Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 52
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Al-Douri, Yamur K.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    A critical review of Information Assurance (IA) framework forcondition-based maintenance of railway tracks2017In: Risk, Reliability and Safety: Innovating Theory and Practice - Proceedings of the 26th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2016 / [ed] Walls L.,Revie M.,Bedford T, London: CRC Press, 2017, p. 1072-1078Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway maintenance is faced with increasing demands, including the need to improve service.Data measuring the track state and suitable models or applications are needed to make good maintenancedecisions. This critical review paper investigates many research papers on the use of information assurance (IA)within condition-based maintenance (CBM) on a railway track. An IA framework sheds light on the data andinformation used to make maintenance decisions. The paper considers work on data processing and decisionmakingin CBM. The results show condition monitoring suffers from an inability to determine exact positioningon the track; some data are inaccurate or unavailable. Existing studies have not adequately dealt with data contentor the various technologies used. They focus on integrity, availability, authentication, authorisation and accuracy,but do not consider other IA principles important to understand data.CBMmodels and algorithms have difficultyunderstanding degradation models, and data problems mean it is difficult to make good decisions. There is alack of long term maintenance plans. Models also need to be integrated for more realistic but not necessarilyoptimum solutions and to ensure practical predictions of maintenance. Some models focus on degradation, othersconsider prediction, and still others calculate the maintenance cost; it is difficult to combine these. Overall, dataare inaccurate, there is no testing phase using realistic data, and existing models are insufficient. This has anegative impact on maintenance decisions.

  • 2.
    Al-Douri, Yamur K.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Improvement of Railway Performance: A Study of Swedish Railway Infrastructure2016In: Journal of Modern Transportation, ISSN 2095-087X, E-ISSN 2196-0577, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 22-37, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The volume of rail traffic was increased by 5% from 2006 to 2010, in Sweden, due to increased goods and passenger traffic. This increased traffic, in turn, has led to a more rapid degradation of the railway track, which has resulted in higher maintenance costs. In general, degradation affects comfort, safety, and track quality, as well as, reliability, availability, speed, and overall railway performance. This case study investigated the needs of railway stakeholders responsible for analysing the track state and what information is necessary to make good maintenance decisions. The goal is to improve the railway track performance by ensuring increased availability, reliability, and safety, along with a decreased maintenance cost. Interviews of eight experts were undertaken to learn of general areas in need of improvement, and a quantitative analysis of condition monitoring data was conducted to find more specific information. The results show that by implementing a long-term maintenance strategy and by conducting preventive maintenance actions maintenance costs would be reduced. In addition to that, problems with measured data, missing data, and incorrect location data resulted in increased and unnecessary maintenance tasks. The conclusions show that proactive solutions are needed to reach the desired goals of improved safety, improved availability and improved reliability. This also includes the development of a visualisation tool and a life cycle cost model for maintenance strategies.

  • 3.
    Al-Jumaili, Mustafa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Data quality assessment using multi-attribute: maintenance perspective2018In: International Journal of Information and Decision Sciences, ISSN 1756-7017, E-ISSN 1756-7025, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 147-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper proposes a model for data quality (DQ) assessment in maintenance. Data has become an increasingly important since most of the maintenance planning and implementations are based on data analysis. Poor DQ reduces customer satisfaction, leading to poor decision making, and has negative impacts on strategy execution. To improve DQ as well as to evaluate the current status, DQ needs to be measured. A measure for DQ could be an important support for decision makers. Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods can provide a framework for DQ assessment, however, they are not used in literature for DQ assessment. In order to assess DQ, the attributes or KPIs need to be defined, their hierarchy should be designed and the assessment model is proposed to evaluate these attributes. A case study is also presented in this paper. The study shows that MCDM methods could provide qualitative estimation for the quality of DQ attributes.

  • 4.
    Aljumaili, Mustafa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Metadata-Based Data Quality Assessment2016In: Vine: The Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, ISSN 0305-5728, E-ISSN 1474-1032, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 232-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High quality data and data quality assessment can support the decision-makingprocess. In the literature, discussions of the assessment process are mainly focused on theoretical approaches to content analysis or on user evaluations. Metadata is important source for quality information in any database system, however, it is not considered for data quality assessment. Metadata contains information that describes the data in a database, including the constraints and the database schema. High quality data can be produced by designing a database system with accurate metadata descriptions. Having accurate and detailed metadata will reduce the errors in data values which can lead to data quality issues. In this study, data quality assessment model is proposed based on both content and metadata analysis. The model is validated by developing an application tool to assess the quality of the data in a database based on the proposed model. The results show that metadata can provide important information about the quality of the database and its adoption can help togive faster, more accurate and user independent assessment of data quality.

  • 5.
    Al-Jumaili, Mustafa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Multi-Criteria Data Quality Assessment Maintenance perspective2014In: Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop and congress on eMaintenance: June 17-18 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenance, Trends in technologies & methodologies, challenges, possibilites and applications / [ed] Uday Kumar; Ramin Karim; Aditya Parida; Philip Tretten, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2014, p. 153-158Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data quality (DQ) in maintenance has become an increasinglyimportant aspect to many firms as most of the maintenanceplanning and implementations are based on data analysis. PoorDQ has adverse effects at the operational, tactical, and strategiclevels of any organization. Respectively, poor DQ reducescustomer satisfaction, leading to poor decision making, and hasnegative impacts on strategy execution. To improve DQ as well asto evaluate the current status, DQ need to be measured followingthe fact that only what can be measured can be improved. Ameasure for DQ could be an important support for decisionmakers. In order to assess DQ, related attributes should bedefined. These attributes could be related to the data itself, to themetadata, or to the data representation schemes. After definingthese attributes, an assessment model should be used to evaluatethese attributes. The purpose of this paper is to propose a modelfor DQ assessment. Therefore, a study of DQ attributes and thepossible metrics that could be used to measure these attributes wasundertaken. The proposed model will be applied on datasetprovided by the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket)for validation and to find an estimation measure of the DQ.

  • 6.
    Aljumaili, Mustafa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Quality of Streaming Data in Condition Monitoring Using ISO 80002016In: Current Trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety: An Industry Perspective / [ed] Uday Kumar; Alireza Ahmadi; Ajit Kumar Verma; Prabhakar Varde, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2016, p. 703-715Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a Data Quality Measurement Model based on ISO 8000 standard. This paper deals about the concepts implied in the measurement process, not about the measures themselves. Poor quality information causes customer dissatisfaction, lost revenue and higher costs associated with additional time to reconcile information. An understanding of the characteristics of the data that determine its quality, and an ability to measure, manage and report on data quality is required. Measurement is a major activity in data quality management. In literature, there are many proposals contributing somehow to the measurement of data quality. However, these measurement methods lack the unification. ISO 8000 provides a framework for improving data quality that can be used independently or in conjunction with quality management systems. ISO 8000 defines characteristics that can be tested by any organization in the data supply chain to objectively determine conformance of the data to ISO 8000.

