relevant partners in real-life contexts, aiming to create sustainable values.

  • 4.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Concept design with a living lab approach2009In: 2009 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences: HICSS ; Waikoloa, Hawaii, 5 - 8 January 20 / [ed] Ralph H Sprague Jr, IEEE Communications Society, 2009, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Living Labs is a rather new research area and phenomena that introduces new ways of managing innovation processes. The underlying idea is that people's ideas, experiences, and knowledge, as well as their daily needs of support from products, services, or applications, should be the starting point in innovation. This paper illuminates experiences and accumulated knowledge to the area of concept design in an innovation process within a Living Lab. FormIT, a methodology developed for innovation processes within Living Labs is introduced through an illustration of how it has been utilised in a case. The experiences and the method are related to characteristics of Living Labs, and the paper closes with some concluding remarks in relation to concept design in a Living Lab.

  • 5.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Creating a new leverage point for information systems development2008In: Designing information and organisations with a positive lens, Amsterdam: JAI Press Ltd, 2008, p. 75-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new approach that shifts the leverage point of information systems development from problem orientation to opportunity development. Our approach, entitled FormIT, employs a careful focus on enhanced user involvement, concentrating on users as human beings, and attention to users’ needs as opposed to system requirements. As theoretical and methodological foundations, we build on the 4-D cycle model of Appreciative Inquiry and current research on needfinding. Our field experience demonstrates that FormIT shifts the systems development process from being reactive to being proactive, and in turn, enables a smoother implementation of inevitable change, particularly radical change. Moreover, FormIT stimulates the generation of rich local knowledge and helps reveal deep insights into the development process and the overall organization.

  • 6.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Howcroft, Debra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Disregarding history: Contemporary IS contexts and participatory design2014In: Communications of the Association for Information Systems, ISSN 1529-3181, E-ISSN 1529-3181, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 1319-1332, article id 68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    User participation has long been seen as a core topic of study within the IS field, yet its relevance to contemporary development environments and contexts has recently been brought into question. The aim of this article is to investigate the extent to which this rich history and experience is used to inform contemporary practices. We provide a survey that evaluates the degree to which PD (participatory design) is currently represented in the IS literature, the results of which reveal a low representation. Based on these findings, a number of propositions are offered. © 2014 by the Association for Information Systems.

  • 7.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Howcroft, Debra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Melander-Wikman, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Participation in living lab: designing systems with users2010In: Human Benefit through the Diffusion of Information Systems Design Science Research: IFIP WG 8.2/8.6 International Working Conference, Perth, Australia, March 30 - April 1, 2010, Proceedings / [ed] Jan Pries-Heje; John J. Veneble; Deborah Bunker; Nancy L. Russo; Janice I. DeGross, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2010, p. 317-326Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on a case study of a living lab, this paper considers the process of participation during the design stages of a health care project for the elderly in Sweden. While participation has an established history, more recently it has been described as an "old, tired concept" that is in need of revitalization in order to cater for changing IS practices. In this paper, we reflect on how participation materializes in a context that is quite dissimilar from more traditional development settings and report on the kinds of practices that may be used to assist design with users

  • 8.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Melander-Wikman, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Eriksson, Carina Ihlström
    Halmstad University.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    A Model for Reflective Participatory Design: The Role of Participation, Voice and Space2015In: 21st Americas Conference on Information Systems: AMCIS 2015, Puerto Rico, 13 - 15 August 2015, Americas Conference on Information Systems , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to contribute to the participatory tradition in health informatics by presenting a model for reflective participatory design emerging from qualitative fieldwork in a participatory project aimed to improve the health and wellbeing of older people in the northern periphery regions of Europe, through new mobile services. The model brings together two established processes in novel ways: systems development and user participation. Within each process three concepts are presented to facilitate discussion and reflection at the concept level, the process level and the integrated process level.

  • 9.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Living lab: an open and citizen-centric approach for innovation2009In: International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development, ISSN 1753-0660, E-ISSN 1753-0679, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 356-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we focus on a new research area, Living Lab that introduces new ways of managing innovation processes. A Living Lab can be viewed as both an innovation milieu and an innovation approach and the aim of this paper is to clarify these two perspectives, as well as to illustrate how they can enrich each other. This is done by presenting one Living Lab milieu, Botnia Living Lab and its key components; and one Living Lab approach, FormIT and its key principles. The presentation is done on two levels, one general level and one case specific level. The case focuses on involving citizens in the design of an e-service aimed to increase their influence in a municipality and its development. Through this, we learnt that the key components of a Living Lab constitutes important structures that enhance the process and as such the principles.

  • 10.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Living lab: An open and user-centric design approach2010In: Information and communication technologies, society and human beings: theory and framework, Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2010, p. 190-207Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we focus on a new research area, Living Lab that introduces new ways of managing innovation processes. A Living Lab can be viewed as both an innovation milieu and an innovation approach, and the aim of this chapter is to clarify these two perspectives, as well as to illustrate how they can enrich each other. This is done by presenting one Living Lab milieu, Botnia Living Lab, and its key components; and one Living Lab approach, FormIT, and its key principles. The presentation is done on two levels, one general level and one case specific level. The case focuses on involving citizens in the design of an e-service aimed to increase their influence in a municipality and its development. Through this we learnt that the key components of a Living Lab constitutes important structures that enhance the process and as such the principles

