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  • 1.
    Abeysekera, John
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Piamonte, Dominic Paul T
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Welcoming the millennium from a decade of growth and development in ergonomics education and promotion2001In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 365-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Helali, Faramarz
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Participatory ergonomics intervention in an industrially developing country: a case study2008In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 159-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In industrially developing countries, a few ergonomists have directed great efforts towards developing ergonomics awareness among managers and workers in organizations. There is little research on the degree of their success, though. Furthermore, access of organizations to ergonomics knowledge is usually very difficult, especially in industrially developing countries. Thus, building ergonomics awareness is certainly the first phase of the process. Three companies from one industry (44 people: 14 females and 30 males) participated in a project aimed at improving their work system. At the beginning, we needed to create a common goal and ensure participation with appropriate ergonomics tools. The findings of this study were the key issue for the ergonomics intervention (i.e., a shared vision, awakened need of change and learning). Further, to build ergonomics awareness and develop a continuous learning process in the company, it was necessary to use more ergonomics tools through workers' participation in different workplaces

  • 3.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Arbetsmiljöförbättring av tandvården: tandvårdspersonalens exponering för kvicksilverånga : olika skyddsåtgärder : en enkätstudie i Norrbotten samt en litteraturstudie1993Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Dental ergonomics1996In: Proceedings of the 10th annual meeting of the european society of dental ergonomics: Prague, October 1996, ESDE , 1996Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Dental protective gloves2001In: Proceedings of the 15th annual meeting of the European society of dental ergonomics: Dresden, Germany, ESDE , 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Dental restorative materials from a public health perspective: amalgam and polymer handling practices on dental clinics in Norrbotten, Sweden1996Report (Other academic)
  • 7. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Dental restorative materials from a work environmental perspective1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main occupational health hazard for dental personnel is muscle-skeletal problem, followed by symptoms caused by exposure to chemicals. Clinical dental work includes exposure to a number of products like soap, detergents, disinfectants, amalgam, mono- and oligomers, catalysts, inhibitors, solvents and adhesives. Some are chemically very active. The aims of this thesis have been to survey the occurrence of symptoms from skin, eyes and respiratory tract among dental personnel working in general dental practice. Further, to analyse the use of personnel protective devises and, if needed develop ergonomic recommendations for safe use. An additional aim was to evaluate the irritation potential to skin and eyes of some different polymer products using HET-CAM technique. The thesis is based on three questionnaire studies, one observation study and one biological testing. Results showed that information to dental personnel on classification and handling of amalgam and amalgam contaminated waste products is far from sufficient. Further one fifth of both dentists and chair assistants experienced a number of hypersensitive reactions when handling dental polymer products. Dentists, working in general dental practice, reported a significantly higher prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, and hand dermatitis, than chair assistants and referents. A majority of dental personnel used protective devices (except dental safety glasses) but obviously the protection is not sufficient. Hand dermatitis was significantly more prevalent in some counties, based on the national study (7384 respondents). Based on theoretical and practical information collected in the observation study, four ergonomic checkpoints were developed. Each checkpoint indicated an action, and additionally "why", "how", "some hints" and "remember" with short explanation. All liquids of the different type of polymer materials tested were strongly irritants in the biological testing, but none of the extracts from cured, or freshly mixed non-cured products. This study indicates that patients are exposed to materials with lower irritation potential than dental personnel who handle the non-cured products manually are. This highlights the importance of learning how to handle dental polymer materials, especially the liquids, in a safe manner.