  • 7.
    Al-Jumaili, Mustafa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Wandt, Karina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    eMaintenance Ontologies for Data Quality Support2015In: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 358-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the main ontologies related to eMaintenance solutions and to study their application area. The advantages of using these ontologies to improve and control data quality will be investigated.Design/methodology/approach – A literature study has been done to explore the eMaintenance ontologies in the different areas. These ontologies are mainly related to content structure and communication interface. Then, ontologies will be linked to each step of the data production process in maintenance.Findings – The findings suggest that eMaintenance ontologies can help to produce a high quality data in maintenance. The suggested maintenance data production process may help to control data quality. Using these ontologies in every step of the process may help to provide management tools to provide high quality data.Research limitations/implications – Based on this study, it can be concluded that further research could broaden the investigation to identify more eMaintenance ontologies. Moreover, studying these ontologies in more technical details may help to increase the understandability and the use of these standards. Practical implications – It has been concluded in this study that applying eMaintenance ontologies by companies needs additional cost and time. Also the lack or the ineffective use of eMaintenance tools in many enterprises is one of the limitations for using these ontologies.Originality/value – Investigating eMaintenance ontologies and connecting them to maintenance data production is important to control and manage the data quality in maintenance.Paper type Research Paper

  • 8.
    Aljumaili, Mustafa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rauhala, Ville
    Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Science Technology.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Data quality in eMaintenance: a call for research2011In: MPMM 2011: Maintenance Performance Measurement & Management: Conference Proceedings / [ed] Diego Galar; Aditya Parida; Håkan Schunnesson; Uday Kumar, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2011, p. 69-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective and efficient maintenance requires a proper information logistics, which can be delivered through eMaintenance solutions. Development of eMaintenance solutions faces extensive challenges. One of these challenges is how to ensure the quality of data used in different eMaintenance solutions. Data Quality (DQ) concerns all phases of the maintenance process. The purpose of this paper is to answer the research question: how should DQ be considered and managed when developing eMaintenance solutions. To deal with such challenges a case study was conducted at a mining company. Empirical data has been collected through interviews, observations, archival records and workshops. The data analysis has been based on an empirical framework that supports the identification of required information services. Conditions that support the DQ and the information logistics, along with that, support the maintenance process have been presented. These aspects have also been related to the phases of a generic maintenance process.

  • 9.
    Al-Jumaili, Mustafa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Study of aspects of data quality in e-maintenance2012In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Development of the systematic grading procedure2011In: Design education for creativity and business innovation: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education / [ed] Ahmed Kovacevic, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2011, p. 293-298Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A challenge in design education is the grading of students work when the task is based upon the student’s ability to show applied knowledge. Due to this difficulty the grading criteria needs to be and is most often subjectively focused. As previous research has shown the assessments can vary between teachers, thus, increasing the chance for varied and possibly improper scores. Much has to do with the level of experience and knowledge a particular teacher has and the individual preferences to which parameters make a good picture or animation. The Systematic Grading Procedure (SGP) is a method in which an assignment is broken down and the task is graded depending upon the assessment areas. The aim of this paper is to validate the SGP as a grading method for teachers in 3D modeling and 3D-visualisation and further develop the SGP as an assessment tool for lesser-experienced teachers. The SGP has previously shown to be helpful in giving and receiving feedback. Previous work did not show significant differences between SGP and the commonly used methods but this more extensive study did show that the SGP did significantly help reduce the variation in grading for both experienced 3D teachers and inexperienced 3D teachers but not for non-teachers. There seems to be a good potential for the SGP method to help teachers give more consistent grades and at the same time help students through feedback which helps both by helping them with a better understanding of the grading methods and measures.

  • 11.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Systematic grading procedure based on subjective values2010In: When design education and design research meet-: proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) Trondheim, Norway, 2nd-3rd September 2010 / [ed] Casper Boks, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Design education there can be a challenge in grading students when the task is based upon the student's ability to learn new knowledge and apply it. Thus the grading criteria needs to be and is most often subjectively focused. For example, one requirement is that, "the object should have realistic lighting". Since there is no way to, with absolute values, measure whether an image has realistic lighting, the teacher's subjective values are the base for assessment and the student's score. An observed result is that these types of assessments can vary between teachers, thus, increasing the chance for varied and possibly improper scores. Much has to do with the level of experience and knowledge a particular teacher has and the individual differences to which parameters make a good picture or animation. It is also true that two different teachers can find separate items in student's work that are praiseworthy. This paper proposes that it is possible to systematize the evaluation process with a weighting method. A Systematic Grading Procedure (SGP) can be used in design projects to separate and weigh design criteria against each other without losing the overall picture of the work. This method will be tested to see if it can help teachers in grading students more accurately.In Design education there can be a challenge in grading students when the task is based upon the student's ability to learn new knowledge and apply it. Thus the grading criteria needs to be and is most often subjectively focused. For example, one requirement is that, "the object should have realistic lighting". Since there is no way to, with absolute values, measure whether an image has realistic lighting, the teacher's subjective values are the base for assessment and the student's score. An observed result is that these types of assessments can vary between teachers, thus, increasing the chance for varied and possibly improper scores. Much has to do with the level of experience and knowledge a particular teacher has and the individual differences to which parameters make a good picture or animation. It is also true that two different teachers can find separate items in student's work that are praiseworthy. This paper proposes that it is possible to systematize the evaluation process with a weighting method. A Systematic Grading Procedure (SGP) can be used in design projects to separate and weigh design criteria against each other without losing the overall picture of the work. This method will be tested to see if it can help teachers in grading students more accurately.

