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  • 1.
    Grahn, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Suarez, Aldara Naveira
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Pasaribu, Rihard
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Effect of ZDDP on friction and wear in fretting contacts2010In: 14th Nordic Symposium on Tribology: NORDTRIB 2010 : Storforsen, Sweden, June 8-11, 2010, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of ZDDP on fretting wear was investigated in a ball on flat machine. The results confirm previous work that anti-wear agents may reduce friction and wear in fretting contacts. It was further found that temperature, adsorption time and base oil polarity were all important parameters affecting the ability of ZDDP to protect the surfaces against fretting wear.

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  • 2.
    Grahn, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Suarez, Aldara Naveira
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Pasaribu, Rihard
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Effect of ZDDP on friction in fretting contacts2011In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 273, no 1, p. 70-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of ZDDP on fretting wear was investigated in a ball on flat machine. The results confirm previous work that anti-wear agents may reduce friction and wear in fretting contacts. It was further found that temperature, adsorption time, base oil polarity as well as the presence of other surface active additives in the oil were all important parameters affecting the ability of ZDDP to protect the surfaces against fretting wear.

  • 3. Nedelcu, I
    et al.
    Suarez, Aldara Naveira
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Pasaribu, R.
    XPS study on the origin of the lubricant additives derived reaction layer and their correlation to the tribological performance2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4. Organisciak, M.
    et al.
    Quinonez, A. Felix
    Suarez, Aldara Naveira
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Ehret, P.
    The pressure and foot print of a viscoelastic dry point contact under dynamic conditions: comparison between the contact model predictions and experimental observations2011In: Proceedings of the STLE/ASME International Joint Tribology Conference--2010: presented at STLE/ASME International Joint Tribology Conference, October 17-20, 2010, San Francisco, California, USA, New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Suarez, Aldara Naveira
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Parameters affecting the functionality of additives in lubricated contacts: effect of base oil polarity2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally rolling contact fatigue observed in bearing field applications was subsurface initiated. However, despite the improvement of steel properties, some factors such as downsizing in bearing design, extreme loading of the bearings as well as demanding application conditions (start up-stop cycles) have led to an increase on the cases of surface damage related to surface initiated fatigue, that comes basically from surface distress. Possible causes leading to surface initiated fatigue are: material and surface properties, marginal lubrication and lubricant chemical composition. Lubricants are formulated products composed of base oil, and an additive package designed for a specific application. Extreme-pressure (EP) and antiwear (AW) additives are chemically active additives, they react with the steel surfaces in contact to form a protective additivederived layer, thus reducing friction and controlling wear. However, certain EP/AW additives that increase the performance of other machine elements, such as gears, can be detrimental for the bearings running in the same lubrication environment. In order to identify the plausible mechanisms that govern the detrimental effect of EP/AW additives on bearing performance, it is necessary to study closely the interactions occurring in the system form by the base oil, the additives present and the steel surface, as well as the influence of operating conditions. The focus of the present work is to identify the parameters affecting the additive-derived layer formation, as it is directly related to the additive reactivity towards the surface, and the tribological properties of the layer, that will determine the tribological performance. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), and two low viscosity model oils with different polarity were selected. The influence of base oil polarity on the additive performance was studied in the nanoscale using Atomic Force Microscopy and the tribological performance was evaluated using a ball-on-disc test rig under mixed rolling-sliding conditions in the boundary lubrication regime. An in-situ interferometry technique was used to monitor the additive derived reaction layer formation, and the chemical composition, morphology and nanomechanical properties were studies using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and Nanoindentation respectively. It was found that base oil polarity determines the transport of additives to the surface thereby controlling the maximum reaction layer thickness, friction and wear, as well as the morphology and nanomechanical properties of the additive-derived reaction layer. However the reaction layer chemical composition is not determined by the base oil polarity. Among the operating conditions, shear was identified as a fundamental parameter on the activation of additives on rubbing steel surfaces and the properties of the derived reaction layer.

