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  • 1.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Weichert, D.
    Institute of General Mechanics, RWTH-Aachen University.
    Modeling the effect of reinforcement discontinuity on the tensile strength of UD flax fiber composites2011In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 46, no 15, p. 5104-5110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To exploit the potential of natural fibers as reinforcement of polymer matrix composites, aligned bast fiber composite materials are being produced and studied. Bast fiber reinforcement is discontinuous due to the limited length of natural fibers, which needs to be reflected in predictive models of mechanical properties of composites. The strength in tension in the fiber direction of an aligned flax fiber-reinforced composite is modeled assuming that a cluster of adjacent fiber discontinuities is the origin of fracture. A probabilistic model of tensile strength, developed for UD composites containing a microdefect, is applied. It follows from the theoretical analysis that the experimental tensile strength as a function the fiber volume fraction can be described with acceptable accuracy assuming the presence of a cluster of ca. 4 × 4 elementary fiber discontinuities

  • 2.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    University of Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Prediction of crack onset strain in composite laminates at mixed mode cracking2009In: 5th International EEIGM/AMASE/FORGEMAT Conference on Advanced Materials Research, Bristol: IOP Publishing Ltd , 2009, Vol. 5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Failure process of continuous fiber reinforced composite laminates in tension usually starts with appearance of intralaminar cracks. In composite laminates with complex lay-ups and/or under combined loading, intralaminar cracks may develop in plies with different reinforcement directions. A necessary part of mixed mode cracking models is the criterion of failure. For propagation-controlled fracture it is usually formulated in terms of energy release rates and their critical values of the particular composite material. Intralaminar fracture toughness of unidirectionally reinforced glass/epoxy composite was experimentally determined at several mode I and mode II ratios. It is found that the crack propagation criterion, linear in terms of the energy release rates, reasonably well approximates the test results. The determined mixed mode cracking criterion was applied to predict intralaminar crack onset in cross-ply glass/epoxy composite under tensile loading. The predicted crack onset strain values agree with test results at small off-axes angles of the cracking ply (on-axis and 15° off-axis loading), but underestimate crack onset at larger reinforcement angles with respect to the loading direction. The discrepancy is likely to be caused by the deviation of linearity in laminate response before cracking onset in these laminates, related to non-linear shear characteristics of unidirectional plies. The applicability of strength-based fracture criterion for initiation-controlled cracking is discussed.

  • 3.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    University of Latvia, Riga.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Stiffness and strength of flax fiber/polymer matrix composites2006In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 221-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flax fiber composites with thermoset and thermoplastic polymer matrices have been manufactured and tested for stiffness and strength under uniaxial tension. Flax/polypropylene and flax/maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene composites are produced from compound obtained by coextrusion of granulated polypropylene and flax fibers, while flax fiber mat/vinylester and modified acrylic resin composites are manufactured by resin transfer molding. The applicability of rule-of-mixtures and orientational averaging based models, developed for short fiber composites, to flax reinforced polymers is considered.

  • 4. Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Evaluation of interfacial shear strength by tensile tests of impregnated flax fiber yarns2012In: Journal of composite materials, ISSN 0021-9983, E-ISSN 1530-793X, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 351-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesion of flax fibers and polymer matrix as well as mutual bonding of elementary fibers in a technical fiber are among the principal factors governing the mechanical response of flax fiber reinforced polymer-matrix composites. A method for evaluation of adhesion is proposed based on tension tests of impregnated fiber yarns, with subsequent characterization by optical microscopy of length distribution of fibers pulled out of the yarn fracture surfaces. An elementary probabilistic model is derived relating aspect ratio distribution of the pulled out fibers to the fiber tensile strength distribution and the effective interfacial shear strength. The method was applied to flax fiber/vinylester resin yarns and an estimate of interfacial shear strength at 17 MPa was obtained.

  • 5.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Statistical model of the transverse ply cracking in cross-ply laminates by strength and fracture toughness based failure criteria2008In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 75, no 9, p. 2651-2665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-ply laminate subjected to tensile loading provides a relatively well understood and widely used model system for studying progressive cracking of the transverse ply. This test allows to identify material strength and/or toughness characteristics as well as to establish relation between damage level and the composite stiffness reduction. The transverse ply cracking is an inherently stochastic process due to the random variability of local material properties of the plies. The variability affects both crack initiation (governed by the local strength) and propagation (governed by the local fracture toughness). The primary aim of the present study is elucidation of the relative importance of these phenomena in the fragmentation process at different transverse and longitudinal ply thickness ratios. The effect of the random crack distribution on the mechanical properties reduction of the laminate is also considered. Transverse ply cracking in glass fiber/epoxy cross-ply laminates of the lay-ups [02/902]s, [0/902]s, and [0/904]s is studied. Several specimens of each lay-up were subjected to uniaxial quasistatic tension to obtain crack density as a function of applied strain. Crack spacing distributions at the edge of the specimen also were determined at a predefined applied strain. Statistical model of the cracking process is derived, calibrated using crack density vs. strain data, and verified against the measured crack spacing distributions.