  • 11.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Participatory design: one step back or two steps forward2008In: PDC 2008: proceedings of the tenth anniversary conference on Participatory Design 2008 : Experience and Challenges, October 1-4, 2008, Bloomington, Indiana, USA / [ed] Jesper Simonsen; Toni Robertson; David Hakken, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2008, p. 102-111Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    The elusive nature of user needs in existing information systems literature2007In: Information Management in the Networked Economy - Issues and Solutions: Proceedings of 8th IBIMA Conference / [ed] Khalid Soliman, International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a new approach to facilitate the process of eliciting user needs in the information systems development context. Today is has become important to study users and their needs since products or services that contribute to fulfill an unsatisfied need have a high probability to succeed on the market. Hence, identifying and designing for user needs is imperative in innovation projects. We have identified two missing issues within the existing literature concerning user needs and systems development. Firstly, there are no consistent frameworks or categorizations of different types of needs, and secondly, there are no descriptions of how to proceed in the process of eliciting and analyzing user needs. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to present a theory of human motivation and behavior which we use as a framework to elicit and understand user needs. We have found different strengths with this framework such as the facilitation for the analyst to find divergent views of the same need and as well as needs that were solutions to another need. In addition, divergent views of the same need became obvious when we applied this framework. A drawback we have observed by using the framework is the possibility that a need is forced into a box, thereby risking missing its actual meaning.

  • 13.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    User expressions translated into requirements2010In: Human Technology, ISSN 1795-6889, E-ISSN 1795-6889, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 212-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grounding the development of mobile and ubiquitous services on actual needs and behaviors of users, rather than on designers intuition, is a well established tradition today. However, gathering data about users in different contexts usually result in large amounts of data that have to be analyzed and translated into requirements. This is a crucial process in the development cycle and its outcome is usually very dependent on the preconceptions of the developers or researchers. Despite this strong element of subjective influence the translation process is seldom made transparent. Nor are the user needs related to psychological discussions and existing taxonomies. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to contribute to the field by presenting a process for translating user expressions to needs and later to requirements using Reiss taxonomy of human needs as a theoretical base. Using this translation process we were able to identify two hierarchical levels of needs: needs of a service and needs in the service. The process also made it possible for us to see needs hidden in general expressions and to reformulate them accordingly. Further, it generated a clear traceability from user expressions to requirements, and finally, confirmed the importance of focusing on, and understanding, the situated needs of users.

  • 14.
    Chronéer, Diana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Habibipour, Abdolrasoul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Towards a unified definition of Urban Living Labs2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s ongoing urbanisation and the climate changes there is anincreasing demand on cities to be innovative and inclusive to solve these issues.As an answer to these challenges, the concept of Urban Living Labs has startedto emerge. These Urban Living Labs aims to involve citizens in the process ofdeveloping the city. To date, there is a confusion concerning these UrbanLiving Labs are, what their objective is, their characteristics and theirorganisation. Hence, in this paper we build on the ongoing project UNaLab andthe city representatives perspective of what an Urban Living Lab is and how itcan contribute to their city´s challenges, to define Urban Living Labs and itsthree dimensions.

  • 15.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    In search of innovation: grasping the concept of needs2006In: International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society, ISSN 1832-3669, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting position for this paper is experiences in identifying needs. The paper discusses the concept of needs and seeks to explore whether needs, as a concept, can be identified and understood in the relevant literature. The discussion is inspired by both an engineering design perspective and an interaction design perspective of needs. The discussion highlights a duality of needs, needs are partly easy to express and partly difficult, even impossible, to express. Thus, to grasp the concept as a whole, it is necessary to adapt different approaches. Needs that are difficult to express are situated in the user's context and are experienced by the user as a perceived lack of satisfying solutions. The solution is not understood or known by the user. Therefore, needs cannot be easily expressed by the user; such needs have to be found. An interpretive approach adapted by the design team and/or the needfinder to understand the user's situation and to identify such needs is suggested.

  • 16.
    Fahy, Claire
    et al.
    Waterford Institute of Technology.
    Leon, Miguel Ponce de
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Schaffers, Hans
    Services of living labs and their networks2008In: Expanding the knowledge economy: issues, applications, case studies / [ed] Paul Cunningham; Miriam Cunningham, IOS Press, 2008, Vol. 1, p. 713-721Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Guillén, Sergio
    et al.
    MYSPHERA, Spain.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Lenz, Olivier
    Federation Internationale de l’Automobile, Region I, Belgium.
    IoT European Large-Scale Pilots: Integration, Experimentation and Testing2017In: Cognitive Hyperconnected Digital Transformation: Internet of Things Intelligence Evolution / [ed] Ovidiu Vermesan, SINTEF, Norway; Joël Bacquet, European Commission, Belgium, River Publishers, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IoT European Large-Scale Pilots Programme includes the innovationconsortia that are collaborating to foster the deployment of IoT solutionsin Europe through the integration of advanced IoT technologies across thevalue chain, demonstration of multiple IoT applications at scale and in a usagecontext, and as close as possible to operational conditions.

    The programme projects are targeted, goal-driven initiatives that proposeIoT approaches to specific real-life industrial/societal challenges. They areautonomous entities that involve stakeholders from the supply side to thedemand side, and contain all the technological and innovation elements,the tasks related to the use, application and deployment as well as thedevelopment, testing and integration activities.

    This chapter describes the IoT Large Scale Pilot Programme initiativetogether with all involved actors. These actors include the coordination andsupport actions CREATE-IoT and U4IoT, being them drivers of the programme,and all five IoT Large-Scale Pilot projects, namely ACTIVAGE,IoF2020, MONICA, SynchroniCity and AUTOPILOT.