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  • 6.
    Suarez, Aldara Naveira
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    The behaviour of antiwear additives in lubricated rolling-sliding contacts2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally rolling contact fatigue observed in bearing field applications was subsurface initiated. However, despite an improvement in the properties of steel, some factors such as downsizing in bearing design, extreme loading of bearings as well as demanding application conditions (start-stop cycles) have led to an increase in cases of surface damage related to surface initiated fatigue, which essentially comes from surface distress. Possible causes leading to surface initiated fatigue are: material and surface properties, marginal lubrication and lubricant chemical composition. Lubricants are formulated products composed of a base oil and an additive package designed for a specific application. Extreme-pressure (EP) and antiwear (AW) additives are chemically active, they react with the steel surfaces in contact to form a protective additive-derived layer, thus reducing friction and controlling wear. However, certain EP/AW additives that increase the performance of other machine elements, such as gears, can be detrimental for bearings running in the same lubrication environment. Therefore, there is a need to gain a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of interaction of the lubricant additives affecting bearing performance and to predict the bearing performance in terms of lubrication environment and application conditions. Antiwear and extreme pressure additives form a protective layer on the surface of the contacting steel surfaces. Therefore, in order to identify the plausible mechanisms that govern the detrimental effect of additives on bearing performance, it is necessary to identify the parameters affecting the additive-derived layer formation and the tribological properties of this layer, as they are directly related to the additive reactivity towards the surface. To identify these parameters this thesis has been divided into three areas of study; the lubricant composition, the operation conditions relevant for bearing applications, and the properties of the contacting surfaces. The work on the effect of lubricant composition on additive-derived reaction layer formation, especially when related to ZDDP chemistry, has mainly been focused on the different formulations of the additive and the inherent properties due to the different chemical structures, concentrations and interaction with other additives present in the lubricant. The role of the base oil has not been sufficiently addressed, however the relevance of synthetic base oils has brought a new focus on the effect of the interactions between the base oil and additive molecules on tribological performance. The polarity of the base oil was selected as the key parameter to study. Several operating conditions (in terms of lambda ratio, temperature and additive concentration) have been previously studied. It has been shown that low lambda ratio, meaning high metal to metal contact, high temperature and high additive concentration lead to a high reactivity of the additives and therefore to thicker reaction layers. However, the majority of these studies have been performed under pure sliding conditions or at high slide-roll ratios (SRR > 50%), corresponding to typical operating conditions for gears. The behaviour of the additives when the slide-roll ratio ranges from between 0 to 10%, conditions that can be found in bearing applications, has hardly been addressed. Finally, the influence of the surface on the activation and reactivity of the additive was studied using different counterparts (steel and stainless steel), all present in bearing applications. The nature and properties of the derived reaction layers, as a function of base oil-additive interaction, operating conditions and contacting materials, in terms of thickness, morphology, nanomechanical properties and chemical composition, were studied using a series of surface analysis techniques. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) and low viscosity model oils as well as commercial basestocks, with similar physical properties but different polarities were selected for this study. The influence of base oil polarity, operating conditions and contacting surfaces on the additive performance was studied at the nanoscale level using Atomic Force Microscopy and the tribological performance was evaluated using a ball-on-disc test rig under mixed rolling-sliding conditions in the boundary lubrication regime. An in-situ interferometry technique was used to monitor the additive-derived reaction layer formation, and the chemical composition, morphology and nanomechanical properties were studied using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and Nanoindentation respectively. The polarity of the base oil influences the tribological performance of ZDDP additives in rolling-sliding lubricated contacts. The same additive presents differences in friction and wear performance as a function of the type of oil it is blended in. The polarity of the oil influences the growth rate and reaction layer thickness of ZDDP antiwear layers. The polarity of the molecules determines the way they approach and attach to the surface, influencing the final reaction layer thickness, as well as the structure and characteristics of the reaction layer. A thinner layer is formed when the additive is blended in the polar oil, due to the higher affinity of the polar base oil molecules for the steel surface, that limit the access of the additive molecules to the surface and therefore their ability to attach and react with it to form a protective reaction layer. The morphology of the reaction layers derived from polar base oils solutions consist of large, smooth pads, identified as features with load carrying capacity. The formation of this type of structure, and the nanomechanical properties of the layer, explain the better wear performance exhibited by those layers. A model for the formation of the reaction layer, consisting of three stages: activation, wearing-out and equilibrium, is proposed. Regarding the operating conditions, shear was identified as a fundamental parameter for the activation of additives on rubbing steel surfaces and the properties of the derived reaction layer. The influence of different metallic materials was studied using different steel/stainless steel pairs. The results show how different metallic materials lead to the formation of layer, similar in thickness but with very different topographies. The presence of extensive cracks on the layers formed on the stainless steel surface indicates that the nature of the oxides present on the surface influence the adhesion properties of the reaction layer.

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  • 7.
    Suarez, Aldara Naveira
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Pasaribu, Rihard
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    The influence of base oil polarity on the tribological performance of zinc dialkyl dithiophospate additives2010In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 2268-2278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZDDP blended in two base oils with different polarities were tested in mixed rolling-sliding conditions. The results showed significant differences in friction and wear when the additive is blended in the different oils. When ZDDP is blended in a non-polar base oil, the additive molecules have a better access to the steel surface, leading to higher adsorption rates than when ZDDP is blended in a polar oil, resulting in the formation of thicker ZDDP-derived reaction layers and influencing tribological performance. These results indicate the importance of base oil polarity on the ability of ZDDP to reach the surface and the influence on tribological performance.