  • 8. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    E-learning2004In: 5th Colombian ergonomics congress: Medellin 2004, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ergonomics aspects of dental safety glasses according do users demand1998In: Global ergonomics: proceedings of the Ergonomics Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, 9-11 September 1998 / [ed] Pat A. Scott; R.S. Bridger; Jack Charteris, Elsevier, 1998, p. 309-13Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    ESDE:s årsmöte (European society of dental ergonomics), Köpenhamn 27-28 juni 19971997In: Arbete, människa, miljö och Nordisk ergonomi, ISSN 1402-859X, no 3, p. 200-1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Europeiska ergonomiska tandläkarsällskapets årsmöte 19961996In: Arbete, människa, miljö och Nordisk ergonomi, ISSN 1402-859X, no 3, p. 90-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Experiences of an online course in ergonomics2006In: INDAC, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Toxicity of medical glove materials: a pilot study2005In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 131-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cytotoxicity of 14 glove materials representing 4 natural rubber latex, 6 synthetic rubber and 4 synthetic polymeric materials was evaluated using dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium (MTT), agar overlay and filter diffusion tests. Cell responses after contact with extracts of glove materials and contact with glove materials were assessed. One synthetic rubber glove (nitrile rubber) and 2 synthetic polymeric gloves (polyvinyl chloride)were non-toxic in all 3 tests, while 5 synthetic rubbers exhibited varying degrees of cytotoxicity, depending on the test. A severe cytotoxic response to both extracts of natural rubber latex materials and contact with natural rubber latex was verified in the 3 tests, indicating a need for consideration when selecting gloves, or other products, used in close skin contact.

  • 14. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Work environment in dental clinics: risks and preventive measures when handling dental restorative materials1996Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Work environment in dental clinics: when handling polymer restorative materials1996In: Arbete, människa, miljö och Nordisk ergonomi, ISSN 1402-859X, no 2, p. 50-55Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Work environment issues in dental clinics: rapport från en 'special session' vid IEA '971997In: Arbete, människa, miljö och Nordisk ergonomi, ISSN 1402-859X, no 2, p. 82-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Dahl, J.E.
    Cytotoxicity of dental glass ionomers evaluated using dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium and neutral red tests2001In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 34-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity of some commonly used glass ionomers. Three chemically cured glass ionomers (Fuji II, Lining cement, and Ketac Silver) and one light-cured (Fuji II LC) were tested. Extracts of mixed non-polymerized materials and polymerized specimens were prepared in accordance with ISO standard 10993-12. The polymerized specimens were cured and placed either directly in the medium (freshly cured), left for 24 h (aged), or aged plus ground before being placed in the medium. The cytotoxicity of extracts was evaluated on mouse fibroblasts (L 929), using dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium (MTT)and neutral red (NR) assays. Further, the concentrations of aluminum, arsenic and lead were analyzed in aqueous extracts from freshly cured and aged samples, and the fluoride levels analyzed in aqueous extracts from freshly cured samples. All extracts except that of non-polymerized Ketac Silver were rated as severely cytotoxic in both assays. Extracts of polymerized material were significantly more cytotoxic than extracts of non-polymerized material. All freshly cured glass ionomers released aluminum and fluoride concentrations far above what is considered cytotoxic (aluminum >0.2 ppm and fluoride >20 ppm). Extracts from freshly cured Lining Cement contained the highest concentrations of aluminum and fluoride (215 ppm and 112 ppm). Extracts from freshly cured Ketac Silver had the lowest concentrations of aluminum and fluoride but the highest of lead (100 ppm). It can be concluded that all extracts from non-cured, freshly cured, and aged glass ionomers contained cytotoxic levels of substances. Curing did not reduce the toxicity significantly.

  • 18. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Dahl, J.E.
    Cytotoxicity of liquids and powders of chemically different dental materials evaluated using dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium and neutral red tests2003In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 52-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the cytotoxicity of liquid and powder components of chemically different dental materials using 2 basic unspecific cell culture methods. Three chemically cured glass ionomers (Fuji II, Lining cement, and Ketac Silver), 1 light-cured glass ionomer (Fuji II LC), and 2 chemically cured acrylates (Swedon and Super Bond) were tested. The liquids were diluted 1:10 in cell culture medium. The liquids from chemically cured acrylates were further diluted 1:100, 1:1000, and 1:10000. Extracts were made by incubating the powders in cell culture medium for 24 h at 37°C according to the ISO standard 10993-12. The cytotoxicity was assessed in transformed mouse fibroblasts (L-929) using two viability assays, dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red (NR). Severe cytotoxicity was observed when testing powder extracts of Swedon, Fuji II, and Lining cement, whereas powder extracts of Ketac Silver, Fuji LC, and Super Bond induced slight to non-cytotoxicity. All of the 1:10 liquid dilutions were severely cytotoxic in the MTT assay. In the NR assay, however, four 10% dilutions were severely cytotoxic and 4 moderately cytotoxic. Further dilution of the liquids of the chemically cured acrylates reduced the toxicity, while the Super Bond catalyst was severely cytotoxic even as the 1:100 dilutions.