  • 18.
    Gylling, Arne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Lassinantti, Josefin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Waara, Åsa
    Parnes, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Project: SITE - Smart IT för Energibesparing2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Från ansökan: "Projektet skall via användarmedverkan, med skolungdomar och lärare på Tunaskolan i Luleå, kombinerat med smart IT och design av nya innovativa sätt för visualisering utveckla nya metoder för att minska energiförbrukningen. Projektet bygger vidare på resultat och samarbeten med både nationella och internationella EU projekt inom området energibesparing med fokus på användarmedverkan.Vi vill tillsammans med skolungdomar, morgondagens beslutsfattare, och via deras "normala" kommunikationsvägar (Internet, Web 2.0, Facebook etc) sprida och engagera om energi och miljö. Genom att bygga demonstratorer vill vi lära oss hur och vad man bör fokusera på för att både spara energi men även bidra till en större medvetenhet för områdena. Vi vet att ungdomar idag mycket snabbare sprider "god" information och huvudfokus för projektet är att tillsammans med ungdomarna förstå vad och på vilket sätt energiutnyttjandet skall visualiseras för att "nå ut" och spridas.Vårt mål är att engagera skolan, elever, lärare och besökare, till att bidra med idéer för hur man kan spara energi och värna om miljön. Tillsammans med projektdeltagarna kommer nya Internet-baserade applikationer attutvecklas för visualisering av i realtid uppmätt energiutnyttjande. Tillvägagångssättet kommer vara baserat på att genom korta och snabba iterationer sätta nya versioner av de utvecklade applikationerna "i händerna" påungdomarna som varit med och designat själva hur applikationerna ska se ut för att presentera energiförbrukning på ett enkelt sätt.Vi avser också att via medverkande företag, baserat på resultat i projektet, utveckla nya affärer och vi kommer kontinuerligt under projektet att sprida information om framsteg via Internet, konferenser samt andra samarbetsprojekt.

  • 19.
    Habibipour, Abdolrasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    How to sustain user engagement over time: A research agenda2016In: AMCIS 2016: Surfing the IT Innovation Wave - 22nd Americas Conference on Information Systems, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    User participation in the Information Systems (IS) user studies has become a popular and widely studied research topic. Understanding of how users should be involved in the projects and how to deal with the various challenges of involving users is important. Keeping users motivated over the time is one of the biggest challenges in the process of user involvement. As the first step of research on how to build a sustained user engagement, the aim of this study is to identify, categorize and sum up existing research on why people drop-out of user studies before the project or activity has ended. The main findings of our study indicate that the performance of the prototype, user selection, user preparation, interaction with the users, privacy concerns and scheduling are highly influential on this issue. Based on the findings, this study also proposes a research agenda to guide future studies in this area.

  • 20.
    Habibipour, Abdolrasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Georges, Annabel
    imec.livinglabs.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Schuurman, Dimitri
    imec.livinglabs.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    A Taxonomy of Factors Influencing Drop-Out Behaviour in Living Lab Field Tests2018In: Technology Innovation Management Review, ISSN 1927-0321, E-ISSN 1927-0321, p. 5-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of a “living lab” is a relatively new research area and phenomenon that facilitates user engagement in open innovation activities. Studies on living labs show that the users’ motivation to participate in a field test is higher at the beginning of the project than during the rest of the test, and that participants have a tendency to drop out before completing the assigned tasks. However, the literature still lacks theories describing the phenomenon of drop-out within the area of field tests in general and living lab field tests in particular. As the first step in constructing a theoretical discourse, the aims of this study are to present an empirically derived taxonomy for the various factors that influence drop-out behaviour; to provide a definition of “drop-out” in living lab field tests; and to understand the extent to which each of the identified items influence participant drop-out behaviour. To achieve these aims, we first extracted factors influencing drop-out behaviour in the field test from our previous studies on the topic, and then we validated the extracted results across 14 semi-structured interviews with experts in living lab field tests. Our findings show that identified reasons for dropping out can be grouped into three themes: innovation-related, process-related, and participant-related. Each theme consists of three categories with a total of 44 items. In this study, we also propose a unified definition of “drop-out” in living lab field tests.

  • 21.
    Habibipour, Abdolrasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Padyab, Ali
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Exploring Factors Influencing Participant Drop-Out Behavior in a Living Lab Environment2017In: Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems: 8th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2017, Halden, Norway, August 6-8, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Susanne Stigberg, Joackim Karlsen, Harald Holone, Cathrine Linnes, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 28-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of “living lab” is a rather new phenomenon that facilitates user involvement in open innovation activities. The users’ motivations to contribute to the living lab activities at the beginning of the project are usually higher than once the activities are underway. However, the literature still lacks an understanding of what actions are necessary to reduce the likelihood of user drop-out throughout the user engagement process. This study aims to explore key factors that are influential on user drop-out in a living lab setting by engaging users to test an innovation during the pilot phase of the application’s development. The stability of the prototype, ease of use, privacy protection, flexibility of the prototype, effects of reminders, and timing issues are the key influential factors on user drop-out behavior. This paper summarizes the key lessons learned from the case study and points to avenues for future research.