  • 12.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Who wins from academic consulting2013In: Design Education-Growing Our Future: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education (E&pde13, Glasgow: The Design Society Institution of Engineering Designers , 2013, p. 82-87Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    University teachers who start teaching right after graduation have not used and developed their knowledge professionally thus they have never had the opportunity to test their acquired knowledge in practice. This results in teaching that tends to be heavily theoretical because the teacher teaches what he/she has learned in studies, instead of teaching the knowledge gained through professional experience. Unfortunately a teacher can feel insecure when not knowing if their teaching reflects currently used methods and/or appropriate tools. An effect of this can be that teachers who feel insufficient in their role as teachers. The aim of this paper is to see if academic consulting not only increases the practical experience of the teacher, but also helps the teacher in their role and gives them a better understanding of what the state of the art is. While some schools have some cooperation with the business community, both in student projects and research projects, although it is not common with external non-research consultation projects, which are conducted by the university teachers. A questionnaire was sent to both teachers and students’ asking them of their experience of academic consulting’s benefits to the classroom experience. As a follow-up were several interviewed, along with clients to gain more insight. The results showed that teachers, students and the clients benefited from these types of projects.

  • 13.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Håkansson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    A systematic self-assessment tool2012In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education: Design Education for Future Wellbeing, EPDE 2012, 2012, p. 311-316Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bologna Process has led to fundamental changes in the way students are taught. This in turn has led to new quality assurance systems for teaching. For good outcomes to occur both the teachers and students need to be aware of the intended learning outcome (ILO) and this is made clearer by well defined Teacher/Learner Activities (TLAs). The Systematic Grading Procedure (SGP) has been shown to assist teachers grading student’s 3D-image work, fulfilling a need for assistance in subjects requiring grading of subjective nature. With the application of this method have both teachers and students been given a tool that helps them better understand the grading process and the level of importance of different parts of the 3D work. The aim of this study was to assess students’ learning outcomes. The SGP was used and compared by both teachers and students in assessing their own work. This study used four students who were introduced to the SGP at the introduction of the course. This was done to give then an idea how they are to understand the ILOs. After one of their assignments was graded the students were given an opportunity to improve their work using the SPG. Three of the four choose to improve their work. The ensuing interview and results showed that the SGP could be used as a tool to help students and teachers with the ILO and TLAs. In addition to that the SGP should further be tested for verification.

  • 14.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Högström, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Is video feedback in higher education worth a byte?2015In: Great Expectations: Design Teaching, Research & Enterprise: Design Teaching, Research & Enterprise - Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education (E&PDE15) / [ed] Ahmed Kovacevic ; Guy Bingham; Brian Parkinsson, Glasgow: The Design Society Institution of Engineering Designers , 2015, p. 258-263Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feedback can be given in various situations, like after examinations, project work, and course completion. It is widely accepted that feedback is important for students’ learning, and it can be used in various ways, such as, written, face-to-face, and with the assistance of video recordings. This study focuses on the use of video recorded feedback to gather knowledge on how video recorded feedback can enhance the students learning. Since feedback in the study was given in video recordings, an alternate way was introduced, which add further insights for teaching and learning at university levels. The results showed that 94% preferred video recorded feedback over written feedback and they, in general, preferred face to face feedback (59%). Although, follow-up questions showed that the students found the recorded option beneficial since they could review the video several times in order to see and hear exactly what was stated and what part of their work it related to. In conclusion, video feedback of student work was perceived to be beneficial and the students and the teacher positively accepted it.

  • 15.
    Fritsch, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Aarhus.
    Júdice, Andrea
    University of Art and Design Helsinki.
    Soini, Katja
    University of Art and Design Helsinki.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Storytelling and repetitive narratives for design empathy: case Suomenlinna2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today it is widely established in design research that empathy is an important part of creating a true understanding of user experience as a resource for design. A typical challenge is how to transmit the feeling of empathy acquired by user studies to designers who have not participated in the user study. In this paper, we show how we attained an empathic understanding through storytelling and aroused empathy to others using repetitive narratives in an experimental presentation bringing forth factual, reflective and experiential aspects of the user information. Taking as a starting point our experiences with the design project Suomenlinna Seclusive, we conclude with the potential of using narratives for invoking design empathy.

  • 16.
    Illankoon, Prasanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Manathunge, Yamuna
    Department of Education and Training, University of Vocational Technology, Ratmalana, Sri Lanka.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Abeysekara, John
    Work Science Academy, Kandana, Sri Lanka.
    Singh, Sarbjeet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Lockout and Tagout in a Manufacturing Setting from a Situation Awareness Perspective2019In: Safety, ISSN 2313-576X, Vol. 5, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying lockouts during maintenance is intended to avoid accidental energy release, whereas tagging them out keeps employees aware of what is going on with the machine. In spite of regulations, serious accidents continue to occur due to lapses during lockout and tagout (LOTO) applications. Few studies have examined LOTO effectiveness from a user perspective. This article studies LOTO processes at a manufacturing organization from a situation awareness (SA) perspective. Technicians and machine operators were interviewed, a focus group discussion was conducted, and operators were observed. Qualitative content analysis revealed perceptual, comprehension and projection challenges associated with different phases of LOTO applications. The findings can help lockout/tagout device manufacturers and organizations that apply LOTO to achieve maximum protection.

  • 17.
    Illankoon, Prasanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Identifying significance of human cognition in future maintenance operations2018In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, ISSN 2194-5357, E-ISSN 2194-5365, Vol. 722, p. 550-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial maintenance in future will operate heavily with intelligent systems. Advanced sensor networks on machines will enable them communicate and learn about failure types, predict consequences and share solutions. Humans on the other hand are equipped with intuitive cognition that facilitates acquisition of knowledge about unique characteristics of individual machines, and use this knowledge in maintenance problem solving. In this article, we identify two major opportunities to collaborate human intuitive cognition with intelligent systems for future maintenance solutions.

  • 18.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Al-Jumaili, Mustafa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    eMaintenance in railways: Issues and challenges in cybersecurity2019In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 233, no 10, p. 1012-1022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The convergence of information technology and operation technology and the associated paradigm shift toward Industry 4.0 in complex systems, such as railways has brought significant benefits in reliability, maintainability, operational efficiency, capacity, as well as improvements in passenger experience. However, with the adoption of information and communications technologies in railway maintenance, vulnerability to cyber threats has increased. It is essential that organizations move toward security analytics and automation to improve and prevent security breaches and to quickly identify and respond to security events. This paper provides a statistical review of cybersecurity incidents in the transportation sector with a focus on railways. It uses a web-based search for data collection in popular databases. The overall objective is to identify cybersecurity challenges in the railway sector.

