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  • 1.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abdellatif, Mawada
    Liverpool JM University.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mustafa, Yaseen
    University of Zakho.
    Future Prospects for Macro Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) technique in north east Iraq.2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 403-420Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries in Middle East and North Africa (MENA region) are considered arid and semi-arid areas that are suffering from water scarcity. They are expected to have more water shortages problem due to climatic change. Iraq is located in the Middle East covering an area of 433,970 square kilometers populated by 31 million inhabitants.One of the solutions suggested to overcome water scarcity is Rain Water Harvesting (RWH).In this study Macro rainwater harvesting technique had been tested for future rainfall data that were predicted by two emission scenarios of climatic change (A2 and B2) for the period 2020-2099 at Sulaimaniyah Governorate north east of Iraq. Future volumes of total runoff that might be harvested for different conditions of maximum, average, and minimum future rainfall seasons under both scenarios (A2 and B2) were calculated. The results indicate that the volumes of average harvested runoff will be reduced when average rainfall seasons are considered due to the effect of climatic change on future rainfall. The reduction reached 53.73 % and 43.0% when scenario A2 is for scenario B2 are considered respectively.

  • 2.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water harvesting and reservoir optimization in selected areas of south Sinjar Mountain, Iraq2013Inngår i: Journal of hydrologic engineering, ISSN 1084-0699, E-ISSN 1943-5584, Vol. 18, nr 12, s. 1607-1616Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is experiencing water resource shortages which are expected to become more severe in the future. It is believed that rain water harvesting will be one of the solutions to overcome this problem. In this paper rain water harvest modeling techniques were applied to the Sinjar area of Northwest Iraq for agricultural purposes. A watershed modeling system (WMS) and linear programming (LP) optimization techniques were applied to maximize the irrigated area which could be supplied by each selected reservoir for the period 1990-2009. This technique proved to be efficient for solving large scale water supply problems with multiple parameters and constraints, including the required input data for the model. Two scenarios of operation were considered for each main basin. In the first, each reservoir was operated as a separate unit while, in the second, all reservoirs within the basin were operated as one system. Both scenarios gave encouraging results but scenario two provided better results.

  • 3.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mustafa, Yaseen
    University of Zakho.
    Ahmad, Payman
    Koya University.
    Ghafour, Bahra
    Koya University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Development of Water Resources in Koya City, Iraq2013Inngår i: First International Symposium on Urban Development, UK: WIT Press, 2013, s. 91-98Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is facing water shortage problem, which is becoming more severe with time. Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) can help to minimize the water shortage problem. Seven years of rainfall records was used to find out the quantity of water that can be harvested using a Watershed modeling system (WMS).Koya city is located in the northern part of Iraq. The population of the city is about 39484.The application of the WMS model for rainfall records of seven years (2002-3 to 2010-11) showed that 275.51 million cubic meters of water can be harvested. This implies that annual average of rain harvested water is 39.4 million cubic meters and the allocation per capita to be 997 cubic meters per year. This amount of water can greatly help to the development of industry and agriculture in the city.