  • 19. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Ruyter, I. Eystein
    Scandinavian Institute of Dental Materials, (NIOM), Haslum.
    Permeability of medical gloves to mono- and dimethacrylate monomers in dental restorative materials2002In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 497-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental personnel manually handle methacrylate-based restorative materials, which can cause skin irritation and allergies. The protection given by different types of medical gloves is not well known. Breakthrough time (BTT, min) was used as a measure of protection according to a European standard, using 2 test mixtures consisting of respectively 3 and 5 monomers. Fourteen gloves representing natural rubber latex, synthetic rubber, and synthetic polymeric material were tested. The BTT ranged from some minutes to more than 2 hrs for the 4 monomers with a molecular mass less than 300. The longest protection was recorded for Nitra Touch (nitrile rubber), Tactylon (synthetic rubber), and Metin (PVC).

  • 20. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Ruyter, I. Eystein
    Scandinavian Institute of Dental Materials, (NIOM), Haslum.
    Resistance of medical gloves to permeation by methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethylene glocol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA)2003In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 289-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gloves afford hand protection by minimizing skin contact. The effectiveness of medical gloves to protect against permeation of the monomers, methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA), was assessed focusing on permeation rates and degradation of glove materials caused by monomer contact. Fifteen different brands of gloves were tested using a European Standard procedure. Surface images of glove materials before and after exposure to the monomer mixture were obtained using a scanning electron microscope. The standard is not applicable as the only method for estimating the safety of gloves, but it is useful as guideline together with the cumulative permeation of acrylic monomers. Monomer contact on the outside resulted in substantial swelling of most glove materials, and structure changes of the inside surface.

  • 21.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Adverse health reactions in skin, eyes, and respiratory tract among dental personnel in Sweden1998In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 22, no 1-2, p. 33-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental personnel manually handle products that contain monomers. Several studies have documented adverse health effects after exposure to such products. Gloves made of vinyl or latex are easily penetrated by monomers. Ordinary glasses, or visors, do not protect against vapour from polymer products. Dental face masks filter out about 40% of respirable particles. To survey the prevalence of asthma, atopic dermatitis, conjunctivitis, hay fever/rhinitis, and hand eczema among dental personnel, a questionnaire was distributed to all dental teams in Northern Sweden. Referents were researchers, teachers, and secretaries from the same geographical area. The response rate was 76% for dental teams, and 66% for referents. The results show a significantly higher prevalence of conjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis among dentists, both male and female. Hypersensitivity to dental materials was reported by significantly more dental personnel than by referents.

  • 22.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Amalgam in Dentistry. A Health Hazard for Dental Personnel?1997In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 3, no 3-4, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a cross sectional study done in 1993 among dental personnel in Norrbotten, self-reported prevalence of muscular pain, headache, tremor, insomnia, irritation, impaired memory, and depression, as well as information regarding different mercury exposures were collected. Mercury exposures were determined as "number of amalgam fillings in teeth", "years in practice", "insufficient ventilation at work", "total number of amalgam removed, produced and polished per day", and "working in dental clinics." As controls, physicians and nurses from the same geographical area were selected. The correlation between symptoms and different mercury exposures was calculated using logistic regression. The results suggested a higher prevalence of muscular fatigue and tremor for female dental personnel compared to controls. Controls reported a lower prevalence of symptoms with increasing number of amalgam fillings in teeth. There was no correlation between the number of amalgam fillings handled per day and symptoms for dental personnel. Male dental personnel associated muscular fatigue, headache, impaired memory, and depression with increased handling of amalgam in the clinic, whereas the female dental personnel associate the same symptoms with the number of amalgam fillings in teeth. The strongest correlation was found between symptoms and insufficient ventilation at dental clinics for dental personnel.