  • 19.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    EMaintenance solutions for railway maintenance decisions2015In: World Congress on Engineering, WCE 2014: London, 2 - 4 July 2014 / [ed] S.I. Ao; Len Gelman; David W.L. Hukins; Andrew Hunter; Alexander Korsunsky, Hong Kong: Newswood Limited , 2015, Vol. 1, p. 228-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term eMaintenance emerged in the early 2000s and has become a popular topic in maintenance related literature because of ongoing technological improvements. This paper uses a recent approach, i.e. cloud-based technology, to provide an eMaintenance solution for online time data analysis to make effective and efficient railway maintenance decisions. Due to increased traffic, the Swedish railway sector needs to optimise maintenance, using predictive maintenance to a much higher degree so that unplanned breakdowns and downtime are drastically reduced. The paper shows how research within the railway sector is developing eMaintenance solutions using the cloud and web-based applications for improved condition monitoring, better maintenance and increased uptime. In the proposed solution, data are acquired from railway measurement stations and sent to the eMaintenance cloud, where they are filtered, fused, integrated and analysed to assist maintenance decisions. The paper provides a concept for a web-based eMaintenance solution to assist railway maintenance stakeholders make fact-based decisions and develop more efficient and economically sound maintenance policies.

  • 20.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    eMaintenance solution through online data analysis for railway maintenance decision-making2014In: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 262-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how research within the railway sector is developing eMaintenance solutions using the cloud and web-based applications for improved condition monitoring, better maintenance and increased uptime. This eMaintenance solution is based on the on-line data acquisition, integration and analysis leading to effective maintenance decision making.Design/methodology/approach – In the proposed methodology, data are acquired from railway measurement stations to the eMaintenance cloud, where they are filtered, fused, integrated and analyzed to assist maintenance decisions. Extensive consultation with stakeholders has resulted in the analysis of railway data.Findings – The paper provides a concept for a web-based eMaintenance solution for railway maintenance stakeholders for making fact-based decisions and develops more efficient and economically sound maintenance policies. Train wheels reaching their maintenance and safety limits are visualised in grids and graphs to assist stakeholders in making the appropriate maintenance decisions.Practical implications – In this paper the authors have demonstrated that the wheel profile and force data can be remotely collected through cloud utilization. The information generated can be used for maintenance decision making. Similarly, other measurable data can also be utilized for maintenance decision making.Originality/value – This paper describes the importance of eMaintenance solution through online data analysis to make effective and efficient railway maintenance decisions, as a case study.

  • 21.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Singh, Sarbjeet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Cybersecurity Workforce in Railway: A Case Study2019In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop & Congress on eMaintenance 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway will continue to adapt new digital solutions which are necessary and vulnerable to cyber threats. The history of cyber-attacks on critical infrastructures including railway suggests that there is a need for cybersecurity awareness. Both for employees and the general public. The very first step in cyber hygiene is cybersecurity training and awareness for the workforce. A well-educated workforce plays a vital role in building more cyber resiliency across the organization's operation and maintenance. The objective of this research is to evaluate the cybersecurity maturity level for workforce management in three railway organizations. The results show that there is a cybersecurity workforce gap and there is a need to eliminate this gap by enhancing cybersecurity workforce culture. Henceforth, this gap can be improved by developing cybersecurity culture, including cybersecurity training and awareness and by following recommendations provided in this paper.

  • 22.
    Morant, Amparo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Galar, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Improvement of configuration management in railway signalling system2012In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop & Congress on eMaintenance: Dec 12-14 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenace: trends in technologies and methodologies, challenges, possibilities and applications / [ed] Ramin Karim; Aditya Parita; Uday Kumar, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, p. 23-32Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Morant, Amparo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Dependability improvement through configuration management: A study of railway signalling systems2013In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 31-40, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reliability, maintainability and related maintenance support of signalling systems affect the railway network´s availability. Constituting a system-of-systems spread over a wide geographical area, signalling systems consist of a large number of items with different lifecycles making it a challenge to define and describe the structure and relationship between the system’s inherent items at any specific time. System configuration describes a system’s structure to which other data sources can be related. Some current research discusses asset maintenance management in the railway infrastructure, but not many holistic approach deals with signalling systems. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the process of configuration management, can improve the dependability of the railway system. The paper presents a model for the configuration management of railway signalling systems. The model is based on the results of company surveys and interviews, data analysis and literature review. This model provides better control and visibility of the information related to the system and any changes made to it. Faster and better failure diagnostics can be performed, thus improving maintenance performance. This, in turn, provides better availability of the system by reducing the downtime of the railway network; hence, an improvement in maintainability is also achieved.

  • 24.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Project: OPTIVe - Optimised system integration for safe interaction in vehicles2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of new warning and information systems in vehicles places high demands on the interaction between the driver and the vehicle. An HMI that exceeds customer expectations, that is transparent to the user, and that fully supports the users in accomplishing their goals provides a foundation for minimizing driver workload. Not only is the packaging of HMI devices essential to improve safety while interacting with a car. Also regulating the flow of information to a level that will not interfere with the primary task, driving the car, is crucial for product development. The purpose of this project is to develop methods and technical concepts that supports integration of HMI systems in vehicles

  • 25.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Gärling, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Do redundant head-up and head-down display configurations cause distractions?2009In: Proceedings of the 5th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design: driving assessment 2009 : Big Sky Resort, Big Sky, Montana, USA, June 22-25, 2009, Iowa City: University of Iowa, Public Policy Center , 2009, p. 398-404Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was designed to investigate effects of different display configuration designs. Nineteen drivers completed a driving simulator study designed to resemble normal driving. Driving performance, glance behaviour, physiological measures, and task completion times was measured for two display configuration designs both during driving only and during driving with a simple secondary task, which consisted of detection, and off-setting of presented warnings. The display configuration design with more centrally placed information, e. g. the HUD and HDD, had less detrimental effects on driving performance and glance behaviour. The physiological measures showed, however, no significant differences between display configuration designs.

  • 26.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Kappfjell, Monica
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Gärling, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Evaluation of car instrumentation clusters by using eye-tracking2007In: EAEC 2007 Proceedings: 11th European Automotive Congress, EAEC , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the ambience presented by instrumentation in the vehicle of today is of great significance for the automotive industry. The rapid technological development of electronic equipment has enabled the large amount of information devices in the drivers' environment. The types of driver information and their appearances are well identified by car manufacturers, but there is a lack of knowledge regarding drivers' perceptions of instrumentation clusters as well as their appearance. To increase this knowledge a study was conducted in order to measure these perceptions. Twenty-three subjects were studied using a method consisting of eye-tracking, assessments and interviews. Each subject was to view eight clusters and to assess each cluster according to six different semantic descriptions. The interviews were based on the subject's individual eye-tracking data. The subject was monitored by an eye-tracking equipment during the assessment task. The results showed that there were some significant correlations between time spent viewing a cluster and its assessment. Moreover, the results also give a view on how clusters are assessed and why they are assessed in particular ways.