  • 4.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Rain water harvesting and supplemental irrigation at Sinjar district in northwest Iraq2012Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Rainwater harvesting is one of the methods that can ensure availability of water for winter crop in Iraq. Using this technique the excess rainwater (runoff) is stored in reservoirs of dams of different sizes. The water from these reservoirs can be used later when required to satisfy the crops requirements.It is believed that rainwater harvesting will be one of the solutions to overcome water shortages problem in Iraq.This work deals with rainwater harvesting modeling on Sinjar District. The area of study is a plan area located on the northern and southern flank of Sinjar Mountain, within Nineveh province in northwest Iraq. The model was first applied on southern of Sinjar Mountain, where barley crop was chosen as one of the main crops grown in the area. Linear programming technique was adopted to optimize the irrigated area for irrigation scenario of supplemental irrigation (SI) 100% of full irrigation requirements. Two scenarios of operation were considered for each main basin. In the first, each reservoir was operated as a separate unit while in the second all reservoirs in a basin were operated as one system. Both scenarios gave encouraging results. Scenario two however, was relatively better.And then the model was applied again on the northern Sinjar Mountain area. Wheat crop was considered as the main crop grown in the area. A linear programming technique was adopted to optimize the irrigated area for three scenarios of irrigation. They were: 1/supplemental irrigation (SI) 100%, 2/deficit irrigation (DI) 50%, 3/deficit irrigation (DI) 25% of full irrigation requirements. The results of the three scenarios used indicated that, using deficit irrigation (DI) of 50% can be more beneficial than SI of 100% and DI of 25% of full irrigation requirements. These results reflect useful value of RWH and its influence to increase the irrigated area in the studied region.This study had been carried out at Lulea University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Lulea, Sweden.The present work structured in seven chapters, and can be pursued as follows: In chapter 1, Background of the rainwater harvesting, aims of study and research methodology are addressed. In chapter 2, Scope of description of Water Resources in Iraq, Numbers and facts about Iraq, Present water resources conditions in Iraq, Irrigation practices in Iraq, Main Rivers of Iraq, Dams on Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, The impact of Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) on water resources in Iraq, Environmental Consequences and Groundwater in Iraq are described.In chapter 3, Information review on rainwater harvesting and supplemental irrigation is presented. In chapter 4, Description of the study area of the Sinjar District, simulation models used in the study and a research methodology are presented.In chapter 5, The results are presented and discussed for southern and northern of Sinjar Mountain. In chapter 6, Summaries for future study: water harvesting and groundwater recharge, water harvesting and its role in increasing crop productivity and the impact of forecasting on water harvesting. In chapter 7, Summaries for the overall conclusions based on the results and then references of the study are listed.Extended of thesis 1-Water harvesting and reservoir optimization of selected areas south Sinjar Mountain, Iraq, Lulea University of Technology, Sweden.Nadhir Al-Ansari, Mohammad Ezz-Aldeen, Sven Knutsson, Saleh Zakaria Submitted to the Journal of Hydrological Engineering. 2- Rainwater harvesting and supplemental irrigation at northern Sinjar Mountain, Iraq, Lulea University of Technology, Sweden.Saleh Zakaria, Nadhir Al-Ansari, Sven Knutsson, Mohammad Ezz-Aldeen Journal of Purity, Utility Reaction and Environment, Vol. 1 No.3,May 2012, 121-141.

  • 5.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) North of Iraq2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Rainwater harvesting is one of the methods that can ensure availability of water for winter crop in Iraq. Using this technique the excess rainwater (runoff) is stored in reservoirs of dams of different sizes. The water from these reservoirs can be used later when required to satisfy the crops requirements. It is believed that rainwater harvesting will be one of the solutions to overcome water shortages problem in Iraq.This work includes four parts dealing with macro rainwater harvesting modeling. The study area includes selected sites at three Governorates located north of Iraq (Erbil, Sulaymaniyah, and Nineveh). In part one of the work, three selected sites at south, north and east of Sinjar district (Nineveh Governorate) were used. The slope of the study area at Sinjar district is less than 5%. The technique was first applied on southern Sinjar Mountain. Linear programming technique was adopted to optimize the irrigated area of barley crop for irrigation scenario of supplemental irrigation (SI) 100% of full irrigation requirements. Two scenarios of reservoir operation were considered for each main basin. In the first, each reservoir was operated as a separate unit while in the second all reservoirs in main basin were operated as one system. Both scenarios gave encouraging results. Scenario two however, was relatively better. The technique was applied again on the northern and eastern Sinjar Mountain area but with different catchments area and scenarios of irrigation (supplemental irrigation (SI) 100%, deficit irrigation (DI) 50%, and deficit irrigation (DI) 25% of full irrigation requirements). Wheat crop was considered as the main crop grown in the area. A linear programming technique was adopted to optimize the irrigated area for the above three scenarios of irrigation. The results of the three scenarios used indicated that, using deficit irrigation (DI) of 50% can be more beneficial than SI of 100% and DI of 25% of full irrigation requirements. Part two of the work includes application of Macro RWH technique at mountain areas in Northeastern part of Iraq. In these areas, all selected basins having slope more than 5 % and located at the rain-fed farms of Kurdistan region of Iraq, Erbil and Sulaymaniyah Governorates. The annual rainfall is greater than what was available at Nineveh Governorate. Part three of the work focused about the ability of Macro RWH technique to support wheat crop yield production in dry rain-fed farms at north Sinjar district, north west of Iraq, using wheat crop yield-water relationship that conducted by International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA). Three scenarios of supplemental irrigation (100%, 75% and 50%) of full irrigation. requirements with, various rainfall conditions were used, two types of wheat (bread and durum) were considered. Part four of the work focused on climatic change and future prospects for Macro RWH technique. Box-Jenkins methodology for time series analysis and forecasting (ARIMA model) was used to study future rainfall for 4 main rainfall stations surrounding Sinjar area in order to forecast expected rainfall for the period 2012-2016. Future rainfall depths were forecasted with adoption of a confidence level of 95%. The future rainfall was employed for RWH technique. This part also includes a review of the impact of climatic change on countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region). The climatic model CGCM3.1 (T47) 2 was used to explain the changes in the average temperatures and rainfall on MENA region with special emphases on Iraq. Long term future seasonal rainfall during the period 2020-2099 at east Sinjar (Nineveh Governorate) showed a clear negative trend reflecting the reduction in total seasonal rainfall amount. For these future rainfall depths, the maximum, minimum and average harvested runoff volumes were estimated. The comparison of the runoff results between future and historical recorded rainfall for the same study area was carried out to show the future validity of rainwater harvesting. In order to estimate the amount of runoff that can be harvested from a given catchment area at eastern Sinjar, an attempt was made to provide set of charts that are easy to be used in order to estimate the equivalent harvested runoff depth (mm) for different selected rainfall depths under different hydraulic conditions for the catchment area. Macro rainwater harvesting (RWH) technique had been tested for future rainfall data that predicted by two emission scenarios of climatic change (A2 and B2) for the period 2020-2099 at Nineveh and Sulaymaniyah Governorates north of Iraq. The results of the four parts of the thesis reflect useful values for RWH and its influence to increase the irrigated area and then the crop yield in the studied region when combined with an effective system like supplemental irrigation. Rain-fed land in the studied areas requires effective technique in terms of saving significant runoff water for irrigation purposes and this might be achieved by rain-water harvesting (RWH) technique.