  • 6.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Rubenis, Oskars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Progressive cracking mastercurves of the transverse ply in a laminate2009In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 1175-1182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, progressive cracking of a transverse layer in a cross-ply composite laminate subjected to tensile loading is considered. Using the results of a probabilistic cracking model, approximate relations for crack density as a function of stress are derived for initiation-controlled and propagation-controlled cracking. It is shown that the crack density evolution in the transverse ply can be represented by a mastercurve in suitably normalized coordinates. The mastercurve approach is applied to progressive cracking in glass/epoxy laminates

  • 7.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    The onset of mixed mode intralaminar cracking in a cross-ply composite laminate2008In: Mechanics of composite materials, ISSN 0191-5665, E-ISSN 1573-8922, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 549-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intralaminar fracture toughness of a unidirectionally reinforced glass/epoxy composite is determined experimentally at several mode I and mode II loading ratios. The crack propagation criterion, expressed as a quadratic form in terms of single-mode stress intensity factors (alternatively, linear in terms of energy release rates), approximates the test results reasonably well. The mixed-mode cracking criterion obtained is used to predict the intralaminar crack on set in a cross-ply glass/epoxy composite under off-axis tensile loading.

  • 8.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Uniformity of filament strength within a flax fiber batch2009In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 685-687Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Wallström, Lennart
    Strength distribution of elementary flax fibres2005In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 65, no 3-4, p. 693-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flax fibres, along with a number of other natural fibres, are being considered as an environmentally friendly alternative of synthetic fibres in fibre-reinforced polymer composites. A common feature of natural fibres is a much higher variability of mechanical properties. This necessitates study of the flax fibre strength distribution and efficient experimental methods for its determination. Elementary flax fibres of different gauge lengths are tested by single fibre tension in order to obtain the stress-strain response and strength and failure strain distributions. The applicability of single fibre fragmentation test for flax fibre failure strain and strength characterization is considered. It is shown that fibre fragmentation test can be used to determine the fibre length effect on mean fibre strength and limit strain.

  • 10.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Nyström, Birgitha
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Scale effect of the tensile strength of flax-fabric-reinforced polymer composites2011In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 30, no 23, p. 1969-1974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of UD natural fiber composites, considered for application as structural materials, necessitates evaluation of the scale effect of their strength. Alignment of the fibers in flax bast fiber composites can be achieved by employing textile reinforcement, such as yarns and fabrics. Cutting specimens for mechanical tests out of such textile-reinforced composite plates results in a complex non-uniform reinforcement structure at their edges, which may affect the strength of specimens. Scale effect of the tensile strength in the fiber direction of flax fabric reinforced composites is studied in the current work. A model accounting for both volume and edge effect of the specimens on their tensile strength is proposed.

  • 11.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Porike, Evija
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Strength distribution of elementary flax fibres due to mechanical defects2008In: 11th International Inorganic-Bonded Fiber Composites Conference (IIBCC): Madrid, Nov. 4 - 7, 2008. Proceedings / [ed] Blanco Suárez; Maria Ángeles, Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Rubenis, Ojars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Estimation of laminate stiffness reduction due to cracking of a transverse ply by employing crack initiation- and propagation-based master curves2008In: Mechanics of composite materials, ISSN 0191-5665, E-ISSN 1573-8922, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 441-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The applicability range of toughness-and strength-based criteria for progressive cracking of a transverse layer in a cross-ply composite laminate subjected to tensile loading is considered. Using a deterministic cracking model, approximate relations for the crack density as a function of stress are derived for initiation-and propagation-controlled types of cracking. The master-curve approach is applied to progressive cracking in glass/epoxy laminates. The accuracy of estimation of laminate stiffness reduction by using crack density master curves is evaluated.

  • 13.
    Joffe, Roberts
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Andersons, J.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Wallström, Lennart
    Cellulose-based fibers and their polymer composites characterization and prediction of properties2005In: 8th International Conference on Woodfiber-Plastic Composites (and Other Natural Fibers): May 23 - 25, 2005, Monona Terrace Community & Convention Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, Madison, Wis., 2005, p. 25-36Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Joffe, Roberts
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Andersons, Janis
    IPM.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Applicability of Weibull strength distribution for cellulose fibers with highly non-linear behaviour2009In: ICCM 17, Edinburgh: 17th International Conference on Composite Materials ; 27 Jul 2009 - 31 Jul 2009, Edinburgh International Convention Centre, Edinburgh, UK, London: IOM Communications , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is shown that tensile strength of cellulose fibers with the same length follow Weibull distribution. However, size effect predicted by the Weibull distribution for fibers with various lengths is not observed. This is most likely due to the highly non-linear behaviour of cellulose fibers. Applicability of the Weibull distribution is studied on fibers with different length via single fiber as well as bundle tensile tests.