  • 27.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Guidelines for a mobile tool to address human factors issues in aircraft maintenance2019In: International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, ISSN 2045-7804, E-ISSN 2045-7812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly specialised personnel are dependent on others and diverse systems to perform error-free aircraft maintenance. Research has shown that the maintenance process can be improved to reduce errors and increase usability by using a mobile tool. The goal of this project was to draw on theories of user-centred design to explore what human factors issues for maintenance personnel can be addressed by a mobile tool to make the most out of maintenance planning, execution, and follow-up. Military aircraft maintenance personnel at an air force unit were interviewed and observed. The following six problem areas that could be improved by the use of a mobile tool were identified: several information sources must constantly be consulted; information is constantly transferred between different locations and media types; technical documentation can be inconsistent and hard to access; there are strict hierarchies and certifications of personnel; the means of recording and transferring communicative information are insufficient; and there can be a long lag time for updates, error reporting and feedback of actions. A correctly designed mobile tool could solve these problems by combining all the information sources and recording relevant maintenance information.

  • 28.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Lundkvist, Andre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nykänen, Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Project: Human Factors LAB2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Nunoo, Esi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Parida, Aditya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Issues and challenges for condition assessment: A case study in mining2014In: Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop and congress on eMaintenance: June 17-18 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenance, Trends in technologies & methodologies, challenges, possibilites and applications / [ed] Uday Kumar; Ramin Karim; Aditya Parida; Philip Tretten, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2014, p. 85-93Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisations need to continuously review their costs to beprofitable. Thus, they need an understanding of the condition oftheir facilities, their equipment and processes, so that they canmake good operation and maintenance decisions. The miningindustry in Europe relies on complex technical systems forproduction. Error conditions in equipment will result in a failedsystem, having drastic effects on production. These failures canimpact business performance, resulting in increased costs due toreduced availability, reduced productivity, product quality andsafety. Condition assessments of failure data can be helpful inpredicting the health condition of equipment in the near future,thus helping to make efficient planned stops. The purpose of thisstudy is to identify the issues and challenges for conditionassessment in the mining industry. A case study was conductedusing relevant literature, interviews with operation andmaintenance personnel and the production process was studied.The findings showed that the physical conditions of systemcomponents are not always known nor is the useful life of thecomponents known. This is due to the fact that in spite of the largevolumes of data collected on critical equipment, there is littleanalysis done on the data to be able to predict future failurepatterns or failure trends. Maintenance on equipment is often ofcorrective nature. Using eMaintenance for condition assessmentwill help to make failure more predictable thus optimizingoperation and maintenance decisions.

  • 30.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Jung, Marie-Louise
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Peighambari, Kaveh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    What makes people want to become self-employed?: Applying the theory of planned behavior2009In: Advances in Management, ISSN 0974-2611, E-ISSN 2278-4551, Vol. 2, no 11, p. 9-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world economy currently seems to be failing, and the effects are being felt around the globe. There are many upcoming news about rising unemployment, major corporations cutting jobs and workers who can't seem to find work. The current economic climate makes many people wary of spending money, which can be bad news for those who make a living through the buying of others. Many things, however, are not simply going to go away because the economy is rough. Some buyers and employers may feel reticent when it comes to hiring, and this could create trouble for those who survive by self employment. But in every economic crisis, some markets remain successful - and those who live through self employment are generally pretty good about applying their skills where needed. Increasing self-employment is an objective frequently seen on government agenda, as small businesses are often seen as a remedy for unemployment and pivotal for economies to grow8. Despite the distinct value of self-employment to the economy as a whole as well as to the individual starting her own, in the Nordic countries, self-employment rates are far lower than one would expect. This has led to extensive research efforts on the impact of economic and other external factors on self-employment rates, in order to crystallize out key drivers to self-employment in an economy, related to which specific government programs and initiatives can be launched. This paper contributes by specifying and testing the impact of internal factors that determine an individual's decision on whether to become self employed. Understanding the internal drivers of individuals' intentions will help to further trace the impact of external initiatives on individual behavior. This paper applies the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), on the most well established models explaining social behavior, to test the impact of attitude, social pressures and perceived control among Swedish men and women. Data is collected from over 400 Swedish university students with various backgrounds. As is suggested in TPB, the results provide that the strongest determinant of individuals' intention to become self-employed is their attitude towards being self employed, which stems from behavioral beliefs about having one's own business. The paper further finds that, along with the attitude, men are mainly influenced by their perceptions of control, whereas women are affected by their perceived pressures in their social surrounding. The paper provides several implications for governments and some avenues for future research.

  • 31.
    Parida, Aditya
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis of Modern Dynamic Complex Systems using Criticality aspect of Key Performance Indicators2017In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 35-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proactive condition monitoring, diagnosis and prognosis of modern complex engineering systems are becoming an increasingly challenging issue. This is mainly attributed to the dynamic global scenario and the ever increasing stakeholders conflicting interests. One of the most important missing links that is often given a low priority while assessing the health of a complex dynamic system is the key criticality of the system in question. This paper discusses some of the challenging issues facing the Asset Management personnel and highlights the importance of incorporating criticality aspect of the key performance indicator in the diagnosis and prognosis of all modern complex systems.