  • 6.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Dawood, Anwer
    Koya University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Future Prospects for Macro Rainwater Harvesting Technique at Northwest Iraq2014Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 1-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rainfall data is part of the main components in the hydrological cycle and firmly associated with almost all aspect of climate. Previous research indicated that Macro rainwater harvesting techniques (RWH) can be implemented successfully in Sinjar area northwest Iraq. Recently, prediction of rainfall trends in the Middle East and Iraq in particular suggest a decrease in rainfall due to climate change. This raises the question about the future validity of RWH in the area.In this research, the validity of RWH was investigated using predicted rainfall data in Sinjar area. Eight seasons were selected representing different decades that start 2020 to 2099. The results showed that the maximum, minimum and average harvested future runoff volumes reached about 28.5, 7.61, and 13.9 million cubic meters, that may occurred during the seasons 2055-2056, 2046-2047, and 2065-2066 respectively. The resultant harvested runoff volumes produced by four selected basins at Eastern Sinjar as a catchment area with total area of 435.15 km2. In the second part, an attempt had been made to provide the study area by a set of charts that can help in estimating daily runoff under dry, wet and normal conditions for rainfall depths that ranged between 15 to 55 mm.

  • 7.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Rain water harvesting at eastern Sinjar mountain, Iraq2012Inngår i: Geoscience Research, ISSN 0976-9846, E-ISSN 0976-9854, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 100-108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is facing water shortages and the problem is becoming more serious with time. The main water resources of Iraq (Tigris and Euphrates Rivers) suffer from severe reduction in their discharges due to construction dams on the both banks of Rivers inside Turkey and Syria. Agricultural land had been reduced drastically due to water scarcity. Despite this fact, none of the Iraqi farmers had yet used non-conventional techniques to augment water resources to overcome water shortage problems such as Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) technique.The main aim of this research is to contribute to solving the problem of water shortage of Iraq by finding effective results in terms of saving significant runoff water for irrigation purposes, and therefore provide an academic effort as a tool for encourage and decision support for RWH in Iraq.Macro RWH (large catchment area), was applied at East Sinjar Mountain in Iraq. The estimating volume of harvested runoff ranged (0.11-28.11) ×106 m3 calculated using the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) for the four selected basins together with total area of 435.14 km2 for the study period of (1990-2009).The results of estimating runoff volume showed that the runoff volume can be considered for irrigation practices especially in supplementary irrigation.A linear programming technique was adopted to maximize the irrigated area. Three scenarios of irrigation level were chosen: supplemental irrigation (SI) 100% Satisfy full irrigation requirements (S1), deficit irrigation (DI) 50% of full irrigation requirements (S2), and deficit irrigation (DI) 25% of full irrigation requirements (S3). The resultant irrigated area ranged between 18-2646 for SI 100%, 58-41303 for DI 50%, and 27-9543for DI 25% hectares respectively for all four selected basins together. These results reflect useful value of RWH and its influence to increase the irrigated area in the studied region.