  • 22.
    Habibipour, Abdolrasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Georges, Annabel
    imec .livinglabs , Belgium.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Schuurman, Dimitri
    imec .livinglabs , Belgium.
    Drop-out in living lab field test: analyzing consequences and some recommendations2018In: Twenty-Sixth European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS2018), Portsmouth, UK, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Involving individual users in the process of information systems development is a key dimension of open innovation. Living Labs are socio-technical systems that facilitate information systems development by integrating technical, social and organizational structures and focusing on individuals, tasks, technologies and the interactions between different stakeholders. Testing digital innovations in real-life use context is one of the key components of Living Labs. The users’ motivations to participate in Living Lab field tests at the beginning of the project are usually higher than once the field tests are underway. However, there is a dearth of research on other issues related to participants’ drop-out in Living Lab field tests. This study contributes to the existing literature by investigating the consequences of drop-out in Living Lab field tests and providing recommendations that would facilitate prolonged user engagement. The paper also discusses some ethical considerations regarding involvement of participants within Living Lab field tests. In doing so, we interviewed fourteen Living Lab experts in two Living Labs in Sweden and Belgium. Based on these interviews, we propose a first set of consequences, recommendations and ethical considerations to take into account when setting up Living Lab field tests. Keywords: User

  • 23.
    Holst, Marita
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Appreciating needs for innovative IT design2007In: International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management, ISSN 1447-9524, E-ISSN 1447-9575, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying user needs is important as use of interaction technologies have grown and influence leisure time and work. This paper presents methods for identifying and operationalising needs in design processes

  • 24. Holst, Marita
    et al.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Enriching the process of appreciating needs with storytelling2006In: International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society, ISSN 1832-3669, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 61-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explicates the possibility to enrich the process of appreciating needs with storytelling. In this way we are able to identify needs and, thus, facilitate the design process of a viable community for knowledge-sharing and creation across boundaries among young entrepreneurs. The specific situation which the design of a knowledge community constitute is discussed and the usefulness of our approach is thereafter valued in relation to the challenges of creating a viable community constructed from participants' identified needs and interests.

  • 25. Holst, Marita
    et al.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Expanding and enriching needfinding with narrative inquiry2005In: Second International Conference on Technology, Knowledge and Society: The Social Ecology of Digital Technologies, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explicates the process of expanding and enriching needfinding through narrative inquiry. In this way we are able to identify needs and, thus, facilitate the design process of a viable community for knowledge-sharing and creation across boundaries among young entrepreneurs. The specific situation which the design of a knowledge community constitute is discussed and the usefulness of our approach is thereafter valued in relation to the challenges of creating a viable community constructed from participants' identified needs and interests.

  • 26.
    Holst, Marita
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Need-finding through narrative inquiry in systems design2005In: Internet and information technology in modern organizations: Internet and information technology in modern organizations : challenges & answers : proceedings of the 5th International Business Information Management Association Conference, December 13-15, 2005, Cairo, Egypt / [ed] Khalid S Soliman, International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explicates the process of expanding and enriching need-finding through narrative inquiry. In this way we are able to identify needs and, thus, facilitate the design process of a knowledge community and its virtual spaces for knowledgesharing and creation across boundaries among young entrepreneurs. The specific situation which the design of a knowledge community constitute is discussed and the usefulness of our approach is thereafter valued in relation to the challenges of creating a viable community constructed from participants' identified needs and interests

  • 27.
    Holst, Marita
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Openness in living labs: facilitating innovation2010In: Proceedings of the 33rd IRIS Seminar, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation has come to replace efficiency and quality as the main source of competitive advantage for firms from the 1990s onwards. Hence, to an increasing extent, organisations need to consider in which ways they can achieve higher levels of innovative thinking and flexibility. Moreover, the creation of today's complex systems of products, services and processes requires a merging of knowledge from diverse perspectives, e.g. disciplinary or skill-based. One common way to meet these challenges is to set up boundary crossing collaborative groups. The idea is that innovative processes can be fertilised by having people with differentiated knowledge collaborating. Knowledge necessary for innovation and product/service development is, therefore, increasingly distributed both within and across organisations or other types of stakeholders, posing new challenges. To manage these challenges one new approach is evolving, called Living Labs. In this paper we present an innovative development process of a mobile service, taking a Living Lab approach. This paper focus on the effects of openness in an innovation process supported by a Living Lab approach for development of mobile services. The study shows that the innovation process was remarkably shortened in the open and multi-perspective process.

  • 28.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Chronéer, Diana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Nilsson, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Project: PanLab II2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande målet med PanLabII är att utveckla och förbättra de mekanismer och teknologier som möjliggör skapandet av en federation av existerande testbäddar som skapar ett ökat värde för användare av existerande lokala testbäddar samt visa en federationen som en modell som möjliggör etablerandet av långsiktiga, livskraftiga och storskaliga testinfrastrukturer för telekom teknologier, tjänster och applikationer i Europa. Detta Intergrated Projekt är finansierat av EU:s sjunde ramprogram.

  • 29.
    Krogstie, John
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Jelle, Tomas
    Wireless Trondheim.
    Kulseng, Lars
    Wireless Trondheim.
    Gudmundsdottir, Ásta
    Innovation Centre Iceland.
    Braskus, Laruynas
    Sunrise Valley.
    Olesen, Annie
    A9 Consulting.
    Using a Living Lab Methodology for Developing Energy Savings Solutions2013In: 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2013: Chicago, IL; 15 -17 August 2013, 2013, Vol. V, p. 3872-3879Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is becoming increasingly important to create a sustainable environment. One important step is to reduce the energyconsumption. In Europe, 25% of the energy used is consumed by private households. How energy is produced and consumedin different European countries varies a lot, thus it is hard to develop general solutions based on country-specific traits. Theaim of this paper is to describe an approach to cross-country development of an energy savings solution. This paper reportson the usage of a method based on collecting users needs related to their current energy consumption, the actions they cantake, and the possible future solutions they want to see.