  • 23.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Amalgam in dentistry: A survey of methods used at dental clinics in Norrbotten to decrease exposure to mercury vapour1995In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 19, no 1-2, p. 55-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey was conducted on the possible factors influencing exposure to mercury vapour during the handling of amalgam and amalgam contaminated products at dental clinics in Norrbotten, the northern part of Sweden, as well as the current methods being used to minimise, if not prevent such exposures. Increased room temperature, a serious problem when working with amalgam, was the most common complaint from the dental personnel reflecting the observation that ventilation in most clinics was far from being satisfactory. However, methods of treating amalgam-contaminated waste products as well as the classification of products as high- or low-risk wastes also differed a lot. The results further showed that although majority of the dental personnel showed concern on the possible hazards of mercury vapour exposure and were interested in having the level of mercury vapour measured in their clinics, very few had access to any protective equipment against it. And among the few who had some forms of protective wear, most found the equipment disturbing and disruptive of work performance.

  • 24.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Atopic dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and hand dermatitis among Swedish dental personnel, including use of personal protective devices1998In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 105-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A previous study on dental personnel in northern Sweden show that dentists had a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported and physician-diagnosed atopic dermatitis and conjunctivitis, compared to chair assistants and referents (Lonnroth & Shahnavaz 1998). Further, significantly more male dentists reported experience of hand dermatitis compared to male referents. To compare the prevalence among dental personnel working in other geographical areas of Sweden, and survey the use of personal protective equipment, a questionnaire study was conducted during 1997, which included all dentists and his/her chair assistants, working in general private and public dental care in Sweden. A total of 7384 dental personnel were included in the study, 4293 dentists (54.7% male and 45.3% female), and 3090 chair assistants. Logistic regression was used for analysing data. Results show that significantly more dentists reported symptoms of atopic dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and hand dermatitis, and had been diagnosed by a physician, compared to chair assistants. However, they did not report more sick-leave due to symptoms, compared to chair assistants. More female used protective devices, than male, and more chair assistants than dentists. Significantly more dental personnel in public dental care used protective devices, than in private dental care. Use of gloves, and face mask, decreased with increasing age but, use of eye protection, mainly in form of prescription spectacles, increased. The prevalence of hand dermatitis decreased significantly with increasing age but, more for female (p < 0.0001), than for male (p = 0.01).

  • 25.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Conjunctivitis among swedish dentists1997In: From experience to innovation: proceedings of the 13th triennial congress of the International Ergonomics Association, June 29 - July 4, 1997, Tampere, Finland / [ed] Pentti Seppälä, Taylor and Francis Group , 1997, p. 228-30Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Dental clinics: a burden to environment?1996In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 173-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To estimate environmental burden of mercury from dental clinics, a survey was conducted in 1993 at dental clinics in northern part of Sweden. Factors regarding amalgam separators, maintenance and disposal of collected sludge, age of clinics, cleaning of waste pipes, and sorting and handling of amalgam contaminated products were investigated. The result showed that many were not familiar with maintenance of the amalgam separator. A majority, 68%, were working in clinics older than 10 years, but only 9% reported that waste pipes had been cleaned or changed. Classification of amalgam contaminated products as high-risk and low-risk waste differed a lot, as well as handling of waste products. The result shows that there is need for more information and attention to all individuals working in Dental Care on how to reduce environmental burden of mercury from dental clinics

  • 27.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Evaluating the Potential Occupational Hazard of Handling Dental Polymer Products Using the HET-CAM Technique1999In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 43-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The irritation potencies of 8 dental polymer products, used as dental restorative materials, adhesives, or temporary constructions, were tested using the HET-CAM (hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane) technique. Liquid and powder components, and extracts of cured and freshly mixed non-cured materials of 5 glass ionomers, 1 bonding, 1 composite, and 1 cold-cured acrylate were examined. Results showed that the liquid component of all products had a strong irritation capacity but powder suspensions and extracts from cured, and freshly mixed non-cured materials had no effect on the CAM. Thus, dental personnel who handle liquid and powder manually are exposed to components with a high irritation potential, in contrast to patients who are exposed to the cured and mixed non-cured materials, with low irritation potential. This illustrates the importance of safe handling procedures and practices for dental personnel who handle non-cured polymers manually.

