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  • 1. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Svensson, Malin
    Todorovic, Jelena
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Artificial carbonation for controlling the mobility of critical elements in incineration residues2005Ingår i: Waste Management in the Focus of Controversial Interests: 1st BOKU Waste Conference 2005 / [ed] Peter Lechner, Facultas Universitätsverlag , 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    Road runoff water treatment in road ditches2003Ingår i: International conference on urban drainage and highway runoff in cold climate / [ed] Maria Viklander; J. Marsalek; P.-A. Malmqvist; W. E. Watt, IWA Publishing, 2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 3. Ore, Solvita
    et al.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    Ecke, Holger
    Grennberg, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Toxicity of leachate from bottom ash in a road construction2007Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, nr 11, s. 1626-1637Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A test road constructed with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash was monitored over a period of 36 months. Using chemical and toxicological characterisation, the environmental impact of leachates from bottom ash was evaluated and compared with leachates from gravel used as reference. Initial leaching of Cl, Cu, K, Na, NH4-N and TOC from bottom ash was of major concern. However, the quality of the bottom ash leachate approached that of the gravel leachate with time. Leachates from the two materials were compared regarding the concentration of pollutants using multivariate data analyses (MVDA). A standardized luminescent bacteria assay using Vibrio fischeri did not show any toxicity, most likely because saline contamination can mask the toxic response and stimulate luminescence in these marine bacteria. A mung bean assay using Phaseolus aureus revealed that the toxicity of bottom ash leachate collected at the very beginning of the experimental period (October 2001 and May 2002) might be attributed to the following components and their respective concentrations in mg l-1: Al (34.2-39.2), Cl (2914-16,446), Cu (0.48-1.92), K (197-847), Na (766-4180), NH4-N (1.80-8.47), total-N (12.0-18.5), and TOC (34.0-99.0). The P. aureus assay was judged as a promising environmental tool in assessing the toxicity of bottom ash leachate.

  • 4.
    Rönnbäck, Marie
    et al.
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå universitet.
    Fagerström, Jonathan
    Umeå universitet.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Samuelsson, Robert
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Lestander, Torbjörn
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Utveckling av framtida konkurrenskraftig närvärme (0,05-20 MWth) med säkrad bränslekvalitet samt hög tillgänglighet, effektivitet och miljöprestanda2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Närvärmesektorn (0,05-20 MW) står de kommande åren inför ökad konkurrens om, och en utvidgad råvarubas för (bio)bränslen. Samtidigt ökar kraven på tillgänglighet, effektivitet och miljöprestanda. Denna rapport beskriver viktiga hinder, kunskapsbrister och behov av forsknings-, utvecklings- och demonstrationsinsatser identifierade hos bränsle- och utrustningstillverkare samt användare inom sektorn. Aktörer har kartlagts och deras synpunkter har samlats in via intervjuer och/eller enkäter. Forskningsmiljöer och pågående program och aktiviteter i Sverige beskrivs kortfattat. Resultaten visar på stora behov av kunskap kring nya bränslen i hela kedjan från bränsleförädling till kvalitetssäkring, förbränning och emissionsreducering. Det finns även stort behov av samordning av resurser, tydliggörande av forskningsstruktur, ökad kontaktyta och förbättrad kommunikation och implementering av resultat. Baserat på resultaten föreslås struktur, innehåll och finansiering av ett samordnat FUD-program med fokus Närvärme. Viktiga framgångsfaktorer är inkludering av hela kedjan bränsle-omvandling-system/miljö, samodning av fysiska lokaliseringar för forskning och utveckling och övergripande styrning. Alla tre delmomenten grundforskning, tillämpad FoU och demonstration bör ingå.

  • 5. Todorovic, Jelena
    Diffusion tests for assessing leaching from incineration residues2004Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing amounts of incineration residues need to be disposed, reused or treated, which calls for reliable characterisation methods. Leaching tests are often used for an assessment of release of pollutants from wastes under a variety of leaching factors. Nevertheless, the prediction of the contaminants release in field is difficult due to the complexity of the processes occurring in field. This work aims at evaluating limitations and possibilities of making long- term leaching predictions for incineration residues using diffusion leaching tests. Also the effect of carbonation on the leaching of elements was evaluated. Leaching predictions for Cl and Pb based on diffusion test data were compared with leachate data from MSWI bottom ash reused in road construction as well as leachate data obtained using a two-step compliance test. For the first years, leaching of Cl from bottom ash in field could be predicted with an accuracy within one order of magnitude. This could be considered as a good fit. Good agreement was also found between leaching predictions based on the diffusion test and the compliance test for Pb. However, predictions based on a diffusion tests might be misleading for longer time periods as the stock of contaminants depletes. Longer time series of field data are needed for comparison. Field conditions such as wet/dry and freezing/thawing cycles were not considered in this work, but might affect the mobility of contaminants. The impact of such field factors deserves a thorough examination in future research. Carbonation was found to significantly affect leaching of some elements from MSWI bottom ash. Leaching of Pb and Zn was increased due to carbonation, while leaching of Cr, Mo, and Sb decreased. Leaching of Cu was increased by carbonation alone, but it was also observed that leaching could be decreased if carbonation is combined with water-solidification. With such effect on leaching it is necessary to take carbonation into account when leaching predictions are made.