  • 8.
    Suarez, Aldara Naveira
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Tomala, A.
    Institut für Angewandte Physik, Vienna University of Technology.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Zaccheddu, M.
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Pasaribu, R.
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    The influence of base oil polarity and slide-roll ratio on additive-derived reaction layer formation2011In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 225, no 7, p. 565-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional additives, particularly extreme-pressure and antiwear additives, in formulated oil will compete to adsorb and form a protective layer in tribological contacts. The thickness of the layer is determined by the equilibrium between the formation and removal processes. In this article, the interactions between additives and base oil molecules and operating conditions influence friction and wear are studied. One polar (ester oil) and one non-polar (poly-α-olefin) commercial base oil blended with zinc dialkyl dithiophosphates were studied. The tribological performance was evaluated using a ball-on-disc test rig under mixed rolling-sliding conditions in the boundary lubrication regime. An adapted in situ interferometry technique was used to monitor the additive-derived reaction layer formation. The properties of the additive-derived reaction layers were studied using surface analysis techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. A thicker layer was formed when the additive is blended in the nonpolar oil. This observation suggests that base oil polarity determines the transport of additives to the surface, thereby controlling the maximum reaction layer thickness, friction and wear, as well as the morphology of the additive-derived reaction layer. However, the reaction layer chemical composition is not strongly influenced by the base oil polarity. Among the operating conditions, shear was identified as a fundamental parameter for the activation of additives on rubbing steel surfaces and the properties of the derived reaction layer.

  • 9. Suarez, Aldara Naveira
    et al.
    Tomala, A.
    Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology.
    Pasaribu, R.
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Gebeshuber, I.C.
    Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology.
    Evolution of ZDDP-derived reaction layer morphology with rubbing time2010In: Scanning, ISSN 0161-0457, E-ISSN 1932-8745, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 294-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional additives, particularly extreme pressure and antiwear additives, in formulated oil will compete to adsorb and function in tribological contacts. A low-polarity commercial base oil, poly-α-olefin (PAO), blended with zinc dialkyl dithiophosphates (ZDDP) has been studied. The tribological performance was evaluated using a ball-on-disk test rig under mixed rolling-sliding conditions in the boundary lubrication regime at 90°C. An adapted in situ interferometry technique was used to monitor the additive-derived reaction layer formation. The thickness of the reaction layer evolves with rubbing until reaching a limiting thickness value of approximately 70 nm. The evolution of the topography and mechanical properties of the ZDDP-derived reaction layer with rubbing time were studied using Atomic Force Microscopy. A constant roughening and hardening of the additive-derived layer with rubbing time is observed and related to the different tribological performance of the layer at different rubbing times.

  • 10.
    Suarez, Aldara Naveira
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Zaccheddu, Maurizio
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Pasaribu, Rihard H
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Parameters affecting the functionality of additives in tribological contacts: an experimental and molecular dynamics simulation study2009In: Proceedings of the World Tribology Congress 2009: Sunday 6th to Friday 11th, September, 2009, Kyoto, Japan, Tokyo: Japan Society of Tribologists , 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of additives-base oil molecules interactions, in combination with surface properties and operational conditions, on the tribological behavior of base oil-additive blends was studied. Different model base oils (n-hexadecane and diethylene glycol dibutyl ether) and additives (C4-zinc dialkyl dithiophosphates and oleic acid), were used. The diffusion coefficients of ZnDDP were dependent on temperature and pressure, however, the two base oils showed comparable values. The different tribological performance of additive/base oil systems was due to the competition between molecules for a place on the steel surface. The base oil-additives interaction influenced the transport of additives to the rubbing surfaces and thereby the growth rate and kinetics of formation of the additive-derived reaction layers. The interaction also affected the morphology and mechanical properties of the reaction films, leading to the differences in friction and wear behavior. The intensity of the tribological contacts accelerated the formation of tribological reaction layers. The applied shear stress in tribological contacts influenced the way additives adsorb onto the rubbed surfaces. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the World Tribology Congress (Kyoto, Japan 9/6-11/2009).