  • 28. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Experience from an online course in ergonomics2005In: ODAM VIII: Eighth International Symposium on Human Factors in Organizational Design : Maui, Hawaii, USA June 22-25 2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Hand dermatitis and symptoms from the fingers among Swedish dental personnel1998In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 22, no 1-2, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hand dermatitis among dental personnel has been an issue in recent years. Dental personnel manually handle polymer materials which are known to irritate skin, and also cause allergy. In addition, dental personnel wash their hands frequently, and use latex gloves, and are therefore at risk to develop hand dermatitis. To survey the occurrence of hand dermatitis among dental personnel, questionnaires were sent to all dental teams (dentist + chair assistant) working in the two northern Swedish counties. Referents were; researchers, teachers, and secretaries from a university and high schools, from the same geographical area. The response rate was 76% for dental teams, and 66% for referents. The results show that male dentists reported a significantly higher prevalence of hand dermatitis than male reference. In contrast to chair assistants and referents, dentists (both male and female) reported a higher extent of hand dermatitis on the left than on the right hand. There was an association between hand dermatitis among dental personnel and; age, eczema in childhood, and hay fever but, not with; sex, asthma, frequent washing of the hands, and glove use. Whitening of the fingers increased with increasing age among dental personnel. Pricking was also associated with frequent glove use. Pricking of the fingers was associated with sex, and 3.5 times more common among female dental personnel than male dentists. Numbness of the fingers, and finger pain was reported by more dentists than chair assistants and referents.

  • 30.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Improving working condition in dental clinics: use of polumers1996In: Advances in applied ergonomics: proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Applied Ergonomics, Istanbul, Turkey, May 21 - 24, 1996 / [ed] Ahmet F Özok, Instanbul: USA Publ. Corp. , 1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Improving working conditions in dental clinics: case study, use of dental polymers1996In: Advances in applied ergonomics. / [ed] Ahmet F. Özok; Gavriel Salvendy, Istanbul: USA Publ. Corp. , 1996, p. 528-31Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    The Correlation Between Symptoms, Frequent Use of Dental Polymers, and Evaluation of Health Risk1998In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 411-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental personnel are at risk as they manually handle polymer products containing monomers and additives that cause irritation and induce allergy. Gloves and face masks can be easily penetrated by monomers. A total of 587 dental personnel and a referent group (585) in the 2 most northern regions of Sweden were included in a questionnaire study (response rate 76%). Questions were asked regarding symptoms of atopy, asthma, conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, hand dermatitis, and hay fever/rhinitis. The dental personnel were asked to give the name of polymer products used in their practice and the frequency of use. They were also asked to risk evaluate 5 different types of polymer materials on a scale from 1 to 5. Analysis was done to find if the occurrence of a symptom was associated with a high risk evaluation of a polymer material, or with frequent use of a certain polymer product. Significantly more dentists reported symptoms of atopic dermatitis and conjunctivitis compared to referents and chair assistants. Results show that dental personnel with symptoms risk evaluated most materials significantly higher than dental personnel without symptoms. Further, the occurrence of some symptoms was associated with frequent use of 8 polymer products.

  • 33. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    The irritation potential and the toxicity of dental polymer restorative materials and gloves2000In: Ergonomics and safety for global business quality and productivity: proceedings of the Second International Conference ERGON-AXIA 2000, Warsaw, Poland, 19-21 May 2000 / [ed] Daniel Podgorski; Waldemar Karwowski, Warsaw: Central Institute for Labor Protection , 2000, p. 275-278Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Use of polymer materials in dental clinics, case study1997In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 149-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dentistry uses a variety of different polymer materials. Dental polymer materials are based on methacrylate, its polymer, and polyelectrolytes. The setting of restorative materials and adhesives is initiated chemically by mixing two components or by light. In both cases, polymerisation is incomplete and monomers, not reacted, release. Studies have documented that monomers may cause a wide range of adverse health effects such as irritation to skin, eyes or mucous membranes, allergic dermatitis, asthma, parenthesise in the fingers, and disturbances from central nervous system such as; headache, pain in the extremities, nausea, loss of appetite, fatigue, sleep disturbances, irritability, loss of memory and changes in blood parameters. Dental personnel are occupationally exposed when handling the non reacted monomers. The use of gloves do not give enough protection as monomers, released from the material, easily penetrate all gloves used in dentistry. Face masks do not prevent inhalation of monomers. Ordinary glasses do not protect the eyes against vapor from monomers. The result from this study demonstrate the need for the development of ergonomic procedures and practices for safe handling of such materials in dental clinics.