  • 15.
    Joffe, Roberts
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Andersons, Janis
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Wallström, Lennart
    Flax fibres for structural composites2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Rubenis, O.
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Andersons, J.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    The effect of crack spacing distribution on stiffness reduction of cross-ply laminates2007In: Applied Composite Materials, ISSN 0929-189X, E-ISSN 1573-4897, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of transverse crack distribution on the effective mechanical properties of cross-ply laminates is considered. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio dependence on the transverse ply crack density is obtained experimentally for glass fiber/epoxy laminates of lay-ups [02/902]s, [0/902]s, and [0/904]s subjected to uniaxial tensile loading. Crack spacing distributions at the edge of the specimen are also measured at a predefined applied strain. Mechanical property reduction is evaluated for two crack spacing distributions: uniform spacing routinely considered in theoretical derivations and the experimental crack spacing distribution; the results are compared with test data.

  • 17.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mechanical properties of flax fibers and their composites2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Flax fibers, along with a number of other natural fibers, are being considered as an environmentally friendlier alternative of synthetic fibers in fiber-reinforced polymer composites. A common feature of natural fibers is a much higher variability of mechanical properties. This necessitates study of the flax fiber strength distribution and efficient experimental methods for its determination. Elementary flax fibers of different gauge lengths are tested by single fiber tension in order to obtain the stress-strain response and strength and failure strain distributions. The applicability of single fiber fragmentation test for flax fiber failure strain and strength characterization is considered. It is shown that fiber fragmentation test can be used to determine the fiber length effect on mean fiber strength and limit strain. The effect of mechanical damage in the form of kink bands and of diameter variability on the strength of elementary flax fibers is considered. Stiffness and strength under uniaxial tension of flax fiber composites with thermoset and thermoplastic polymer matrices are studied. The applicability of rule of mixtures and orientational averaging based models, developed for short fiber composites, to flax reinforced polymers are evaluated. Both the quasi-static and time dependent mechanical properties of flax fiber/thermoplastic starch based composites are analyzed. The effect of temperature and relative humidity is investigated. It is found that microdamage accumulation in this type of composites is not significant. Results show that the composite elastic modulus and failure stress are linearly related to the maximum stress reached by the matrix in tensile tests. Simple material models are suggested to account for the observed nonlinear viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity.

  • 18.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mechanical properties of flax fibers and their composites2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Flax fibers, along with a number of other natural fibers, are being considered as an environmentally friendly alternative of synthetic fibers in fiber-reinforced polymer composites. A common feature of natural fibers is a much higher variability of mechanical properties. This necessitates study of the flax fiber strength distribution and efficient experimental methods for its determination. Elementary flax fibers of different gauge lengths are tested by single fiber tension in order to obtain the stress-strain response and strength and failure strain distributions. The applicability of single fiber fragmentation test for flax fiber failure strain and strength characterization is considered. It is shown that fiber fragmentation test can be used to determine the fiber length effect on mean fiber strength and limit strain. Stiffness and strength under uniaxial tension of flax fiber composites with thermoset and thermoplastic polymer matrices are considered. The applicability of rule of mixtures and orientational averaging based models, developed for short fiber composites, to flax reinforced polymers is evaluated.

  • 19. Sparnins, Edgars
    et al.
    Andersons, J.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Wallström, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mechanical properties of flax fibres and composites2005In: Proceedings ICSAM 2005, 2005, p. 47-54Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20. Sparnins, Edgars
    et al.
    Andersons, Janis
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Progressive cracking mastercurve of the transverse ply in a laminate2009In: Experimental techniques and design in composite materials (ETDCM8) with regular papers: [15 papers selected from the eighth edition of the seminar ... which took place on October 3 - 6, 2007 at the Sant'Elmo Beach Hotel (Castiadas), Sardinia, Italy / [ed] Pierluigi Priolo, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009, p. 97-98Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21. Sparnins, Edgars
    et al.
    Andersons, Janis
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Rubenis, Ojars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Cracking master curves of cross-ply laminates and the estimation of laminate stiffness reduction2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22. Sparnins, Edgars
    et al.
    Andersons, Janis
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Rubenis, Ojars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Transverse cracking mastercurve of cross-ply laminated composites2008In: Advances in Heterogeneous Material Mechanics: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Heterogeneous Material Mechanics, ICHMM 2008 / [ed] Jinghong Fan, Lancaster, Pa: DEStech Publications, Inc. , 2008, p. 1284-1287Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Progressive cracking of a transverse layer in a cross-ply composite laminate subjected to tensile loading is considered. Using the results of a probabilistic cracking model, approximate relations for crack density as a function of stress are derived for initiation-controlled cracking. It is shown that the crack density evolution in the transverse ply can be represented by a mastercurve in suitably normalized coordinates. The mastercurve approach is applied to progressive cracking in glass/epoxy laminates.