  • 32.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Aktivitet: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Information design solutions for automotive displays: focus on HUD2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Automotive systems are being developed to increase positive driver experiences and traffic safety. As these new technologies are being adapted into the automotive environment, i.e. safety systems and multimedia applications, are the drivers additionally taking with them nomad devices, i.e. mobile phones, media players, GPS devices, etc., into this environment making it more and more complex. This complexity does not help the driver and in some cases distracts the driver too. The number of information sources has escalated to new heights and this trend does not seem to be slowing down. To be able to keep up with the advances in information technology, which also includes advances in display technology, automobile manufacturers are seeking for new and/or different ways to attract potential customers without bending the traffic safety. In this thesis this phenomena is looked upon by studying how drivers could use the information presented to them in the automobile. What do drivers perceive as important information, how should it be presented, and where? To obtain this several studies were conducted to gain a more complete picture of a driver's perception, behavior, and preferences. First, a questionnaire was administered to three different culture groups; China (167), Sweden (142), and United States of America (89) to learn how they perceive the information's importance and placement. The results showed that the drivers preferred the locations used in their own automobiles, but could think of using the HUD for more advanced driving helps. Based upon those responses a second study was conducted in a fixed-based high fidelity driving simulator. Forty participants drove a baseline and a experiment block (ca 20 min each) in which they where given either 10 warnings or 10 messages from four locations found in automobiles; the Head-Up Display (HUD), Head Down Display (HDD), Infotainment Display (IF), and Center-Stack Display (CS). The measurements were time to respond, time to notice, glance time, fixation time, number of fixations, and their driving performance via lane deviation and average speed during in each particular situation. All the drivers preferred information being presented in the HUD and the data showed that their performance was just as good as in the IF location and significantly better than in the CS and HDD locations. Redundant information in the HUD and HDD were not preferred and the participants the HUD exclusively. These results gave support to test HUD in traffic and in the drivers own vehicles. Therefore 30 drivers were recruited to test a HUD during three around the clock days, which showed the automobiles actual speed in their own automobiles on the windscreen. The on-road test showed that HUD was significantly preferred over the HDD for speed information. The majority of the drivers also wanted important warnings to be made available there along with directional helps for navigation. In conclusion the HUD was seen as the "next step" in automobile development. To reduce time away from road, increase traffic awareness, and to "lift" necessary information from more difficult to notice, and attend to, locations to the traffic scene the HUD could be the solution to enhance traffic safety, while speedometer and warning areas could be "freed up" and used for other functions and systems, leaving the locations furthest away for non-critical information.

  • 34.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Is Kinect suitable for Ergonomic Evaluation?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motion Capture solutions are very expensive and Digital Human Model simulations are time consuming. Off the shelf solutions like Kinect show potential as a cheaper and more flexible method. By using both Kinect and DHM tools together, physical measurements can be produced and analyzed. This study was an investigation on how Motion Capture Technology can be used as an ergonomic assessment tool in the product development process of truck cabs. A literature study to assess relevant methods and tools led to the testing of several 3D camera and 3D manikin solutions. The results showed that the Kinect could be used together with IMMA software to measure truck driver’s motions outside of the cab. This included the use of ergonomic assessment tools. Presently, the technology is limited and the software needs to be developed further but it shows much potential.

  • 35.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    The driver and the instrument panel2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The trend today is to produce automobiles that have exciting systems which enhance the users' driving experiences, however, the distraction potential of these systems has not fully been considered. Since there can be large differences in the driver's level of distraction caused by visual overload due to individual and cultural characteristics. Therefore, three different markets were chosen due to their distinct vehicle and driving traditions and laws; China, Sweden and United States of America (US). The aim of this thesis, from an instrumentation design point of view, is to gain a better understanding of what information, and where information should be presented, in instrument panels to achieve low levels of distraction and, hence, decrease cognitive load, increase safety and functionality. Studies undertaken in this thesis sought a user based solution. The questionnaire results showed that safety attributes were ranked before, quality, practicality, and attractiveness in automobiles. The number one concern for the Chinese market was safety features presented to them from HDD in the instrument panel, the Swedish market preferred the traditional features and placements, the US preferred safety features and those assisting in safe driving to be placed in the HUD. A high-fidelity driving simulator was used to study respondents of varied age and driving experience, of which drove through both rural and city traffic with speed limits ranging from 50 to 70 km/hour while responding to information presented in HUD, HDD, IF, and CS positions. All groups rated the HUD as a very good placement for information retrieval while driving, followed by HDD, IF, and CS respectively. The overall preferred placement was HUD as it also was the preferred position of serious failures and vehicle operation. The results from both studies showed that people wanted logical groupings of driver information placed in the vehicle so to reduce the risk of distraction.

  • 36.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Warnings and placement positions in automobiles2008In: 2008 AHFE International: 2nd International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics jointly with 12th International conference on Human Aspect of Advanced Manufaturing (HAAMAHA) : 14-17 July 2008, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA, Louisville, KY: USA Publishing , 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concern for mental overload from warnings has been considered over a longer period of time and warnings are being added in vehicles and icons are being tested for understandability but perceptions of the importance of each specific warning and its placement in the driving compartment seems to have had lesser importance in research. Such as, too much visual information presented to the driver or confusing warnings has showed to cause overload and, hence, reduce the driver's ability to perform safely. A dilemma the automobile industry is facing today is how to expand the ways visual information via warnings can be presented to the driver without increasing the cognitive workload, which, in turn, increases the chances for distraction. This study has attempts to understand the effects of warnings placement on the drivers' ability to respond to them in varied driving conditions. Twenty respondents drove a fixed based high fidelity driving simulator though 15km of light to moderate traffic in both rural and urban areas while responding to warnings placed in Head Up Display (HUD) (straight forward 12° below the line of sight), Head Down Display (HDD) (straight forward on the instrument panel behind the steering wheel ca 20° below the forward line of sight), Infotainment Display (IFD) (30° towards the middle of the automobile from the driver on the instrument panel and 15° below the forward line of sight), and the Center Stack Display (CSD) (30° to the center of the automobile from the driver on the instrument panel and 30° below the forward line of sight approximately where the stereo is typically found). Ten respondents received warnings in both the HUD and HDD simultaneously while the other ten respondents received the same ten warnings in the same traffic situations but instead the warnings were presented in one of the four placements. Response time was measured by the time it took to press a button which was easily accessible at the end of the turn signal level and by eye tracking data. The respondents' response times to the warnings (via ambient vision), their gaze patterns, average speed, maneuverability, and their own subjective responses were tested. Results showed that there were no significant differences measured between the baseline and experiment runs due to the simple nature of the tasks while significant differences were found in the response times relating to the different placements. Warnings for serious failures and those pertaining to the vehicles mechanical operation were preferred to be placed in the HUD while warnings for maintenance and service along with reminders were chosen to be placed in the HDD. Response times and driving was perceived to be better when using the HUD while the CSD was considered too far away to be looked at for warnings.

  • 37.
    Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Aronsson, Ida
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    The development of an aircraft maintenance technician headset2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aircraft maintenance technicians work in a situation where the implementation and use of new technology is uncommon. This is so to reduce the risk for errors considered to be a result of design errors, of the system or tools used. Earlier studies have shown that more advanced equipment, such as, tablets, Personal Digital Assistants, etc. can be used to help reduce the number of manuals, amounts of paperwork, track actions better, and reduce the number of steps in the work process. To take this process a step further was the ISO 9241:210 standard followed, 10 technicians were interviewed, 6 separate observations were conducted, and the technicians were consulted in development of a design requirements for a headset to see in what way a aircraft maintenance technician daily maintenance operations can be improved. The resulted requirements were, a headset should be placed around the head over the forehead for a steady fit during the varied working positions of the aircraft technicians, it is to be made of lightweight and smooth fabric, which features elasticity and comfort for the skin, adaptability for different headsizes, the construction is made all in one piece to be simple yet robust to handle, the headset is to be placed/fit firmly onto the head during a working day, providing ability to access data and information effortlessly through the device which operates with augmented reality technology, an interactive way of handling data and information, information is to be visualized, and the information needed in the daily work is to be gathered and easily accessed in one place, which includes the channels for communication.