  • 30.
    Lassinantti, Josefin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Shaping local open data initiatives: politics and implications2014In: Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, ISSN 0718-1876, E-ISSN 0718-1876, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 17-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores different perspectives attributed to the open data initiatives and how these perspectives shape the opening-up process. A socio-technical lens, the social construction of technology, was used to analyse a qualitative cross-case study of two Swedish municipalities. Findings revealed two ways of interpreting open data initiatives: 1) as a platform for techno-economic growth and 2) as a platform for co-created societal growth. These two approaches addressed the municipalities respective contextual challenges and interests alongside national recommendations in their aims to realize the open data initiative. In doing so, they diverged into the evolvement toward two different ends: the realization of open data and the realization of open government. To excel the understanding of actions taken to meet these ends, an additional set of differences between these municipalities is provided within a sociotechnical framework that allows us to discuss diverging evolvements of open data initiatives based on agreed and non-agreed interpretations of what is believed to be constructed.

  • 31.
    Lassinantti, Josefin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Runardotter, Mari
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Relevant social groups for open data re-use and engagementIn: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Lievens, Bram
    et al.
    IBBT, Brussels.
    Schaffers, Hans
    Aalto University School of Economics (CKIR).
    Turkama, Petra
    Aalto University School of Economics (CKIR).
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ballon, Pieter
    IBBT, Brussels.
    Cross border living labs network to support SMEs accesing new markets2011In: eChallenges e-2001 Conference proceedings / [ed] Paul Cunningham; Miriam Cunningham, IIMC International Information Management Corporation , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last years there has been an increasing number of Living Labs throughout Europe, which are gradually forming a vibrant and still growing community. Several Living Lab networks have been set up on the European, the regional, and the national levels which mainly exchange high-level principles and best practices for individual Living Lab set-up and implementation. This paper focuses on the next steps that these networks must take in order to support SMEs for innovation and gaining access to new markets. The paper presents a methodology framework for cross-border living labs networks supporting SMEs based on network management, which uses results from four cross-border living labs networking experiments in four different settings. The methodology identifies and addresses key challenges for cross-border living labs networking in each setting. The paper presents initial results of methodology development and discusses various challenges in applying the methodology framework to the specific context of homecare and independent living solutions.

  • 33. Mirijamdotter, Anita
    et al.
    Runardotter, Mari
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    M2M: a qualitative study of users' feedback related to future M2M services2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The background of this study is a research project which aims to gain user feedback on future IT-services. In this project, a number of user scenarios were developed and these showed how IT-services could be implemented in different contexts. The basis for this study was to select a few scenarios and present them for users in focus-group interviews. The purpose of this user participation study was to elicit and analyse users' feedback, that is, reactions, needs and ideas related to future IT- services. Furthermore, the work aimed to contribute to the development of new methods for user participation while developing new ICT-solutions. Our study showed that technology should be optional - in other words, the user must be the one initiating and controlling the technology dependent on their needs. We also found that people in general were not delighted to be dependant on technology. Adding to that, introduction and/or implementation of technologies for control must be handled with great care. Finally, if a solution should succeed, it was requested that the solution is adjustable to individual and situational circumstances.

  • 34. Mirijamdotter, Anita
    et al.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Sällström, Annika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Niitamo, Veli-Pekka
    Nokia Oyj.
    Kulkki, Seija
    Centre for Knowledge and Innovation Research, Helsinki School of Economics.
    The European network of living labs for CWE: user-centric co-creation and innovation2006In: Integrating Visions of Technology: Proceedings of the 12th Annual Working Conference of CPTS / [ed] Andrew Basden; Anita Mirijamdotter; Sytse Strijbos, CPTS , 2006, p. 79-90Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we focus on Living Labs for promoting and developing collaborative working environments (CWEs). The issues we address in this context are related to knowledge-sharing for innovation. More precisely we explore methodologies for appreciative inquiry that stimulate creativity and facilitate the process for co-creative needfinding and innovation. Additionally we contribute to a European state-of-the-art in utilizing Living Labs to user-centric ICT innovation and to establishing a foundation for a European Network of Living Labs. A pan-European Network of Living Labs brings the extreme benefit of leveraging the concept of a Europe of Regions. However, when interactions are conducted at a distance across organisational, geographical and cultural boundaries, placing at risk the overall competiveness of an organisation, the challenge is to develop tools, methods, and work-practices to manage this interaction. This is the aim of this research.

  • 35. Mirijamdotter, Anita
    et al.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Sällström, Annika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Distance- Spanning Technology.
    Niitamo, Veli-Pekka
    Nokia Oy and Helsinki School of Economics, CKIR.
    Kulkki, Seija
    Helsinki School of Economics, CKIR.
    The European Network of Living Labs for CWE: user-centric co-creation and innovation2006In: Exploiting the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies / [ed] Paul Cunningham; Miriam Cunningham, IOS Press, 2006, p. 840-847Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we focus on Living Labs for promoting and developing Collaborative Working Environments (CWE). The issues we address in this context are related to knowledge sharing for innovation. More precisely we explore methodologies for appreciative inquiry that stimulate creativity and facilitate the process for co-creative needfinding and innovation. Additionally we contribute to a European state-of-the-art in utilizing Living Labs to user-centric ICT innovation and to establishing a foundation for a European Network of Living Labs. A pan-European network of Living Labs brings the extreme benefit of leveraging the concept of a Europe of Regions. However when interactions are conducted at a distance across organizational, geographical and cultural boundaries, placing at risk the overall competitiveness of an organization the challenge is to develop tools, methods and work-practices to manage this interaction. This is the aim of this research.