  • 23. Sparnins, Edgars
    et al.
    Andersons, Janis
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Wallström, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mechanical properties of elementary flax fibers and flax-fiber composites2004In: Mechanics of composite materials: XIII international conference, May 16 - 20, 2004, Riga ; MCM 2004, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Andersons, Janis
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Applicability range of the one-parameter ply plasticity model for prediction of the nonlinear response of laminates2005In: Advanced Composites Letters, ISSN 0963-6935, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 23-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A one-parameter lamina plasticity model is applied to predict the nonlinear deformation of an E-glass / epoxy cross-ply composite laminate under quasi-static uniaxial tensile loading at different angles to the material orthotropy axes. It is shown that the laminate theory yields accurate results within the plastic strain range covered in unidirectional continuous-fibre reinforced composite tests that are used to determine the plasticity model parameters

  • 25.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Pupurs, Andrejs
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Nättinen, Kalle
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Lampinen, Johanna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    The moisture and temperature effect on mechanical performance of flax/starch composites in quasi-static tension2011In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 32, no 12, p. 2051-2061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of temperature and moisture on mechanical behavior of flax fiber/starch based composites was investigated experimentally. Elastic modulus, the nonlinear tensile loading curves, and failure strain were analyzed. Neat matrix and composites with 20 and 40% weight content of fibers were tested. It was found, performing tests with different amplitudes, that microdamage development with stress is rather limited and the related elastic modulus reduction in this type of compositesis not significant. It was shown that the composite elastic modulus and failure stress are linearly related to the maximum tensile stress in resin. The sensitivity of the maximum stress of the resin with respect to temperature and moisture is the source of composites sensitivity to these parameters. Constant interface stress shear lag model for stress transfer assuming matrix yielding at the fiber/matrix interface has been successfully used to explain the tensile test data. It indicates that the sensitivity of the used composite with respect to the matrix properties change could be significantly reduced by increasing the average fiber length from 0.9 mm to 1.5 mm.

  • 26.
    Tamus, V.
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Andersons, J.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Response of cross-ply composite to off-axis loading2002In: Journal of composite materials, ISSN 0021-9983, E-ISSN 1530-793X, Vol. 36, no 18, p. 2125-2134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer composites are known to exhibit nonlinear stress-strain response due to nonlinearly elastic or plastic deformation of the matrix and damage accumulation. Mechanistic modeling of material response explicitly accounting for these interacting factors often leads to complex theories. Plasticity theory formalism provides an alternative for nonlinear deformation description of composite material. We examine the applicability of an orthotropic plasticity model, developed by Sun et al. for unidirectionally reinforced composite, to composite laminate. The response of a symmetric and balanced cross-ply glass/epoxy laminate is studied under uniaxial tensile loading at different angles to the material orthotropy axis. It is found that the associated flow rule and a quadratic approximation of the orthotropic potential function provide satisfactory description for the nonlinear strain component under monotonic loading for 15-45° off-axis angle range. The nonlinearity in on-axis loading (modulus degradation)is well described by stiffness reduction due to the cracks in transverse plies. Meanwhile the change of elastic modulus due to intralaminar cracking can be neglected in off-axis loading, but the possible intensification of nonlinear deformation in off-axis loading caused by the presence of intralaminar cracks agrees well with orthotropic potential formalism.

  • 27.
    Varna, Janis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Nättinen, Kalle
    VTT.
    Lampinen, Johanna
    VTT.
    Time dependent behavior of flax/starch composites2012In: Mechanics of time-dependant materials, ISSN 1385-2000, E-ISSN 1573-2738, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 47-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The time dependent mechanical response of flax fiber reinforced thermoplastic starch matrix composite and neat starch is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the response is highly sensitive with respect to the relative humidity (with specific saturation moisture content in the composite) and special effort has to be made to keep it constant. It was found that micro-damage accumulation and resulting elastic modulus reduction in this type of composites is limited. The highly nonlinear behavior of composites is related to nonlinear viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity. These phenomena are accounted for by simple material models suggested in this study. The stress dependent nonlinearity descriptors in these models are determined in creep and strain recovery tests at low as well as high stresses

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