  • 38.
    Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Gärling, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Warnings and instrument design layout2011In: Traffic psychology: an international perspective, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 303-320Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual warnings are used to help prevent drivers from making unnecessary mistakes, but if warnings are not noticed in time they are useless. Today warnings are most often placed in front of the driver and behind the steering wheel, but this may not be the most conducive location for all warnings. An unexpected warning can increase the risk for distraction, just as a poorly placed warning can, which, in turn, could decrease the driver's chances to react correctly for what is warned for. A dilemma for traffic safety experts is how to expand the ways warnings can be presented to the driver without negatively affecting driver performance. In this study a questionnaire, 142 respondents, was used to find out driver's perception to in-vehicle warnings and where they preferred those to be found; in a head-up display (HUD), head-down display (HDD), infotainment (IF), or in a center-stack (CS). Twenty respondents in a high fidelity fixed base simulator compared and evaluated how different warnings placements were responded to and how they affected normal driving in two different warning layouts. Ten respondents were simultaneously presented a warning in the HUD and HDD and ten in either the HUD, HDD, IF, or the CS. Response times (via focal vision), driving performance, and subjective responses were measured, which included measuring the cognitive workload with the Driving Activity Load Index (DALI). The results showed that the respondents of the HUD/HDD group almost exclusively used the HUD and all respondents stated that the HUD was best fitted for important warnings. However, more transparent groupings of warnings were requested as a separation of warnings based on their level of importance. Moreover, the drivers performed best when the warnings were presented in the HUD and IF locations

  • 39. Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Gärling, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Drivers' perceptions of displayed warnings importance and placement: a cross-cultural survey2007In: Automobile for the future: EAEC 2007, 11th EAEC European Automotive Congress. Proceedings, European Automobile Engineers Cooperation , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid technical development of electronic equipment has it been made possible to surround the drivers of automobiles with large amounts of information. Car manufacturers have identified both the type of information and its placement as an important issue. In order to increase the knowledge of future car buyer's opinions concerning requested information and its placement, a marketing survey has been conducted. The study was performed by means of questionnaires to 144 Swedish, 68 American and 22 Chinese respondents, covering the type of driver warnings and their placement. The overall results indicate that ‘feeling of quality' was ranked as the most important design issue for the Swedish and both Americans and the Chinese where most concerned about ‘feeling safe'. Furthermore it was seen that warning symbols for low tire pressure, low fuel level, ABS failure, high motor temperature and electrical failure were important for all countries. In general, the Swedes and Americans did choose the most traditional placements while the Chinese chose to group visual warnings in four different areas in the cabin.

  • 40.
    Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Gärling, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Nilsson, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    An on-road study of head-up display: preferred location and acceptance levels2011In: Proceedings of the HFES 55th Annual Meeting, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2011, p. 1914-1918Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of driver’s perceptions of Head-Up Displays (HUD). Many HUD studies have been conducted but few have allowed drivers to test a HUD in their own vehicle, allowing them to choose the best HUD location for themselves. Forty participants drove their own vehicles using a portable HUD, testing different HUD locations and then rating it using the Technology Acceptance Model. The results showed that the HUD was rated as easy to use and the drivers intended to use it in continuation. The drivers wanted the HUD to be located outside of the traffic scene, either to the right, left or below their line of sight. These results give support for new HUD locations and for increased HUD implementation.

  • 41. Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Gärling, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Pettersson, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Drivers perceptions of displayed warnings, driver information, and in-vehicle technologies' importance and placement: a cross-cultural survey2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The trend today is to produce automobiles that have exciting systems which enhance the users' driving experiences, however, the distraction potential of these systems has not fully been considered. Since visually demanding tasks carry the highest degree of risk, relative to other categories of tasks, the instrument panel in the private vehicle is a logical starting point for further research. The aim of this study is, from an instrumentation design point of view, to gain a better understanding of how respondents perceive the importance of different driver information and their placement. In a questionnaire study conducted on three different automobile markets, China, Sweden, and United States of America, respondents stated perceived importance and preferred placement (head-up display (HUD), head-down display (HDD), infotainment (IF), and center-stack (CS)) of warnings, driving information, and in-vehicle technologies. The Swedish respondents preferred traditional features and placements and the US safety features concerned driving conditions placed at the HUD location, while the Chinese varied hugely in what was important as well as placements. Besides comfort, safety was quite important for all groups although the Swedish respondents did place a lesser emphasis on safety than the others did.

  • 42.
    Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Enhancing the usability of maintenance data management systems2014In: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 290-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore and study the aspects of usability related to eMaintenance solutions. The study aims to expand the domain of eMaintenance by increasing the usefulness of the computerized maintenance management systems (CMMS) through improved usability.Design/methodology/approach – The paper opted for an exploratory study using interviews, one expert focus group discussion, and observations.Findings – The paper provides insights on specific usability characteristics that can be adapted to eMaintenance solutions for industrial usage, e.g. aviation and process industry. The findings show that the current implementations of eMaintenance solutions in CMMS, in many cases, suffer from an insufficient level of usability. This has led to usability issues resulting in errors and mistakes. The result is a call for a more user-based focus, in which, the system needs to be easily understood, easily navigated, containing the necessary information to conduct maintenance tasks, tracking of the work conducted and who was involved, and the system needs to be compatible with other systems so that necessary information can be accessed via the CMMS.Research limitations/implications – Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may lack generalizability. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed propositions further.Practical implications – The paper includes implications for the development of a CMMS, which could have positive effects for maintenance tasks.Originality/value – This paper fulfills an identified need to study how CMMS actually fulfill the task they are designed to do.