  • 36.
    Mulder, Ingrid
    et al.
    Telematica Instituut.
    Fahy, Claire
    Waterford Institute of Technology.
    Velthaus, Daan
    Telematica Instituut.
    Feurstein, Karin
    Bremen IBA.
    Garcia, Maite
    ATOS.
    Schaffers, Hans
    Helsinki School of Economics.
    Mirijamdotter, Anita
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Towards harmonized methods and tools for Living Labs2008In: Expanding the knowledge economy: issues, applications, case studies / [ed] Paul Cunningham; Miriam Cunningham, IOS Press, 2008, Vol. 1, p. 722-729Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to define a shared reference towards a harmonization of methods and tools used in a European Network of Living Labs we developed the interoperability cube for harmonizing Living Labs. We derive this from the assumption that when we focus on those elements that Living Labs want to exchange with each other, we have an appropriate basis for harmonization of methods and tools. Each of the sides of the harmonization cube facilitates interoperability between the phases of a Living Lab and organizational, technical, and contextual aspects. The problem of bridging methods and tools from one Living Lab to another becomes considerably simpler if the two Living Labs in question share a common model; put differently, whether the methods and tools used are harmonized.

  • 37.
    Padyab, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Facebook Users Attitudes towards Secondary Use of Personal Information2016In: Proceedings of the Thirty Seventh International Conference on Information Systems: ICIS 2016, 2016, p. 1-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a study of how user attitudes to institutional privacy change after exposing users to potential inferences that can be made from information disclosed on Facebook. Two sets of focus group sessions with Facebook users were conducted. Three sessions were conducted by demonstrating to the users, on a general level, what can be inferred from posts using prototypical software called DataBait. Another set of three sessions let the users experience the potential inferences from their own actual Facebook profiles by using the DataBait tool. Findings suggest that the participants’ attitudes to secondary use of information changed from affective to cognitive when they were exposed to potential third-party inferences using their own actual personal information. This observation calls for more research into online tools that allow users to manage and educate themselves dynamically about their own disclosure practices.

  • 38.
    Padyab, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Privacy Enhancing Tools: A Literature Review on End-User Role and Evaluation2017In: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Human Aspects of Information Security & Assurance (HAISA 2017) / [ed] Steven Furnell, Nathan L. Clarke, Plymouth: University of Plymouth Press, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trends show that privacy concerns are rising, but end users are not armed with enoughmechanisms to protect themselves. Privacy enhancing technologies (PETs) or morespecifically, tools (PET-tools) are one of the mechanisms that could help users in this sense.These tools, however, reportedly have low adoption rates, and users tend to be reluctant tointegrate them into their daily use of the Internet. Detailed scrutiny of current research onPET-tools, however, can guide future research to help overcome low adoption of these tools.We conducted a literature review on PET-tools to enumerate the types of tools available andhow they are being evaluated, in order to shed more light on the missing elements in theirevaluations. We reviewed and coded 72 articles in the PET-tool literature. Our resultshighlight two important issues: 1. Evaluation of most tools is performed using only artificial,summative and ex-post strategies; 2. While usability evaluation is quite common, evaluationof enhanced privacy is lacking. This research hopes to contribute to better PET-tooldevelopment, and encourage the inclusion of users in the evaluation and design process.

  • 39.
    Runardotter, Mari
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Chronéer, Diana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Nilsson, Harriet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Portfolio för IT-studenter: ett projekt vid LTU2014In: NU 2014: Umeå 8-10 oktober : abstracts, Umeå: Umeå universitet. Pedagogiska institutionen , 2014, p. 48-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Runardotter, Mari
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    CLASH!: the open data policy meets an organizational context2016In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-21, article id 151-363-1-PBArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore the on-going implementation of the Public Sector Information (PSI) directive in the Swedish National Archives. The directive is in line with current trends of opening up data for re-use, innovations and new digital services. The PSI directive has applied since 2003; the process of implementation is still, however, on-going, more or less successfully. We focus on the policy implementation process and analyse and discuss reasons why this process can be time-consuming and as a result, also delayed. Our findings build on research from a case study consisting of two projects that focussed on creating digital services based on archival material. We use a sociotechnical perspective as an analytical lens, and reason that the open data initiative clashes with the professional culture among archivists and the organizational culture found in archives. The mission of an organization is reflected in its professional and organizational culture, and when these cultures (with related values, behaviours, artefacts and functions) are not in line with the intentions in a policy, the members of the organization need to reach a common understanding before a successful policy implementation can take place.

  • 41.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    A Living Lab as a Service: Creating Value for Micro-enterprises through Collaboration and Innovation2013In: Technology Innovation Management Review, ISSN 1927-0321, E-ISSN 1927-0321, p. 37-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need to innovate is increasingly important for all types and sizes of organisations, but the opportunities for innovation differ substantially between them. For micro-, small,- and medium-sized enterprises, innovation activities are both crucial and demanding because of limited resources, competencies, or vision to innovate their offerings. To support these organizations, the concept of living labs as a service has started to emerge. This concept refers to living labs offering services such as designing the idea-generation processes, planning or carrying out real-world tests of innovations, and pre-market launch assessments. In this article, we will present the findings from a study of micro-enterprises operating in the information technology development sector, including the experienced value of services provided to the companies by a research-based living lab. We share experiences from our own living lab, Botnia living lab located in the northern parts of Sweden, where the endeavour to create value for customers is of key importance. Our study shows that using a living lab as a service can generate three different types of value: improved innovations, the role the living lab can play, and the support the living lab offers.