  • 8.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Historical and future climatic change scenarios for temperature and rainfall for Iraq2013Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 7, nr 12, s. 1574-1594Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is facing a big challenge of climatic change, mainly due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. Many researches indicated that the climate change occurred disproportionately on developing countries such as Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries.The climatic model CGCM3.1 (T47) 2 is used in this research to explain the changes in average temperatures and the rainfall on MMENA region with special emphases on Iraq. Historical records (1900-2009) and future (2020-2099) were studied and compared, each period was divided to four sub-periods of thirty years. The results showed that the average monthly temperature for the four historical periods fluctuated between the lowest and highest value as follows: 9.2-32.9, 10.3-32.7, 9.3-32.8, and 8.6-33.9 (Cº).The rainfall for historical periods kept on the same distribution during the past 109 years, and fluctuated between the lowest and highest value of 21.3 and 37.6 mm with an average that reached up to 26.51 mm. For the future period, the maximum average monthly temperature reached up to 37.41 (Cº) during June and minimum average monthly temperature reached up to 4.24 (Cº) during January. The average monthly temperature fluctuated giving a clear impression that the future portends a higher temperature. The average monthly of rainfall, for the future period, fluctuated between the lowest and highest value of 12.91 and 20.63 mm with an average that reached 16.84 mm which represent a reduction percentage of about 36.47% relative to the historical record of rainfall for the same months.

  • 9.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Rainwater harvesting using recorded and hypothetical rainfall data scenarios2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 21-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Macro Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) under recorded and forecasting rainfall scenarios helps to overcome the water shortage problem. Eastern Sinjar District-Iraq had been investigated for the potential of RWH with a catchment area of four basins. Three recorded rainfall scenarios (S1, S2, and S3) were diagnosed representing seasons of the maximum, minimum and average weekly rainfall events for the period 1990-2011. Forecasting the rainfall depths for the same catchment area were estimated depending on Box-Jenkins methodology to build Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models for weekly rainfall data for the period 2012-2016. Three forecasting rainfall scenarios (S4, S5, and S6) were diagnosed to represent the seasons of the maximum, minimum and average weekly forecasting rainfall events. The results of these scenarios were compared with an average area to be irrigated obtained from the results of 19 years record. The results indicated that in wet years RWH technique with supplemental irrigation help to give total irrigated area larger than a total specified average irrigated area. In average and dry years, the amounts of the additional needed water were estimated to irrigate the total areas that should be increase in order to satisfy the specified average irrigated area.

  • 10.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Wheat yield scenarios for rainwater harvesting at northern Sinjar mountain, Iraq2013Inngår i: Journal of Natural Science, ISSN 0075-4307, Vol. 5, nr 10, s. 1057-1068Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is part of West Asia and North Africa (WANA) region. The area is known as dry land, famous with gap of crop yield as a result of the water shortage problem.Six basins with total catchment area of 614.19 km2 at rain-fed of Northern Sinjar District-Iraq had been chosen to investigate both of the potential of rainwater harvesting (RWH) and three supplemental irrigation (SI) scenarios S1, S2, and S3 (100%, 75%, and 50% of full irrigation requirement) to support the wheat yield (bread and durum) under various rainfall conditions for the study period 1990-2009.The results indicated that, the total volume of harvested runoff can be considered for irriga- tion practices, that reached up to 42.4 , 25.1, 0.6, 10.9 (*106 m3) during 1995-1996, 1996-1997, 1998-1999, and 2001-2002, respectively.The total irrigated area ranged between 10.9-5163.7 and 8.8-3595.7 (ha) for bread and durum wheat crop for the four selected seasons respectively. The yield scenarios for supplemental irrigation condition Y1, Y2, and Y3 give 68–9712, 94–12999, and 105–22806 Ton for bread wheat, and for durum wheat give 56–8035, 87–10906, and 103–17396 Ton.

  • 11.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Badrany, Thafer
    University of Mosul.
    ARIMA Models for weekly rainfall in the semi-arid Sinjar District at Iraq2012Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Time series analysis and forecasting is an important tool which can be used to improve water resources management. Iraq is facing a severe water shortage problem. The use of rainwater harvesting is one of the techniques to overcome this problem. To put this into practice, it is of prime importance to forecast future rainfall events on a weekly basis.Box-Jenkins methodology has been used in this research to build Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models for weekly rainfall data from four rainfall stations in the North West of Iraq: Sinjar, Mosul, Rabeaa and Talafar for the period 1990-2011. Four ARIMA models were developed for the above stations as follow: (3,0,2)x(2,1,1)30, (1,0,1)x(1,1,3)30, (1,1,2)x(3,0,1)30 and (1,1,1)x(0,0,1)30 respectively. The performance of the resulting successful ARIMA models were evaluated using the data year (2011).These models were used to forecast the weekly rainfall data for the up-coming years (2012 to 2016). The results supported previous work that had been carried out on the same area recommending the use of water harvesting in agricultural practices.