  • 11.
    Tomala, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology.
    Suarez, Aldara Naveira
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Gebeshuber, Ilse-Christine
    Vienna University of Technology.
    Pasaribu, Rihard
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Effect of base oil polarity on micro and nano friction behaviour of base oil +ZDDP solutions2009In: 3rd Vienna International Conference on Nano-Technology: March 18-20, 2009; Vienna, Austria / [ed] Wilfried J. Bartz, Wien: Österreichische Tribolog. Ges., , 2009, p. 98-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ball-on-disc tribo tests and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to analyze the effect of base oil polarity on the friction behaviour of steel-steel contacts lubricated with base oil + zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) solutions. Understanding the lubrication properties of the first chemisorbed layer of additives on work pieces yields important information for the optimization of lubrication in various solutions, in particular with regard to the type of additive and amount needed.To characterize the influence of oil polarity, two reference base oils (hexadecane - non polar and diethylenglycol - polar) were blended with different concentrations of ZDDP-C4, and the solutions were tested. A monolayer of base oil/additive solution is deposited on an ASI 52100 steel plate and is scanned on AFM contact mode under several rubbing time and applied load conditions.An AFM technique is developed to estimate microscopic values of friction coefficients showing how the oil polarity contributes to the differences in friction behaviour of the solution due to the addition of ZDDP. With different base oils (hexadecane - non polar base oil and diethylenglycol - polar oil) we observed a significant different of friction behaviour (in micro scale and nano scale) due to the addition of ZDDP compared to the base oil alone. This observation may be attributed to the contribution of base oil to transport the ZDDP additive onto the surface that will be discussed in more detail below. This results display the importance of base oil polarity on the friction behaviour of formulated lubricants containing additives.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 12.
    Tomala, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Institut für Angewandte Physik, Vienna University of Technology.
    Suarez, Aldara Naveira
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Gebeshuber, Ilse-Christine
    Institut für Angewandte Physik, Vienna University of Technology.
    Pasaribu, Rihard
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Effect of base oil polarity on micro and nanofriction behaviour of base oil+ZDDP solutions2009In: Tribology - Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces, ISSN 1751-5831, E-ISSN 1751-584X, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 182-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ball on disc tribometer and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to analyse the effect of base oil polarity on the friction behaviour of steel-steel contacts lubricated with base oil + zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) solutions. Understanding the lubrication properties of the first chemisorbed layer of additives on work pieces yields important information for the optimisation of lubricant formulation, in particular with regard to the type of additive and amount needed. To characterise the influence of base oil polarity, two reference base oils [hexadecane (non-polar) and diethylenglycol (polar)] were blended with different concentrations of C4-ZDDP, and the solutions were tested. A monolayer of base oil/additive solution was deposited on an ASI 52100 steel plate and scanned in AFM contact mode under various rubbing times and applied load conditions. An AFM technique was developed to estimate the microscopic values of friction coefficients showing how the oil polarity contributes to the differences in friction behaviour of the solution due to the addition of ZDDP. With different base oils [(hexadecane (non-polar base oil) and diethylenglycol (polar oil)] the authors observed significant different friction behaviours (in micro scale and nano scale) due to the addition of ZDDP compared to the base oil alone. This observation may be attributed to the contribution of base oil to transport the ZDDP additive onto the surface which will be discussed in more details in the paper. These results display the importance of base oil polarity on the friction behaviour of formulated lubricants containing additives

  • 13.
    Tomala, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, AC²T research GmbH - Austrian Center of Competence for Tribology, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2 D, 2700 Wiener Neustadt.
    Vengudusamy, B.
    AC²T research GmbH - Austrian Center of Competence for Tribology, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2 D, 2700 Wiener Neustadt.
    Ripoll, M. Rodriguez
    AC²T research GmbH - Austrian Center of Competence for Tribology, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2 D, 2700 Wiener Neustadt.
    Suarez, Aldara Naveira
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Remškar, M.
    Institut “Jožef Stefan”, Ljubljana.
    Rosentsveig, M.
    Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot.
    Interaction Between Selected MoS2 Nanoparticles and ZDDP Tribofilms2015In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 59, no 1, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoparticles based on transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) are considered to hold great promise as boundary lubricating additive/material for improving friction and wear of engineering functional surfaces. However, TMD nanoparticles cannot provide a comprehensive surface protection against oxidation, corrosion or sludge control. Therefore, the current lubricant developments may still have to depend on conventional additives such as zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP), and it is essential to understand the interaction of nanoparticles with such additives in order to explore how these nanoparticles could be commercially employed in fully formulated lubricants. This paper examines the tribological properties of three different nanoparticles: inorganic fullerene-like MoS2, rhenium-doped MoS2 and MoS2 nanotubes in steel and steel with preformed ZDDP tribofilm surfaces using a pin-on-disc-type tribometer under reciprocating sliding conditions. The resulting tribofilms have been evaluated using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The results show that although the nanoparticles are able to reduce friction in all cases, the resulting tribofilm composition and morphology, and their lubricating mechanisms are significantly different. The MoS2 nanoparticles and nanotubes show good synergism with ZDDP, and tribofilms formed from nanoparticles exhibit improved friction and wear properties compared to that typically formed from ZDDP.

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