  • 42.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    A set of key-principles to asses the impact of living labs2012In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 17, no 1-2, p. 60-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among companies there is an ongoing shift from a product-based economy to a service economy, especially among companies who delivers digital services. The service sector is growing rapidly, which puts pressure on companies to keep up with their competitors. This is an often demanding process, especially for SMEs who do not have the resources to continuously develop their business. To support these SMEs innovation processes, a concept called the Living Lab is starting to grow around Europe. These Living Labs strive to support companies innovation processes by offering a neutral arena where different stakeholders can meet and co-develop innovations. However, the effects of Living Labs operations are to some extent unexplored and under-theorized. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is two-fold: to propose a set of principles for conducting Living Lab research in an innovation context and to assess the impact of the Living Lab approach on the innovation process and its stakeholders by means of the proposed principles. This study shows that the Living Lab approach offers values in many different ways for several stakeholders.

  • 43.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Challenges with social media for user involvement2012In: Innovation through social media: ISM 2012 / [ed] Asbjørn Følstad; Anna Ståhlbröst; Esbjörn Ebbesson; Jesper Svensson, Trondheim: Akademika forlag, 2012, p. 50-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrating social media into the innovation process can offer great opportunities for organizations striving for user involvement. Due to the spread of social media in all types of user groups it is, today, possible to engage users all around the world in innovation activities simultaneously. But even if social media usage in innovation activities offers great opportunities, it can be challenging to know how to use it to engage users in these processes. In this paper, the purpose is to discuss and reflect on challenges and opportunities the use of social media for user involvement has. The study reported on is based on a university course in which the students had the assignment to use social media as a tool in their innovation process. The results in this paper show seven challenges that are important to handle when planning and carrying out a user involvement process by means of social software. These challenges relates to issues such as, for instance, the selection of social software to use, the timing of the involvement activities and the maturity of the innovation.

  • 44.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Exploring the Testbed Field2004In: IRIS 27: plenary papers : August 14-17, 2004, Falkenberg, Sweden / [ed] Per Flensburg; Carina Ihlström, Växjö: Växjö universitet , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Forming future IT: the living lab way of user involvement2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses the process of user involvement in the development of information technology (IT) systems. The motive for this research is that there is still a need of more knowledge about how users can be involved in IT-development when the aim is to develop solutions that represent user needs. This is especially true when the IT-system is developed to attract users as private persons. One attempt to facilitate inclusion of private persons in IT development processes is a phenomenon called Living Lab. Living Labs is a human-centric research and development approach in which IT-systems are co-created, tested, and evaluated in the users' own private context. The Living Lab phenomena can be viewed in two ways, as an environment, and, as an approach and in this thesis, the perspective taken is Living Lab as an approach. Since the Living Lab phenomena is a rather new area there is a noticeable lack of theories and methods supporting its actions. Hence, the purpose of my research is to contribute to a successful use of Living Labs as a means for user involvement by answering the question: How can a Living Lab approach for user involvement that focus on user needs, be designed? To gain insights into the topic I have been involved in three development projects in which the aim was to develop IT solutions based on users' needs. The research method applied in this research is action research based on an interpretive stance; I have used different methods for data- collection, such as focus-group interviews, surveys, and work-shops. In short, the main lessons learned from this research relates to three overarching themes; User involvement, Grappling with user needs, and Living Labs. The first theme concern issues such as user characteristics, user roles, when and how users should be involved. The second theme is divided into two clusters, collecting user data, and generating and understanding user needs. Lessons related to collecting users data concern topics such as encouraging users, storytelling, understanding the social context and the users' situation. The lessons regarding generating and understanding user needs relates to users motivation, the importance of understanding different perspectives and different levels of user needs. The third theme relates to the key-principles of Living Lab approaches, and how these principles are handled, supported, and related to each other in user involvement processes that embrace a Living Lab approach. Based on the lessons learned about the three themes, a methodology called FormIT is formed. The aim of FormIT is to assist Living Lab activities in Living Lab environments, and the methodology is built on ten guidelines. These guidelines are Identify, Inform, Interact, Iterate, Involve, Influence, Inspire, Illuminate, Integrate, and Implement, and they support the design of a Living Lab way of user involvement processes and contribute to fulfil the key-principles of Living Labs. To conclude, this thesis contributes to the understanding of how data about user needs can be collected, generated, and understood through a Living Lab way of user involvement processes. This in turn, contributes to the development of future IT-systems based on user needs, which increases the probability for system acceptance among private persons.