  • 6.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Pre-treatment of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash for utilisation in road construction2006Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash has the potential for utilisation in construction, e.g. as a road base material. Such an utilisation would decrease the amount of bottom ash to be landfilled. However, leachates generated from bottom ash could be concentrated with respect to salts and metals, causing environmental problems. The use of carbonation of as a method to decrease the leaching of inorganic pollutants from MSWI bottom ash has been studied. Field investigations and laboratory leaching experiments enabled the identification of inorganic pollutants whose leaching might be critical during such an utilisation. Treatment methods by carbonation and water extraction were evaluated regarding the mobility of seven critical pollutants (Al, Cl, Cr, Cu, Mo, Sb and SO4). The stabilising effect of carbonation to a moderate alkaline level (~pH 8.3) was evaluated and compared to the mobilising effect of carbonation in excess (~pH 6.4). Carbonation to a moderate alkaline level demobilised four (Al, Cr, Cu and Sb) of seven critical components. Washing to remove easily soluble salts was recommended in addition to moderate carbonation. Carbonation in excess had the highest mobilising effect on Cr, Cu and Sb when interacted with other factors, mostly pH. Carbonation in excess was therefore proven to be a key factor enhancing the effectiveness of MSWI bottom ash treatment by wet extraction.

  • 7.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Demobilisation of critical contaminants in four typical waste-to-energy ashes by carbonation2006Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 430-441Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two bottom ashes, one air pollution control (APC) residue and one fly ash from three different Swedish municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants were characterised regarding the leaching of environmentally relevant components. Characterisation was performed using a diffusion tank leaching test. The impact of carbonation on the release of eight critical components, i.e., Cl-, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn, was assessed at a lab-scale and showed carbonation to have a more pronounced demobilising effect on critical components in bottom ashes than in APC residue and fly ash. From grate type incinerator bottom ash, the release of Cr decreased by 97%, by 63% for Cu and by 45% for Sb. In the investigated APC residue, the releases of Cr, Se and Pb were defined as critical, although they either remained unaffected or increased after carbonation. Cl- and remained mobile after carbonation in all investigated residues.

  • 8. Todorovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Stabilization/solidification of refuse derived fuel (RDF) fly ash2002Ingår i: Intercontinental landfill research symposium, ICLRS, 2, October 13-16, Asheville, North Carolina, October 13-16, 2002, 2002, s. 210-211Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Treatment of MSWI residues for utilization as secondary construction minerals: a review of methods2006Ingår i: Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, ISSN 1404-1049, E-ISSN 1651-2286, Vol. 20, nr 3/4, s. 45-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues display a potential for reuse in construction. A risk of harmful emissions to the environment and negative effects on the performance of residues during utilization exist because of their composition. Extraction and stabilization pre-treatment methods are available to decrease harmful leaching from utilized MSWI residues. Extraction procedures remove pollutants in a liquid phase that has to be handled as waste water.

  • 10. Todorovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Hébert, Valérie
    Predicting the release of chlorides from MSWI bottom ash reused in road construction2004Ingår i: The 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan / [ed] Morton Barlaz; Anders Lagerkvist; Toshihiko Matsuto, Hokkaido: Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, 2004, s. 22-23Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11. Todorovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Solidification with water as a treatment method for air pollution control residues2003Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 23, nr 7, s. 621-629Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of solidification with water was studied on air pollution control (APC) residues from incineration of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) regarding mechanical strength and leaching behaviour of solidified material. Factorial design in two levels was applied to investigate the impact of water addition, time, and temperature to mechanical strength of solidified material. Factors time and temperature, as well as the interaction between the addition of water and time significantly (α=0.05) influenced the mechanical strength of solidified material. The diffusion-leaching test NEN 7345 was performed to investigate if the leaching behaviour of elements from solidified material was determined by diffusion. Since it was found that leaching is not diffusion controlled, the long-term leaching behaviour was not assessed. However, the investigation showed that some of the studied components (Al, Hg, Mn, Pb, Si, and Zn) could be considerably demobilised by solidification with water. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni were either below or not quite above the detection limits to be included in the analysis of leaching behaviour. The elements least demobilised by solidification were Cl, Cr, K, and Na.

  • 12.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Svensson, Malin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    Artificial carbonation for controlling the mobility of critical elements in bottom ash2006Ingår i: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 145-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), bottom ash, generated at a stoker grate type incinerator, the critical elements were identified in terms of EU regulation. The stabilizing effect of moderate carbonation (pH 8.28 ± 0.03) on critical contaminants was studied through availability and diffusion leaching protocols. Data from the performed tests were evaluated with the goal of reusing MSWI bottom ash as secondary construction material. To investigate the mobilizing effect of CO2, suspended MSWI bottom ash was severely carbonated (pH 6.40 ± 0.07). The effect of CO2 and its interaction with other leaching factors, such as liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, leaching time, pH, ultrasound treatment, and leaching temperature, were examined using a reduced 26-1 experimental design. Contaminants identified as critical were Cr, Cu, Mo, Sb, Cl-, and SO4 2-. Although moderate carbonation decreased the release of Cr, Cu, Mo, and Sb from compacted bottom ash, the main disadvantage remains its inability to demobilize Cl- and SO4 2-. The hypothesized mobilizing effect of severe carbonation was proven. The treatment enhanced the separation of critical components (α = 0.05) (except for Cl-), i.e., about fivefold for Sb and about twofold for Cr, Cu, and S. Nevertheless, the prospect is good that severe carbonation could constitute the deciding key parameter to facilitate the technical feasibility of a future washing process for MSWI bottom ash.

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