  • 35. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Users' demands regarding dental safety glasses: combining a quantitative approach and grounded theory for the data analysis2001In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 49-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye infections are common among dentists and many are concerned, but few are using proper eye protection. To understand users' demands behind the low use of safety glasses, all dental teams in Sweden were asked which factors they found most important when choosing dental safety glasses, and rate the importance of 31 statements regarding ergonomic aspects of dental safety glasses in a questionnaire. Data were analysed using the Grounded Theory and a quantitative approach. Results showed that dentists ranked the visual aspects as most important and chair assistants the protective aspects. The highly visual demanding work performed by dentists requires safety glasses that are not yet available on the market, which might explain the low use.

  • 36.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Why dental personnel do not use safety glasses?: using grounded theory to explain users' demandd1998In: Global ergonomics: proceedings of the Ergonomics Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, 9-11 September 1998 / [ed] Pat A. Scott; R.S. Bridger; Jack Charteris, Elsevier, 1998, p. 295-298Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Welendorf, Hanne
    NIOM-Scandinavian Institute of Dental Materials.
    Ruyter, Eystein
    NIOM-Scandinavian Institute of Dental Materials.
    Permeability of different types of medical protective gloves to acrylic monomers2003In: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 111, no 5, p. 440-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental personnel and orthopedic surgeons are at risk when manually handling products containing methyl methacrylate (MMA). Dental products may also contain cross-linking agents such as ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) or 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA). Skin contact with monomers can cause hand eczema, and the protection given by gloves manufactured from different types of material is not well known. The aim of this study was to determine the breakthrough time (BTT, min) as a measure of protection (according to the EU standard EN-374-3) for a mixture consisting of MMA, EGDMA and 1,4-BDMA. Fifteen different gloves representing natural rubber latex material, synthetic rubber material (e.g. nitrile rubbers), and synthetic polymer material were tested. The smallest monomer MMA permeated within 3 min through all glove materials. A polyethylene examination glove provided the longest protection period to EGDMA and 1, 4-BDMA (> 120 min and 25.0 min), followed by the surgical glove Tactylon (6.0 min and 8.7 min) and the nitrile glove Nitra Touch (5.0 min and 8.7 min). This study showed that the breakthrough time (based on permeation rate) cannot be regarded as a ‘safe limit'. When the permeation rate is low, monomers may have permeated before BTT can be determined. Using double gloves with a synthetic rubber inner glove and a natural rubber outer glove provided longer protection when the inner glove was rinsed in water before placing the outer glove on top.

  • 38. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Wellendorf, Hanne
    NIOM - Nordisk Institutt for Odontologiske Materialer.
    Morisbak, Else
    NIOM - Nordisk Institutt for Odontologiske Materialer.
    Using protective gloves, protection or potential health risk?1999In: Proceedings of the 10th year anniversary of M. Sc. ergonomics: International conference, Luleå, Sweden, 29-30 October 1999 / [ed] John Abeysekera; Emma-Christin Lönnroth; D. Paul T. Piamonte; Houshang Shahnavaz, Luleå: Luleå University of Technology. Department of Human Work Sciences. Division of Industrial Ergonomics , 1999, p. 198-203Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Toro-Troconis, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Harford, Ian
    Implementing learning design in the adult and community learning sector: a framework2005In: ALT-C 2005: exploring the frontiers of e-learning - borders, outposts and migration : Manchester, Englandbetween 6 and 8 September 2005, Association for Learning Technology , 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Abeysekera, John (Editor)
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin (Editor)
    Piamonte, Dominic Paul T (Editor)
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang (Editor)
    Proceedings of the 10th year anniversary of M. Sc. ergonomics: International conference, Luleå, Sweden, 29-30 October 19991999Report (Other academic)
1 - 40 of 40
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