  • 46.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Human-centric evaluation of innovation2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this Licentiate Thesis, human-centric evaluation of innovations are investigated with focus on examining and gaining understanding of important issues that needs to be considered in the evaluation process. The intention of my research is to contribute to IT-design processes so that future products and services, that are in various stages of development, become more responsive to users' actual needs and wants. IT has traditionally been used within the boundaries for either work- practices or private use. Nowadays, however, these boundaries have become increasingly blurred. Today's technology should not only support work, but also leisure. This means that the use of IT additionally includes areas such as entertainment, education, news, and marketing. Furthermore, IT- products and services should also be supportive for people in their different, although concurrent, everyday roles, such as parent, colleague, friend, consumer, and partner. These changed use contexts and use patterns have made it even more significant to understand the importance of designing technology to support different use situations. To get knowledge about how technology can support use patterns and use contexts a means is user involvement and through continuous evaluations. The evaluations reported in this thesis are evaluations of innovations. Evaluation of use of technology has often focused on usability aspects. Now, the area has developed to include additional use aspects, such as interaction and use experiences. Hence, the area of user evaluation has altered to include a broader question, how technology fits within a broad range of human needs. In this thesis, the reported evaluations mainly have been carried out in a Living Lab context. Living Labs aim to support innovation processes among businesses and local and central authorities by offering human-centric evaluation of innovations in a real-world use environment. The Living Lab concept is rather new. Thus, the evaluation processes, performed within this context, need to be examined. The investigation in this thesis has been carried out following an action research approach within a Living Lab. In this course, four human-centric evaluations were performed: a piece of furniture displaying video-art, a mobile marketing service, a civic-service office, and a mobile-phone bus timetable. The investigation has illuminated that the context in which the evaluations occur is critical. Hence, it needs to be considered and intentionally studied. My study has also shown that the development context for innovations is complex; there are many stakeholders involved with different knowledge interests and therefore, to reach a common purpose of the evaluation is complicated. In addition, it is difficult for stakeholders to express their evaluation needs clearly. Hence, a focus on needs facilitates planning and designing the evaluation process. In this research, an aspect that have been identified as important to consider in evaluations of innovations is that users are reluctant to change their behaviour; hence, it is not possible to evaluate the actual impact of an innovation on people's lives. Instead, the focus of the evaluation should be on valuing users' attitudes and thoughts related to the innovation. In addition, evaluations of innovations are often formative in character, aiming to form the innovations in some way. In these evaluations, it is important to include users who are innovative and open to new technologies. It is also important to include active non-users in evaluations, since their attitudes could reveal necessary changes that would make them want to use the innovation. Finally, when evaluating how an evaluand fits into a range of user needs, it has been found that user needs can be met at different levels. This means that a product, or a service, can meet the need of a user concerning one aspect, but still, the user might not be aware of the need of the product or service, as such. So, a need of an innovation might exist, but the users do not use it anyway; the users fulfil their needs by a different means. Therefore, if an innovation does what the users need it to do, a change in user behaviour needs to be encouraged to help the users change their actions.

  • 47.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    PredicTool: evaluation of a mobile marketing service from a user perspective2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this test was a mobile marketing service that presented personalized offers to the customer. The service had three different channels for communication with the customer, a webpage, a kiosk in the store and SMS through their mobile phones. The campaigns in the kiosk and at the webpage were pull-campaigns meaning that the customers could look and download pre-definied coupons to their mobile phones. During the test period 10-15 offers has been available every week in the kiosk and at the webpage. The campaigns over SMS were push-campaigns where the customer got offers related to their personal profile without having to do anything. The offers over SMS have been sent, at the most, once a week to each customer. 298 persons chose to be members in the mobile loyalty club during the test- period. After the test period, the test-pilots opinions have been collected through web-surveys and focus-group interviews. The evaluation showed that the overall opinion about the service and the communication channels it contains were that it was easy to use. The users were also positive to the opportunity to get offers via their mobile-phone, the kiosk and the Internet. The results also revealed important things to consider when using mobile marketing as well as ideas for future development of the service.

  • 48.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    ShowUnit: utvärdering av ett utställningsrum för videokonst ur ett användarperspektiv2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under tiden 13 november 2004 till 12 december 2004 genomfördes utvärdering av ett utställningsrum, ShowUnit, på Konstens Hus i Luleå. Utställningsrummet visade videokonst och det fanns tre program med ett varierande antal videokonstfilmer på. Syftet med utvärderingen var att undersöka hur ShowUnit fungerade i verkligheten; hur använde användare sig av ShowUnit, nåddes nya målgrupper och vilken var användarens upplevelse av att se konst på detta sätt. Målet var att få förslag till vidareutveckling av ShowUnit. I utvärderingen samlades data in med olika metoder som: intervjuer, observationer, två olika slags enkäter samt experttest. Utvärderingen visar att användares upplevelse av videokonstmöbeln i sig var positiv. Utvärderingen visar även hur de har använt den, vilka attityder de har om användningen och design samt vilka förändringar som är önksvärda.

  • 49.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Understanding Modes of Crowdsourcing and Related Crowd Motivators2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is a very strong and rapidly growing interest and actions focusing on involving the crowd in different initiatives. This trend can be labelled crowdsourcing where companies want to tap into the wisdom of the crowd, or to engage crowds to carry our micro-tasks to achieve a higher goal. Hence, crowds can be engaged in many different types of activities spanning from idea generation to crisis management. These crowds are also motivated to participate and contribute differently, for some crowds monetary compensation is a strong motivator while in other initiatives, contributing to a larger cause is more prominent. This paper aims to cluster different crowdsourcing initiatives into different modes to deepen the understanding of what motivates the crowds. We also illustrate how crowd motivators are influenced by gender where our study, being carried out in the IoT Lab project, show that men and women are motivated differently to participate.

  • 50.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Utvärdering av ett medborgarkontor2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna utvärdering har genomförts av Testplats Botnia. Det införts ett medborgarkontor i Överkalix kommun. I detta medborgarkontor finns Skatte- myndigheten, Kronofogdemyndigheten, Arbetsförmedlingen och, inom en snar framtid, även Försäkringskassan samlade under ett och samma tak. Meningen med medborgarkontoret är att det ska öka myndigheters tillgänglighet för medborgarna. Vid införandet av medborgarkontoret anordnades ett öppet hus där medborgarna fick komma och få information om vad det innebär samt möjlighet att ställa frågor till de tillgängliga myndigheterna. Det har även funnits en webbenkät tillgänglig på servicekontoret som medborgarna har kunnat besvara. Syftet med utvärderingen var att att undersöka användarens upplevelse av servicegrad. Frågeställningar har fokuserats kring attityder, reaktioner och upplevd nytta av medborgarkontoret samt uppfattningar om huruvida ärendehantering underlättats. Utvärderingen visar att medborgarna till stor del är positiva till ett medborgarkontor, även om de inte besöker myndigheter frekvent. Utvärderingen har även kunnat fånga medborgarnas förväntningar och farhågor.

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