  • 12.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Rain water harvesting and supplemental irrigation at northern Sinjar mountain, Iraq2012Inngår i: Journal of Purity, Utility Reaction and Environment, ISSN 2232-1179, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 121-141Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is facing water shortages and the problem is becoming more serious with time. Despite this fact, none of the farmers had used Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) technique yet. The main aim of this research is to contribute to solving the problem of water shortage of Iraq by finding effective results in terms of saving significant runoff water for irrigation purposes. Macro RWH was applied at Northern Sinjar Mountain in Iraq, where macro is indicator for large catchment area. Runoff volume was determined by applying the watershed modeling system (WMS) for six selected basins with total area of 614.19km2 for the study period of (1990-2009). The volume of harvested water ranged (0.6-42.4) × 106 m3 for all six basins together for the study period. A linear programming technique was adopted to optimize the irrigated area for three scenarios of irrigation, 1/ supplemental irrigation (SI) 100%, 2/ deficit irrigation (DI) 50%, 3/ deficit irrigation (DI) 25% of full irrigation requirements. The results of calculation of irrigated area ranged between 14.5-3663.7 for SI 100%, 33.0-39827.1 for DI 50%, and 20.1-7314.0 for DI 25% hectares respectively. These results reflect useful value of RWH and its influence to increase the irrigated area in the studied region.

  • 13.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mustafa, Yaseen
    Zakho University.
    Alshibli, Mohammad
    Ministry of Water Resources.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Macro rain water harvesting network to estimate annual runoff at Koysinjaq (Koya) district, Kurdistan region of Iraq2013Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 5, nr 12, s. 956-966Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Macro rainwater harvesting techniques (Macro RWH) are getting more popular to overcome the problem of water scar-city in arid and semi-arid areas. Iraq is experiencing serious water shortage problem now despite the presence of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. RWH can help to overcome this problem. In this research RWH was applied on Koya city in its districts, North West Iraq. Twenty two basins were identified as the catchment area for the application of RWH tech-nique. Watershed modeling system (WMS), based on Soil Conservation Service - curve number (SCS-CN) method, was applied to calculate direct runoff from individual daily rain storm using average annual rainfall records of the area. Two consecutive adjustments for the curve number were considered. The first was for the antecedent moisture condition (AMC) and the second was for the slope. These adjustments increased the total resultant harvested runoff up to 79.402 *106 m3. The average percentage of increase of harvested runoff volume reached 9.28%. This implies that water allocation is of the order of 2000 cubic meter per capita per year. This quantity of water will definitely help to develop the area.

  • 14.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mustafa, Yaseen
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ahmed, Payman
    Ghafour, Bahra
    Rainwater harvesting at Koysinjaq (Koya), Kurdistan region, Iraq2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 25-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Macro Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) has been tested at Koysinjaq (Koya) District, Kurdistan region of Iraq, due to its limited source of water.The studied area consists of four basins with total area of 228.96 km2. The estimating volumes of harvested runoff for the four selected basins together for the study period (2002-2011) were calculated using the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) which is based on Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method.In this research, a comparison between maximum and minimum rainfall seasons was conducted to give better understanding for the events that is governing the harvested runoff collection.The results show that, the total harvested runoff ranged from14.83 to 80.77(*106 m3) from the four selected basins together. This indicates that the technique of Macro RWH can be considered to provide a new source of water to contribute to reduce the problem of water scarcity.

  • 15.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mustafa, Yassen
    Zakho University.
    Mohammed, Diary
    Sulaimaniya University.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    Sulaimaniya University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Estimation of annual harvested runoff at Sulaymaniyah Governorate, Kurdistan region of Iraq2013Inngår i: Journal of Natural Science, ISSN 0075-4307, Vol. 5, nr 12, s. 1272-1283Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Kurdistan Region (KR) of Iraq has suffered from the drought period during the seasons 2007- 2008 and 2008-2009 that affected the human and economic activities of the region. Macro rain- water harvesting (Macro RWH) is one of the te- chniques that can ensure water availability for a region having limited water resources. This te- chnique is based on Soil Conservation Service- Curve Number (SCS-CN) method and the Water- shed Modeling System (WMS) was used to esti- mate the runoff. Rainfall records of Sulaymani- yah area for the period 2002-2012 were studied and an average season was selected (2010-2011). The results of the application of the WMS model showed that about 10.76 million cubic meters could be harvested. The results also showed that the quantity of the harvested runoff was highly affected by rainfall depth, curve number values, antecedent moisture conditions (AMC) and the area of the basins.

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