  • 43.
    Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Project: iMain ‘Methodologies and tools for the sustainable, predictive maintenance of production equipment’2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    “iMain” is an European level research project aiming to develop a novel decision support system for predictive maintenance. To that end, a multi-layer solution integrating embedded information devices and artificial intelligence techniques for knowledge extraction and novel reliability & maintainability practices will be developed. The resulting solution will provide extended capabilities compared to those achievable with current state-of-the-art maintenance practices, increasing system lifetime of the production equipment at least 30%, energy efficiency at least 20%, maintenance cost at least 40% and availability of whole process at least 30%. As for maximizing project impact, “iMain” project is strongly committed to deployment issues, including innovation and implementation actions focused on value chains and bridging the gap from research to market. To that end, “iMain” emphasizes on the commercialization of results, taking also into account the needs of post-project monitoring of commercialization, which will be conducted after the end of the project in order to assess the achievement of the requested funding and for promoting the project as an effective innovation mechanism. As a step towards the Europe 2020 strategy, “iMain” project will thus make a contribution in terms of R&D investment, employment and resource efficiency, aiming to assist EU manufacturers, particularly SMEs, to adapt to global competitive pressures by increasing the technological base of EU manufacturing through the development and integration of the enabling technologies of the future, specifically engineering technologies for novel predictive maintenance solutions.

  • 44.
    Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Usability-based eMaintenance for effective performance measurement2011In: MPMM 2011: Maintenance Performance Measurement & Management: Conference Proceedings / [ed] Diego Galar; Aditya Parida; Håkan Schunnesson; Uday Kumar, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2011, p. 53-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s providers of eMaintenance solutions for maintenance and support related to complex technical systems are facing increasing amounts of information flow with the increased complexity of managing data. Organizations developing and providing maintenance support solutions and services also need to improve the capability to efficiently and effectively exploit the increasing amount of design data, product data, operational data, and maintenance data during the system’s whole lifecycle. eMaintenance includes monitoring, collection, recording, and distribution of real-time system health data, maintenance-generated data, as well as, other decision and performance-support information to different types of users. To address the challenges that arise in complex information environments providers need to adapt usability-centered methodologies, technologies, and tools that enable utilization of the advantages eMaintenance solutions can give. Since humans make critical maintenance decisions based upon system performance measured by use of available data, it is necessary that the users understand the underlying data correctly in the correct context. Subsequently the amount of maintenance data is increasing constantly, thus, human factors issues need to be considered in development of eMaintenance solutions so that performance quality, productivity, and profitability are maintained. In turn this would also reduce situations where too much or incorrect information would decrement the users cognitive capabilities to make good decisions. The usability challenges faced by eMaintenance are complex and need to be taken seriously. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to explore eMaintenance design challenges based upon user issues in complex system environments. The results of this paper will present an overview of areas that need to be considered for further research within the field of eMaintenance.

  • 45.
    Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nilsson, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Reaction times to visual cues in the driving environment2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Human Factors Issues in Aircraft Maintenance Activities: A Holistic Approach2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance software solutions are not designed for the users but instead for experts. Things are too complex and the available information is not applicable to the actual maintenance tasks to be conducted. Research has shown that there is need for easy to use tools that can assist in maintenance planning, maintenance actions, and maintenance reporting. Due to financial and time constraints the maintenance process need to become more effective and efficient. By taking a human factors perspective, actions can be taken to minimize human error in maintenance work as well as to allow for an effortless work that is accomplished in the proper way. The goal of this project was to find out what human factors issues that can be addressed by a mobile tool for maintenance personnel in order to make the most out of maintenance planning, execution, and follow-up in a efficient and effective way that is adapted to the user of the tool.

  • 47.
    Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Gärling, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    The effect of redundant information in HUD and HDD on driver performance in simple and complex secondary tasks2009In: 1st International Conference on Driver Distraction and Inattention: september 28-29, 2009, Göteborg: Chalmers tekniska högskola , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of redundant driving information while conducting simple vs complex tasks via instructions presented simultaneously from the Head-Up Display (HUD) and Head Down Display (HDD) placements in normal driving conditions. Twenty respondents drove a fixed based high-fidelity driving simulator through 15km of light to moderate traffic in both rural and urban areas while responding to instructions. Ten respondents received ten warnings to respond to by pressing a button while the other ten respondents received ten instructions to conduct tasks in the center-stack area of the simulator. These tasks varied in difficulty from turn on CD player, to dial a given telephone number. Driving performance was measured via response time, gaze patterns, average speed, and maneuverability. Cognitive workload was assessed with the Driving Activity Load Index (DALI). The results showed that there were no significant differences between the baseline and experimental runs for the warnings due to the simple nature of the tasks while significant differences were found in the average speed and deviation from speed limit. The respondents rated the complex tasks as having a greater visual and temporal demand in relation to the simple tasks. The HUD was almost exclusively used by the respondents for driving information and stated that it was fitting for warnings and primary driver information.

  • 48. Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Gärling, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Warnings and placement positions in automobiles2009In: 17th World Congress on Ergonomics: IEA 2009 ; Beijing, August 9 - 14, 2009, Bejing: Chinese Ergonomics Society , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concern for mental overload from warnings has been considered over a longer period of time, even though; warnings continue to be added in vehicles. Both warnings and icons are being tested for understandability but perceptions of the importance of each specific warning and its placement in the driving compartment seems to have had lesser importance in research. Such as, too much visual information presented to the driver or confusing warnings has showed to cause overload and, hence, reduce the driver’s ability to perform safely. A dilemma the automobile industry is facing today is how to expand the ways visual information via warnings can be presented to the driver without increasing the cognitive workload, which, in turn, increases the risk for distraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of warnings placement on the drivers’ ability to respond to them while maintaining safe driving in normal driving conditions. Twenty respondents drove a fixed based high fidelity driving simulator though 15km of light to moderate traffic in both rural and urban areas while responding to warnings. Ten respondents received warnings in both the head-up display (HUD) and head-down display (HDD) simultaneously while the other respondents received the same ten warnings in one of the four displays: HUD, HDD, infotainment display (IF), and center-stack display (CS) in the same traffic situations but in only one of the four placements at a time. The respondents’ response times to the warnings (via focal vision), their gaze patterns, average speed, maneuverability, and their own subjective responses were measured. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the baseline and experimental runs due to the simple nature of the tasks while significant differences were found in the response times regarding the four placement design. Warnings for serious failures and those pertaining to the vehicles mechanical operation were preferred to be placed in the HUD while warnings for maintenance and service along with reminders were chosen to be placed in the HDD. Response times and driving was perceived to be better when using the HUD while the CS was considered too far away to be looked at for warnings.

  • 49. Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Gärling, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Where should driver information be placed?: a study on display layout2009In: 53rd Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, October 19-23, 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Parida, Aditya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Candell, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Guest editorial2015In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 5-6Article in journal (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 52
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf