Change search
Refine search result
1234567 1 - 50 of 323
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Engström, Malin
    Växjö Municipality.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Long-term hydraulic and treatment performance of a 19-year old constructed stormwater wetland: Finally maturated or in need of maintenance?2016In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 95, p. 73-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructed stormwater wetlands (CSWs) are a commonly used measure for stormwater retention and quality treatment. However, although questions have been raised about the long-term performance of CSWs, only a few studies have targeted this issue and none have evaluated the performance of CSWs more than approximately 5–10 years old. Further, most studies have not examined the development of the long-term performance of CSWs but delivered a snapshot at a certain point of time. The present study investigated the performance of a 19-year-old CSW in Växjö, Sweden, treating stormwater from a 320-ha urban catchment. Besides removal of sediment from the CSW’s forebay, no other maintenance had been conducted. However, regular inspections had been performed. The results of the present sampling campaign were compared to two existing datasets collected at the same CSW after three years of operation in 1997 and nine years of operation in 2003. The CSW was found to provide efficient peak flow reduction and, depending on the event characteristics, also volume reduction. It still treated stormwater effectively: removal of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, TSS and TP event mean concentrations were between 89 and 96%, whereas mean concentrations of TN were reduced by 59%. The load removal efficiencies were even higher. Comparative analysis of the three monitoring periods based on the load removal efficiency revealed that the CSW, despite the lack of maintenance, performed more efficiently and stably for most pollutants compared to when newly constructed. This underlines the importance of the establishment and maturation of constructed wetland systems. Overall, the results showed that CSWs are resilient systems, which if designed well and regularly inspected to prevent major issues, can work efficiently for at least two decades.

  • 2.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Engström, Malin
    Växjö Municipality.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Long-term hydraulic performance of stormwater infiltration systems: a field survey2013In: NOVATECH 2013: Planning and Technologies for Sustainable Urban Water Management, 23 - 27 June 2013, Lyon, France., 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examined the factors influencing the long-term hydraulic performance of some stormwater infiltration systems (swale and two types of permeable pavements) in Växjö, southern Sweden. The infiltration capacities of 9 permeable pavements and 2 swales sites, all with different ages ranging from 1 year to 14 years, were measured using replicate double ring infiltrometers. The sites were either constructed of swale (2), interlocking concrete pavers (ICP) filled with gravel (2), concrete grid pavers (CGP) filled with gravel (3), or concrete grid pavers (CGP) filled with grass (4). The results of this study showed that the long-term behaviour of the infiltration capacity relies largely on the type and age of the system and the type of joint filling (gravel and grass). Furthermore, the study showed that the 11 year old concrete grid pavers filled with grass had the highest infiltration capacity (4.80 + 2.46 mm/min), whilst the 9 and 14 year old swales had the lowest infiltration capacity (0.10 + 0.00 mm/min).

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 3.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Merriman, Laura S.
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University.
    Hunt, William F.
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Survey of the operational status of 25 Swedish municipal stormwater management ponds2017In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 143, no 6, article id 05017001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past 50 years, wet stormwater ponds have been constructed to reduce negative environmental impacts of urban stormwater discharges on receiving aquatic environments. However, in many jurisdictions there is little information on the current operational status of such ponds and their functioning. This paucity of information prompted a field survey of 25 Swedish municipal stormwater ponds, aged between 3 and 26 years. The pond survey focused on estimating the pond hydraulic loading and efficiency, the state of littoral vegetation, characteristics of bottom sediment in the inlet and outlet zones (sizes and the chemistry), and the overall operational pond status, including the access for maintenance. The hydraulic efficiencies of ponds were estimated for pond footprint shapes and relative locations of the inlets and outlets using literature data. The estimated hydraulic efficiencies correlated well with the pond length-to-width ratios and the ratio of the pond surface area to the impervious area of the runoff contributing catchment (i.e., the hydraulic loading). Littoral vegetation was inspected visually and found to be overgrown at some facilities, which impeded the maintenance access. Benthic sediments in ponds contained silt and clay (&lt;63&#x2009;&#x2009;&#x3BC;m" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;"><63  μm<63  μm), sand and gravel fractions, and when compared with the literature data, such sediments appeared relatively coarse. Chemical characteristics of sediments reflected anthropogenic (traffic) activities, but without excessive contamination warranting special disposal requirements. Of the 25 ponds surveyed, four were fenced off and inaccessible to machinery. In fact, the design of these four ponds was such that it made inspection and maintenance very difficult, which may pose potential risks to ponds operation. Fifty-four percent of the investigated ponds were in need of minor maintenance, primarily because of sediment and litter accumulation in their inflow and outflow sections. The fact that the inspection survey revealed relatively few minor issues that could be corrected easily demonstrates the importance of relatively simple regular inspections serving to detect minor problems at an early stage before they would seriously impact pond functioning. The above survey methodology should be helpful for developing similar low-cost surveys in other jurisdictions.

  • 4.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Engström, Malin
    Växjö Municipality.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Effectiveness of a 19-Year Old Combined Pond-Wetland System in Removing Particulate and Dissolved Pollutants2017In: Wetlands (Wilmington, N.C.), ISSN 0277-5212, E-ISSN 1943-6246, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 485-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study monitored the stormwater runoff quantity and quality treatment performance of a 6.8 ha 19-year old combined pond-wetland system, located in south Sweden, over one year. The mean volume reductions for 53 storm events for the pond and wetland were 40% and 28%, respectively, while the mean flow reductions were 60% and 76%, respectively. Pollutant concentrations in the influent to the wetland were highly variable. The pond-wetland system could efficiently remove an average of 91%, 80%, 94%, 91%, 83% and 92% of TSS, TP, particulate Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, respectively, whereas the removal of particulate and dissolved Ni was highly variable with an average of 67% ± 62% and −5% ± 41%, respectively. The removal of TN, NH4-N and NO3 + NO2-N was highly variable with an average of 45% ± 27%, 12% ± 96% and 45% ± 43%, respectively. These removal percentages are high in comparison to other studies and underline that relatively old systems can also provide efficient treatment. Although the pond accounted for a substantial reduction of pollutant concentration, the wetland significantly enhanced both the treatment performance and the peak flow reduction. This underlines that a combined pond/wetland system is a more beneficial solution than a pond only. The pollutant removal efficiency was significantly influenced by some factors including Antecedent Dry Days, seasonal variations, air temperature, retention times, rainfall depth and duration, and peak rainfall intensity.

  • 5.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Engström, Malin
    Växjö Municipality, Växjö, Sweden.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Long-Term Treatment Efficiency of a Constructed Stormwater Wetland: Preliminary Results2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructed stormwater wetlands (CSWs) are commonly used in Sweden and worldwide because of their high efficiency in urban stormwater management. However, questions have been raised about the long-term performance of CSWs. This study investigated the performance of a 19-year-old constructed wetland, which was designed to treat the stormwater from a 320-ha catchment located in the city of Växjö, southern Sweden. The system has not been maintained since its construction in 1994. The results of the present study were compared with results obtained from a previous study conducted by Växjö Municipality in 1997. The results showed that the CSW significantly reduced peak flows by 72%. High concentration reductions were found for Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, TSS and TP (90, 89, 91, 90, 96, 96 and 86%, respectively). TN concentrations were reduced by 61%. The results indicated that lack of maintenance had no effect on the performance of wetland system during this long period of operation (19 years). In contrast, especially the removal of Cu and nitrogen was enhanced compared to 1997, which may be due to maturing of the system. The results show that CSWs are resilient systems, which (provided that design is sufficient) can work efficiently for at least two decades.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Stenglein, Anna Lena
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Can vacuum cleaning recover the infiltration capacity of a clogged porous asphalt?2012In: WSUD 2012: Water Sensitve Urban Design - 21 - 23 February 2012, Melbourne Cricket Ground : building the water sensitve community, Barton: Institution of Engineers, Australia , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The main threat for the performance of porous asphalt is clogging leading to decreased infiltration capacity. Thus, we investigated the potential of vacuum cleaning to recover the infiltration capacity of clogged permeable asphalts which have been in use for several decades. The influence of road operation and maintenance measures on the results was discussed.Method: We investigated the hydraulic conductivity (HC) of two roads with porous asphalt in Haparanda and Luleå, Sweden, which had been in use for 28 years and 15 years, respectively. A lack of appropriate maintenance during their operating life had lead to significant clogging and thus malfunction. The roads were vacuum cleaned using a vacuum cleaner/sweeping truck combination. This technology is recommended as a maintenance option for porous asphalt. Before and after the vacuum cleaning, replicate HC measurements were conducted using double-ring infiltrometers.Result: Before vacuum cleaning, mean HC was <0.1mm/min in Haparanda and between 0.4 and 0.8 mm/min in Luleå. After vacuum cleaning, HC increased significantly in Luleå (between 1.1 and 7.1mm/min) while no significant increase was detected in Haparanda. Despite the improvement after vacuum cleaning, HC was still far lower than the initial HC after construction. Reasons for the different results in Haparanda and Luleå were identified; the road winter maintenance was of primary importance.Conclusion: Depending on the extent of clogging, vacuum cleaning has the ability to recover HC of porous asphalt. However, long term behaviour of the HC depends largely on the street maintenance, thus regular appropriate maintenance is preferable.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Stenglein, Anna Lena
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Long-term performance of a porous asphalt pavement in Luleå, Sweden: preliminary results2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Stenglein, Anna Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Long-term hydraulic performance of porous asphalt pavements in northern Sweden2013In: Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering, ISSN 0733-9437, E-ISSN 1943-4774, Vol. 139, no 6, p. 499-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of clogging on the long-term infiltration capacity and porosity of two 18- and 24-year-old porous asphalts was examined by using replicate double-ring infiltrometer tests and analyzing asphalt core samples. Tests were carried out to see if high pressure washing and vacuum cleaning could restore the hydraulic performance. The infiltration capacity of the porous asphalts decreased substantially, primarily due to surficial clogging (0.50 +/- 0.26 in Lulea, Sweden, and 0.22 +/- 0.12 in Haparanda, Sweden, compared to initially > 290 mm min(-1)). In Lulea, washing and vacuum cleaning could partially restore the infiltration capacity (3.48 +/- 3.00 mm min(-1)), but in Haparanda, no effect was measured. The porosity was constantly between 16 and 18%. The difference of the long-term behavior and effect of cleaning in Lulea and Haparanda is primarily attributable to different street maintenance, age, and winter maintenance (application of fine gravel and/or sand). Although the infiltration capacity in Lulea was far below initial values, the asphalt still has the capacity to infiltrate an intense design rainfall (100 year average return interval, 15 min duration), underlining that porous asphalt can be a resilient feature also under nonfavorable conditions

  • 9.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Long-term hydraulic performance of stormwater infiltration systems2015In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 660-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the common use of stormwater infiltration systems, there is still only limited data available evaluating the long-term hydraulic function of such systems. The hydraulic performance of twelve stormwater infiltration systems (vegetated and unvegetated concrete grid pavers, unvegetated interlocking concrete pavers and grassed swales) was therefore investigated in field and laboratory environments in Växjö, Sweden. The systems investigated had not been subjected to regular maintenance to sustain infiltration capacity. Due to this, and the fact that, for most systems, an inappropriate joint filling material was used and (at the swales) there was severe compaction, most systems showed a reduced infiltration capacity. Despite this, especially the older vegetated systems, were still capable of infiltrating intense design rainfalls. This study showed the influence of some factors (type and age of the system, the type of joint filling material (grass and macadam) and the distance from the edge of the pavement) on the long-term behaviour of the infiltration capacity. In conclusion, there is a significant risk that existing stormwater infiltration systems are not working adequately in praxis. Proper implementation of construction and regular control by the inspecting authority has to be ensured.

  • 10.
    Andersson-Wikström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    The release of pollutants from roofing materials in laboratory experiments2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffuse pollution sources have been recognised by the European Water Framework Directive to significantly contribute to pollution of stormwater receivers. Stormwater runoff is considered to represent diffuse pollution sources. The aim of this study was to clarify the contributions of specific sources in the urban environment to the content of organic and inorganic pollutants in stormwater. This was done by conducting laboratory screening tests of several conventional roofing materials and coatings to determine which pollutants they release and how they might contribute to the deterioration of stormwater quality. The studied pollutants include metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates, pesticides, nonylphenols and –ethoxylates. Many of the studied roofing materials, e.g. roofing shingle, a PVC sheet and a bitumen paste for felt roof maintenance, exhibited the potential to release several of these substances into stormwater runoff. However, phthalates were not released from any of the studied materials under the tested conditions. In addition, quite similar materials exhibited rather different substance release profiles.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 11.
    Andersson-Wikström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Size fractionation of dissolved metals in stormwater in Umeå, Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved metals are generally considered the most mobile, toxic and bioavailable form of metals. However, the partition between dissolved and particulate phases is conventionally defined by the fraction passing through a 0.45 μm membrane, even though it is widely known that this fraction also includes different types of organic and inorganic colloids. Further size fractionation of metals in the dissolved phase can be performed using different techniques. The knowledge on the metal fractionation in stormwater is useful for assessments of the metals’ bioavailability as well as the performance of stormwater treatment systems. In this study, the size fractionation of dissolved metals in stormwater from four different urban areas in the city of Umeå, Sweden, is determined using ultrafiltration. The objective is to find a pattern for the size fractionation of different metals in the dissolved phase in stormwater and, by this, estimate the bioavailability of the metals. The investigated catchment areas include a parking space, a highway and two different commercial sites. The sampling campaigns will take place in the spring of 2016, taking samples from the stormwater drainage system using automatic samplers.

  • 12.
    Ashley, Richard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Cettner, Annicka
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Walker, L.
    Sharp, L.
    Westling, E.
    Overcoming barriers in the transition from piped to alternative drainage systems2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 13.
    Berggren, Karolina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Lans, Axel
    Vatten och Miljöbyrån AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ashley, Richard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. University of Sheffield, UK; University of Bradford, UK; UNESCO IHE Delft, Netherlands.
    Future changes affecting hydraulic capacity of urban storm water systems2012In: Urban Drainage Modelling: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Urban Drainage Modeling, Belgrade, Serbia, 4-6 September 2012, Belgrade: Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban areas may develop and change its character over time, but the urban drainage system is often 12 more constant in character – as the technical design life can be up to 100 years. The hydraulic capacity 13 of an existing urban storm water system is affected by future changes, e.g. rate of imperviousness 14 (urbanization), changes in the rainfall characteristics (e.g. by climate change) and system deterioration 15 (pipes and other facilities). Recently the urban planning process in Sweden and elsewhere has become 16 more appreciative of urban drainage issues, and the need to include these earlier in development 17 processes. In this paper a small urban catchment is used to study how future factors affect the 18 hydraulic capacity and the potential development of the area. Factors tested are scenarios of: (1) 19 Urbanization; (2) Climate change and (3) Pipe system deterioration. The results show that each of 20 these factors impact on the hydraulic capacity and that any sensitivity analysis should include all of 21 them to understand future development potential for the area. This type of investigation can increase 22 the understanding of the needs of the infrastructure provision in the area in a planning process context, 23 and provide information about appropriate areas of development within the catchment.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Berggren, Karolina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ashley, Richard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Sensitivity of urban stormwater systems to runoff from green/pervious areas in a changing climate2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 15.
    Berggren, Karolina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Olofsson, Mats
    Viklander, Maria
    Svensson, Gilbert
    Tools for measuring climate change impacts on urban drainage systems2007In: Techniques et stratégies durables pour la gestion des eaux urbaines par temps de pluie: NOVATECH 2007 ; 6e conférence internationale, juin 2007, Lyon, France, Villeurbanne: Graie , 2007, Vol. 1, p. 239-246Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change, e.g. more intense rainfall events, will affect urban drainage systems, and cause problems in cities. There is a need to understand and assess these impacts and consequences better; therefore, a strategy and possible tools are suggested in this paper. The recommended tools are Urban Drainage Simulations, Risk Analysis, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Since the impacts of climate change on urban drainage concerns several different disciplines, the assessment should be performed in cooperation with, e.g. urban drainage experts, climate change experts, practitioners, politicians, etc

  • 16.
    Berggren, Karolina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Olofsson, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Svensson, Gilbert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hydraulic impacts on urban drainage systems due to changes in rainfall, caused by climatic change2012In: Journal of hydrologic engineering, ISSN 1084-0699, E-ISSN 1943-5584, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 92-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The changes in climate were of a growing concern in the last decade, and will be even more so in the coming years. When investigating impacts on urban drainage systems due to changes in the climate, two challenges are (1) what type of input rainfall data to use, and (2) what parameters to measure the impacts. The overall objective of this study is to investigate the hydraulic performances ofurban drainage systems related to changes in rainfall, and through these hydraulic parameters describe impacts of climate change. Input rainfall data represents today's climate, as well as three future time periods (2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100). The hydraulic parameters used were water levels in nodes (e.g. as the number of floods, frequency and duration of floods), and pipe flow ratio. For the study area, the number of flooded nodes and the geographical distribution of floods will increase in the future, as will both the flooding frequency and the duration of floods.

  • 17.
    Berggren, Karolina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Packman, John
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxon.
    Ashley, Richard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Climate changed rainfalls for urban drainage capacity assessment2014In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 543-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Guidance on what type of rainfall to use when assessing hydraulic capacity of urban drainage systems under climate change is unclear; focus is mainly on what climate factors to use. Based on a case study in Kalmar, Sweden, this paper compares system performance using two design rainfalls, Block rainfalls and Chicago Design Storm (CDS), and selected observed rainfalls, with two methods of addressing future climate: a constant factor and Delta Change (DC) factors that depend on rainfall intensity. The use of CDS rainfalls presents the maximum hydraulic response, whereas Block rainfalls give lower responses but identify critical durations in the system, which may be useful addressing adaptation actions. Observed rainfalls of target return periods gave similar responses to CDS rainfalls, and can be applied with DC factors to address future changes in both intensity and volume. Differences between the two methods indicate a high dependence related to the maximum factors applied on the rainfalls

  • 18. Berggren, Karolina
    et al.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Will the existing urban drainage systems cope with future climate?: a Swedish study2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Datasets of a stormwater treatment train facility consisting of a gross pollutant trap and biofilters/sand filter in Sundsvall, Sweden2023Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The data were collected from a stormwater treatment train facility in Sundsvall, Sweden. The facility consists of a gross pollutant trap (GPT) followed by three parallel biofilter cells: a vegetated, chalk-amended biofilter (BFC or F1), a non-vegetated sand filter (SF or F2), and a vegetated biofilter (BF or F3).One of the objectives of our research project was to assess and monitor stormwater quality received from a major road catchment (incl. E4 highway bridge in Sundsvall) and also evaluate the performance of the various sections of the treatment train in removing organic micropollutants from the stormwater.

    The file named "StormwaterRunoffQualityData_SND.csv" contains event mean concentration (EMC) data on stormwater samples collected from 8 rain events (coded by A to H) in one year between September 2020 and September 2021. The samples have been analyzed for organic micropollutants and global water quality parameters (42 parameters in total). EMCs have been mathematically generated by a Monte-Carlo simulation from measured concentrations in sub-samples collected during each event. The data elaborate on the generated distribution for each EMC with Q2.5, Q50, and Q97.5 percentiles and standard deviation from the mean. Besides, the number of detected and non-detected (censored) data of sub-samples are mentioned. The list of all pollutants and their abbreviations are included in the documentation file named "StormwaterRunoffQualityData_SND.docx". Stormwater flow data are also presented in the file "VolumeData_Stormwater_SND.csv".

    The file named "TreatmentTrainQualityData_SND.csv" presents event mean concentration (EMC) data not only for the stormwater runoff quality but also for the treated stormwater in the GPT-biofilter/sand filter treatment train downstream of the catchment. In addition to the untreated stormwater runoff as the system's inflow (SW), EMCs have been presented for 4 more sampling points: GPT outflow (GPT), vegetated, chalk-amended biofilter outflow (BFC), non-vegetated sand filter (SF), and vegetated biofilter outflow (BF). For this part of the research, a total of 11 rain events (coded by A to K) were covered from Sep. 2020 until Sep. 2021. The samples have been analyzed for organic micropollutants and other conventional water quality parameters (42 parameters in total). EMCs have been mathematically generated by a Monte-Carlo simulation from measured concentrations in sub-samples collected during each event. The data present a distribution for each EMC with Q2.5, Q50, and Q97.5 percentiles and standard deviation from the mean. The number of detected and non-detected (censored) data of sub-samples is also mentioned. The list of all pollutants and their abbreviations are included in the documentation file named "TreatmentTrainQualityData_SND.docx". Flow data are also presented in the file "VolumeData_Treatment train_SND.csv".

  • 20.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Managing environmental risk of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in highway stormwater: Role of gross pollutant trap-biofilter treatment train: [Gestion du risque environnemental des micropolluants organiques (OMP) dans les eaux pluviales des autoroutes: Rôle de la chaîne de traitement piège à polluant brut-biofilter]2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Occurrence and concentrations of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in highway stormwater: a comparative field study in Sweden2023In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 30, no 31, p. 77299-77317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study details the occurrence and concentrations of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in stormwater collected from a highway bridge catchment in Sweden. The prioritized OMPs were bisphenol-A (BPA), eight alkylphenols, sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and four fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), along with other global parameters, namely, total organic carbon (TOC), total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, and conductivity (EC). A Monte Carlo (MC) simulation was applied to estimate the event mean concentrations (EMC) of OMPs based on intra-event subsamples during eight rain events, and analyze the associated uncertainties. Assessing the occurrence of all OMPs in the catchment and comparing the EMC values with corresponding environmental quality standards (EQSs) revealed that BPA, octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP), five carcinogenic and four non-carcinogenic PAHs, and C16-C40 fractions of PHCs can be problematic for freshwater. On the other hand, alkylphenol ethoxylates (OPnEO and NPnEO), six low molecule weight PAHs, and lighter fractions of PHCs (C10-C16) do not occur at levels that are expected to pose an environmental risk. Our data analysis revealed that turbidity has a strong correlation with PAHs, PHCs, and TSS; and TOC and EC highly associated with BPA concentrations. Furthermore, the EMC error analysis showed that high uncertainty in OMP data can influence the final interpretation of EMC values. As such, some of the challenges that were experienced in the presented research yielded suggestions for future monitoring programs to obtain more reliable data acquisition and analysis.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Performance of a gross pollutant trap-biofilter and sand filter treatment train for the removal of organic micropollutants from highway stormwater (Field study)2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 900, article id 165734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This field study assessed the occurrence, event mean concentrations (EMCs), and removal of selected organic micro-pollutants (OMPs), namely, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), nonylphenol (NP), 4-t-octylphenol (OP), and bisphenol A (BPA), in a gross pollutant trap (GPT)-biofilter/sand filter stormwater treatment train in Sundsvall, Sweden. The effects of design features of each treatment unit, including pre-sedimentation (GPT), sand filter medium, vegetation, and chalk amendment, were investigated by comparing the units' removal performances. Overall, the treatment train removed most OMPs from highway runoff effectively. The results showed that although the sand filter provided moderate (<50 % for phenolic substances) to high (50–80 % for PAHs and PHCs) removal of OMPs, adding a vegetated soil layer on top of the sand filter considerably improved the removal performance (by at least 30 %), especially for BPA, OP, and suspended solids. Moreover, GTP did not contribute to the treatment significantly. Uncertainties in the removal efficiencies of PAHs and PHCs by the filter cells increased substantially when the ratio of the influent concentration to the limit of quantification decreased. Thus, accounting for such uncertainties due to the low OMP concentrations should be considered when evaluating the removal performance of biofilters.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Goldstein, Alisha
    Dept. of Biological and Agriculture Engineering, North Carolina State Univ., Campus Box 7625, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Dept. of Building and Construction Engineering, Univ. of Technology, 19006, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hunt III, William F.
    Dept. of Biological and Agriculture Engineering, North Carolina State Univ., Campus Box 7625, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Survey of the Operational Status of Twenty-six Urban Stormwater Biofilter Facilities in Sweden2021In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 297, article id 113375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the operational status of twenty-six biofilter facilities across nine cities in Sweden, with respect to their functional design criteria, engineered design features (filter media composition, hydraulic conductivity, and drawdown time), and includes a visual inspection of the biofilter components (pre-treatment, in/outlet structures, filter media, and vegetation). These indicators were used to examine the performance level of each biofilter in achieving their design objectives set by the operators. Furthermore, it was investigated whether the biofilter facilities had been properly maintained to meet the objectives. Results indicate that the soil media used was consistent with respect to percentage sand, fines, and organic matter and comparable to design recommendations used by municipalities in other countries. The field-tested hydraulic conductivity for the biofilters ranged from 30 to 962 mm/h. This range of values, along with noticeable sediment accumulation within the biofilter indicate that not all the sites were operating optimally. Pre-treatment stages in poor condition with high volumes of sediment and litter accumulation were the primary causes for, and indicators of, low hydraulic conductivity rates. The ponding volume calculations revealed that at least 40 % of facilities did not have enough capacity to retain every-day and/or design rainfall due to design and/or construction flaws. These analyses raise concerns that, for a considerable number of the biofilters surveyed, water retention and flood protection identified by operators as prioritised objectives are not being met. This raises significant concerns about the functionality of biofilter in practice. Finally, some suggestions are given for tackling the design and maintenance problems discovered.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    The intra-event dynamics of the removal of organic micro-pollutants (OMP) in stormwater treatment trains: gross pollutant trap and biofilter2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hunt, William F.
    Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Lord, William G.
    North Carolina Cooperative Extension, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
    Stormwater control measure (SCM) maintenance considerations to ensure designed functionality2017In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 278-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Great investment is made in the design and installation of stormwater control measures (SCMs). Substantial research investment, too, is made to optimise the performance of SCMs. However, once installed, SCMs often suffer from lack of maintenance or even outright neglect. Key maintenance needs for wet ponds, constructed stormwater wetlands, bioretention, infiltration practices, permeable pavement, swales, and rainwater harvesting systems are reviewed with many tasks, such as the cleaning of pre-treatment areas and the preservation of infiltration surfaces, being common maintenance themes among SCMs. Consequences of lacking maintenance are illustrated (mainly insufficient function or failure). Probable reasons for neglect include insufficient communication, unclear responsibilities, lack of knowledge, financial barriers, and decentralised measures. In future designs and research, maintenance (and lack thereof) should be considered. Assessing the performance of SCMs conservatively and including safety factors may prevent consequences of under-maintenance; and requiring regular inspection may help to enforce sufficient maintenance.

  • 26.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Karlsson, Kristin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Closure to “Environmental Risk Assessment of Sediments Deposited in Stormwater Treatment Facilities: Trace Metal Fractionation and Its Implication for Sediment Management”2018In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 144, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Laboratory study of stormwater biofiltration in low temperatures: total and dissolved metal removal and fates2011In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 219, no 1-4, p. 303-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater biofilters, which are recommended for application in both Water-Sensitive Urban Design and Low Impact Development, can remove up to 80% or 90% of total metals found in stormwater. However, their winter operation is a common concern. That was addressed in this study by investigating the metal removal effectiveness of replicate laboratory biofilter mesocosms at 2°C, 8°C and 20°C. As recommended for cold climate bioretention, coarse filter media were implemented and in the top 100 mm layer topsoil was added to increase the sorption capacity. Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations measured in the biofilter effluent were far below those in the influent and this significantly improved the treated stormwater quality. Contrary to a common notion that coarse media in the main filter body impair dissolved metal sorption, satisfactory removals of dissolved metals were found in this study with most metal burdens retained in the top layer of the filter in which the sorption capacity was enhanced by topsoil. Some metal uptake by the plants was also detected. Temperature did not affect Cd, Pb and Zn removals in general, but Cu removals increased with decreasing temperatures. This was explained by increased biological activities in the filters at warmer temperatures, which may have led to an increased release of Cu with dissolved organic matter originating from root turnover and decomposition of organic litter and debris. Furthermore, plant uptake and biofilm adsorption may also be influenced by temperature. However, even in the worst case (i.e. at 20°C), Cu was removed effectively from the stormwater. Further research needs were identified including the effects of road salts on stormwater biofiltration during the winter period.

  • 28.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Søberg, Laila
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Dataset on stormwater bioretention column studies: Impact of temperature, salt and a submerged zone on the removal of metals, nutrients and suspended solids2022Data set
    Abstract [en]

    This data set presents the full raw data from bioretention column studies conducted at Luleå University of Technology in 2010-2014. The pilot scale columns were watered with synthetic stormwater. Influent and effluent samples were collected and analysed for pollutants including total and dissolved metals, nutrients, pathogens and suspended sediment. Further, supporting parameters (e.g. pH, conductivity) are included. The data enables quantifying the impact of bioretention design factors (submerged zone) and ambient factors (salinity in stormwater inflow, temperature) on the removal of these pollutants by bioretention. All filters utilised the same general column design and filter material as well as stormwater preparation. This enables inter-comparability between the different studies. Synthetic stormwater inflow concentrations and bioretention effluent concentrations are presented in the data set. Further, metal concentrations in the filter material and plant tissue have been analysed. The data set enables further analyses of bioretention performance, comparison with similar work performed elsewhere and can be used in modelling of bioretention removal performance and processes. Scientific papers describing the data have been published (see Publications)

  • 29.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Rentz, Ralf
    Malmgren, Charlotte
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Stormwater impact on urban waterways in a cold climate: variations in sediment metal concentrations due to untreated snowmelt discharge2012In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 758-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Stormwater discharges include contaminated sediments that accumulate in the receiving water body. It is thus important to investigate sediment and pollutant processes and pathways from the catchment to, and within, the receiving water. These processes may be influenced by seasonal changes. The objective of this study was to investigate the stormwater impact on receiving waters in the Luleå area, Northern Sweden; seasonal changes in contamination loads in the receiving waters due to snowmelt; and factors influencing the pollutant pathways in the receiving waters. Materials and methods: In front of three storm sewer outlets in Luleå, samples of bottom sediment (surface layer 0-2 cm) were collected from the connecting ditches and the downstream water body in autumn and spring (before and after the snow season 2009/2010). The characteristics of the receiving waters differed in geomorphology and vegetation. The sediment was analyzed for loss-on-ignition (LOI), grain size, and bulk concentrations of SiO 2, Al 2O 3, CaO, Fe 2O 3, MnO, Na 2O, P 2O 5, TiO 2, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, S, V, and Zn. The sediment contamination was compared to concentrations at a reference point in Luleå where the bottom sediment was not affected by stormwater discharges and with Swedish environmental quality guidelines. Pearson's correlation and a principal component analysis were used to further evaluate the results. Results and discussion: Relative to the reference point, elevated trace metal concentrations were detected in sediments at all three sampling stations. At two of the stations, seasonal variations in ditch sediment grain size, LOI, and contaminant concentrations were observed, originating from stormwater sediment. Snowmelt runoff caused an increased proportion of fine-grained sediment fractions (<0.063 mm) in spring, mainly due to changes in runoff intensity and high sediment loads in the snowmelt runoff. The retention of metals appeared to be due to low turbulence in the water and the presence of organic material. Conclusions: Stormwater discharge affected the contaminant concentrations in the bottom sediments. The observed seasonal variation of contaminants indicated that relatively high amounts of contaminants are discharged during snowmelt and then reallocated within the receiving water body, either directly or after some temporal retention, depending on the characteristics of the receiving water. A calm water column and the presence of organic material in the receiving water body were crucial for the retention of metals

  • 30.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Tondera, Katharina
    Stormwater Research Group, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Metals: Occurrence, Treatment Efficiency and Accumulation Under Varying Flows2018In: Ecotechnologies for the Treatment of Variable Stormwater and Wastewater Flows / [ed] Katharina Tondera, Godecke-Tobias Blecken, Florent Chazarenc, Chris C. Tanner, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 75-91Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals were the first priority pollutants to be widely investigated in stormwater. In solid phase, they are often attached to very fine particles. The dissolved fraction creates considerable environmental problems as it is the most bioavailable fraction. Hence, removal of both fine and dissolved particles plays a major role in the treatment of polluted runoff. Ecotechnologies specifically designed to remove metals should be able to address different treatment mechanisms. However, the exhaustion of sorption capacity reduces the lifespan of treatment facilities. Additionally, metal concentrations fluctuate extremely—spatially, seasonally and over time—which poses another challenge for further increasing removal efficiencies. While soil- or sand-based systems should be designed in a way that the filter material can be exchanged, newer developments such as Floating Treatment Wetlands show promising removal capacities as the installations bind metals in sludge sediments, which can be removed from time to time. The different treatment mechanisms, aforementioned developments and techniques as well as their removal capacities will be discussed in this chapter

  • 31.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Rening av dagvatteni biofilter: Effekt av biokol som tillsats i filtermaterialet2022Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32. Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Muthanna, Tone M.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Zinger, Yaron
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Deletic, Ana
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Fletcher, Tim
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Biofilter treatment of stormwater: temperature influence on the removal of nutrients2007In: Techniques et stratégies durables pour la gestion des eaux urbaines par temps de pluie: 6e Conférence internationale, [25-27] juin 2007, Lyon, France, Villeurbanne: Graie , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrients can cause eutrophication of natural water bodies. Thus, urban stormwater which is an important nutrient source has to be treated in order to reduce its nutrient loads. Biofilters which use media, biofilms and plants, are a good treatment option regarding nutrients. This paper presents the results of a biofilter column study in cold temperatures (+2°C, +8°C, control at +20°C) which may cause special problems regarding the biofilter performance. It was shown that particle bound pollutants as TSS and a high fraction of phosphorus were reduced well without being negatively influenced by cold temperatures. Nitrogen, however, was not reduced; especially NOx was produced in the columns which can be explained with both insufficient denitrification and high leaching from the columns.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 33. Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Svensson, Gilbert
    Hedström, Annelie
    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) in sewer systems: a significant problem in Sweden and Norway2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Svensson, Gilbert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Fett i avloppsnät: kartläggning och åtgärdsförslag2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fat oil and grease (FOG) from food preparation can cause severeproblems if it is discharged to the municipal sewer network. A surveyamong Swedish and Norwegian municipalities has shown that nearlyall respondents experience FOG-related problems. The most commonproblem is FOG accumulation connected to the sewer pipes whichdecreases the pipe pipe capacity and may lead to sewer overflows. FOGaccumulation occurs especially at lift stations and depressions. FOGdeposits are often made up of saponised FOG. The fatty acids promotefurthermore corrosion of concrete pipes. FOG can even impact wastewater treatment and might cause severer working conditions.The aim for the water suppliers has thus to be an effective FOGsource control before FOG is discharged to the sewer network. Sourcesare both commercial establishments and residential sewer customers.In this report different source control measures are discussed. Greaseinterceptors are commonly used for commercial FOG sources. However,a number of them lack a grease interceptor and quite often operationand maintenance is deficient. An insufficient frequency ofemptying and a lack of supervision have been identified as a commonproblem. FOG collection systems for commercial FOG producers existin both Sweden and Norway. Collection systems for private householdsare currently in a test phase and experiences from among others Austriaare promising. Even the collected amount of FOG could presumablybe increased. Collected FOG and FOG slurry from interceptors is avaluable resource which can be used as raw material in the chemicalindustry or as an energy source (combustion, biodiesel, fermentation).Threshold values for FOG discharges are set up commonly by municipalities.However, even here supervision is often insufficient. Often, thethreshold values are inadequately low and a value of at least 150 mg/lis recommended. All those measures have to be supported by informationcampaigns which aim on both commercial and private customers.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 35.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Svensson, Gilbert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Projekt: Fett i avloppsnät - Kartläggning och åtgärdsförslag2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Matfett och -olja som släpps ut till avloppsnätet kan orsaka driftproblem. Denna enkätstudie har visat att nästan alla kommuner i Norge och Sverige upplever problem på grund av fettet.

  • 36.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Zinger, Yaron
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Deletic, Ana
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Fletcher, Tim D.
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Effect of retrofitting a saturated zone om the performance of biofiltration for heavy metal removal: preliminary results of a laboratory study2010In: NOVATECH 2010: 7th International conference on sustainable techniques and strategies in urban water management, Lyon, France, June 27 - July 1st, 2010, Villeurbanne: Graie , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater biofilters are a stormwater treatment technology which has been becoming increasingly popular. Recently it has been shown that a submerged zone in the filter media improves the magnitude and consistency of nitrogen treatment. Furthermore, the submerged zone has even been shown to be beneficial for retention of heavy metals, particularly Cu. However, most existing biofilters do not include a saturated zone. Since it is relatively simple to retrofit a submerged zone by elevating the outflow, the effect of such a retrofitting on metal removal was investigated in this laboratory study using biofilter columns. It has been shown that a retrofitted submerged zone has a statistically significant but practically small effect on metal removal: Zn removal is slightly enhanced while the effect on Cu removal is inconsistent. Thus, retrofitting of a submerged zone is not recommended if metals are the main target pollutants. But if a submerged zone would have other benefits (e.g. for nitrogen removal or to protect the system from prolonged drying periods) it can be retrofitted without compromising metal removal.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 37. Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Zinger, Yaron
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Deletic, Ana
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Fletcher, Tim D.
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Impact of a submerged zone and a carbon source on heavy metal removal in stormwater biofilters2009In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 769-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofilters are an effective treatment option for the substantial heavy metal loads in urban stormwater. However, to increase their nitrogen treatment efficacy, the introduction of a submerged (anoxic) zone (SZ) and a cellulose based carbon source (C) has been recommended because it has been shown to enhance denitrification and thereby increase overall nitrogen removal. To examine the impact of this design modification on heavy metal treatment, a laboratory study using biofilter mesocosms with different levels of SZ and with or without added C was conducted. The results show that SZ and C have a significant impact on metal treatment. In particular, the removal of Cu was improved significantly. The presence of SZ and C allows outflow Cu concentrations to meet Swedish and Australian water quality guidelines, which are not met with a standard biofilter without SZ or C. Although Zn and Pb removal was enhanced slightly by the presence of a SZ, this improvement is of less practical importance, since Zn and Pb removal is already very high (>95%) in standard biofilters. The best metal treatment was achieved with 450 and 600 mm SZ. Based on these results, the incorporation of SZ with C in stormwater biofilters is recommended.

  • 38.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Zinger, Yaron
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Deletic, Ana
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Fletcher, Tim D
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Viklander, Maria
    Laboratory studies on metal treatment efficiency of stormwater biofilters2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater biofilters are a reliable technology to remove metals from stormwater. A solid carbon source in the filter (combined with a submerged zone) enhances especially Cu removal further; the already high Pb and Zn removal is slightly enhanced. However, the submerged zone helps to minimize (Cu, Zn) or eliminate (Pb) the negative effects which prolonged drying has on the removal rates. Thus, the introduction of a submerged zone is only recommended if nitrogen treatment is targeted (Zinger et al. 2007) or if drying is expected. Temperature differences might have a little influence on especially Cu treatment. However, this influence is not of practical importance indicating that biofilters can successfully be implemented throughout the whole seasonal cycle. A high proportion of metals are retained at the top of the filter which is important for biofilter design and maintenance planning. A filter less than the currently recommended 800 to 900 mm might be sufficient for reliable metal treatment. Furthermore, scraping of the top layer could delay replacing of the whole filter media

  • 39.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Zinger, Yaron
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Deletic, Ana
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Fletcher, Tim
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Viklander, Maria
    Laboratory study on stormwater biofiltration: nutrient and sediment removal in cold temperatures2010In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 394, no 3-4, p. 507-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater biofilters have the ability to remove nutrients from stormwater. Reliable pollutant removal during the cold season is particularly important due to the comparably high contamination levels. However, the removal performance might be negatively affected by low temperatures. A biofilter column study was conducted in thermostat-controlled climate rooms (at 2, 7 and 20 °C) to investigate the effect of low temperatures on nutrient removal. Phosphorus and suspended solids removal were significantly correlated and consistently very high (typically in excess of 90 and 95%, respectively, at all temperatures). This is important for the successful implementation of biofilters in cold climates since phosphorus is commonly of principal concern, often being the limiting factor for eutrophication in freshwater ecosystems. Unfortunately, nitrogen removal was poor and leaching was shown, which increased with temperature. The increasing nitrate-nitrogen production rates with temperature were well described by the Arrhenius relationship with temperature coefficients Q10 in the range which is typically used to describe temperature effects on nitrification. Thus, temperature effects have to be considered when nitrogen removal is targeted and the biofilter might be exposed to cold temperatures.

  • 40. Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Zinger, Yaron
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Deletic, Ana
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Fletcher, Tim
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Heavy metal removal by stormwater biofilters: can it withstand alternative drying and wetting conditions?2008In: Conference Proceedings : 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage: Edinburgh International Conference Centre, Scotland : 11 ICUD: 31st August - 5th September 2008, Munich: Oldenbourg Industrieverlag , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban stormwater contains substantial loads of Cu, Pb and Zn, which are considered as key stormwater contaminants. Stormwater biofiltration is a promising option to treat these contaminants. Biofilters are exposed to an alternate cycle of drying and wetting, and the influence of this on pollutant removal performance is as-yet unknown. To investigate the effect of drying and subsequent rewetting on the retention of heavy metals by stormwater biofilters, a laboratory study has been conducted using three groups of biofilter columns, which were dosed with semi-synthetic stormwater according to three different drying and wetting regimes. Some biofilters were fitted with a submerged zone combined with a carbon source, at the bottom of the filter. Overall, the biofilters were very effective in heavy metal removal, provided that they received regular stormwater input. However, after drying extending to three or four weeks, removal of heavy metals decreased significantly. A statistically significant correlation between antecedent dry days and metal removal was shown. Furthermore, a clear effect of the submerged zone was found: after extended dry periods, biofilters with this feature performed significantly better than those without it. In particular, the removal of Cu was clearly increased both during wet and dry periods; for Pb the negative effect of drying was completely eliminated by introducing a submerged zone.

  • 41. Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Zinger, Yaron
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Deletic, Ana
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Fletcher, Tim
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Influence of intermittent wetting and drying conditions on heavy metal removal by stormwater biofilters2009In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, no 18, p. 4590-4598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofiltration is a technology to treat urban stormwater runoff which conveys pollutants, including heavy metals. However, the variability of metals removal performance in biofiltration systems is as yet unknown.A laboratory study has been conducted with vegetated biofilter mesocosms, partly fitted with a submerged zone at the bottom of the filter combined with a carbon source. The biofilters were dosed with stormwater according to three different dry/wet schemes, to investigate the effect of intermittent wetting and drying conditions on metal removal.Provided that the biofilters received regular stormwater input, metal removal exceeded 95%. The highest metal accumulation occurs in the top layer of the filter media.However, after antecedent drying before a storm event exceeding three to four weeks the filters performed significantly worse, although metal removal still remained relatively high. Introducing a submerged zone into the filter improved the performance significantly after extended dry periods. In particular, copper removal in filters equipped with a submerged zone was increased by around 12% (α = 0.05) both during wet and dry periods and for lead the negative effect of drying could completely be eliminated, with consistently low outflow concentrations even after long drying periods.

  • 42. Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Zinger, Yaron
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Muthanna, Tone M.
    Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Trondheim.
    Deletic, Ana
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Fletcher, Tim D.
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    The influence of temperature on nutrient treatment efficiency in stormwater biofilter systems2007In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 56, no 10, p. 83-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrients can cause eutrophication of natural water bodies. Thus, urban stormwater which is an important nutrient source in urbanised areas has to be treated in order to reduce its nutrient loads. Biofilters which use soil filter media, biofilms and plants, are a good treatment option for nutrients. This paper presents the results of a biofilter column study in cold temperatures (+2 °C, +8 °C, control at +20 °C) which may cause special problems regarding biofilter performance. It was shown that particle-bound pollutants as TSS and a high fraction of phosphorus were reduced well without being negatively influenced by cold temperatures. Nitrogen, however, was not reduced; especially NOx was produced in the columns. This behaviour can be explained with both insufficient denitrification and high leaching from the columns

  • 43.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington ON, Canada.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Continuous simulations of urban stormwater runoff and total suspended solids loads: influence of varying climatic inputs and catchment imperviousness2014In: Journal of Water and Climate, ISSN 2040-2244, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 593-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potential implications of climate change for future stormwater management were addressed by undertaking continuous simulations of runoff and total suspended solids (TSS) loads for three urban catchments, with imperviousness varying from 23 to 63%, which were exposed to five rainfall regimes during the snow-free part of the year: the current climate and four climate change scenarios projecting higher rainfalls. Simulated runoff volumes increased in all the future scenarios, particularly in the sub-arctic climate and the fixed uplift scenario (plus20) indicating appreciable rainfall increases. Simulated runoff volumes increased depending on the projected increases in rainfall and increasing runoff contributions from pervious areas when more intense future rainfalls exceeded hydrologic abstractions. The increased runoff volumes then contributed higher TSS loads, which were highly variable for the rainfall regimes tested. In cold climate regions, residues of solids from winter road maintenance may contribute to high initial accumulations of TSS on the catchment surface and high washed off loads. In general, the study suggests that intermediate design-life stormwater management facilities require flexible design allowing for future step-wise adaptation by gradually increasing design capacities and modifying treatment trains.

  • 44.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Source-based modeling of stormwater quality response to projected future changes in climatic and socio-economic factors2015In: Urban Drainage Modelling 2015: Poster presentations : Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Urban Drainage Modelling, Mont-Sainte-Anne, Québec, Canada 20-23 Swptember 2015 / [ed] Thomas Maere; Sovanna Tik; Sophie Duchense; Peter A. Vanrolleghem, 2015, p. 73-78Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Source-Based Modeling Of Urban Stormwater Quality Response to the Selected Scenarios Combining Future Changes in Climate and Socio-Economic Factors2016In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 223-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of future trends in urban stormwater quality should be most helpful for ensuring the effectiveness of the existing stormwater quality infrastructure in the future and mitigating the associated impacts on receiving waters. Combined effects of expected changes in climate and socio-economic factors on stormwater quality were examined in two urban test catchments by applying a source-based computer model (WinSLAMM) for TSS and three heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) for various future scenarios. Generally, both catchments showed similar responses to the future scenarios and pollutant loads were generally more sensitive to changes in socio-economic factors (i.e., increasing traffic intensities, growth and intensification of the individual land-uses) than in the climate. Specifically, for the selected Intermediate socio-economic scenario and two climate change scenarios (RSP = 2.6 and 8.5), the TSS loads from both catchments increased by about 10 % on average, but when applying the Intermediate climate change scenario (RCP = 4.5) for two SSPs, the Sustainability and Security scenarios (SSP1 and SSP3), the TSS loads increased on average by 70 %. Furthermore, it was observed that well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment facilities targeting local pollution hotspots exhibited the potential to significantly improve stormwater quality, however, at potentially high costs. In fact, it was possible to reduce pollutant loads from both catchments under the future Sustainability scenario (on average, e.g., TSS were reduced by 20 %), compared to the current conditions. The methodology developed in this study was found useful for planning climate change adaptation strategies in the context of local conditions.

  • 46.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada.
    Modelling the effects of changes in rainfall event characteristics on TSS loads in urban runoff2014In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 1787-1796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of changes in rainfall event characteristics on urban stormwater quality, which was described by total suspended solids (TSS), was studied by means of computer simulations conducted with the Storm Water Management Model for a climate change scenario for northern Sweden. The simulation results showed that TSS event loads depended mainly on rainfall depth and intensity, but not on antecedent conditions. Storms with low-to-intermediate depths and intensities showed the highest sensitivity to changes in rainfall input, both for percentage and absolute changes in TSS wash-off loads, which was explained by the contribution of pervious areas and supply limitations. This has significant implications for stormwater management, because those relatively frequent events generally carry a high percentage of the annual pollutant load

  • 47.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Simulating future trends in urban stormwater quality for changing climate, urban land use and environmental controls2013In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 68, no 9, p. 2082-2089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of climatic changes, progressing urbanization and improved environmental controls on the simulated urban stormwater quality in a northern Sweden community were studied. Future scenarios accounting for those changes were developed and their effects simulated with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). It was observed that the simulated stormwater quality was highly sensitive to the scenarios, mimicking progressing urbanization with varying catchment imperviousness and area. Thus, land use change was identified as one of the most influential factors and in some scenarios, urban growth caused changes in runoff quantity and quality exceeding those caused by a changing climate. Adaptation measures, including the reduction of directly connected impervious surfaces (DCIS) through the integration of more green spaces into the urban landscape, or disconnection of DCIS were effective in reducing runoff volume and pollutant loads. Furthermore, pollutant source control measures, including material substitution, were effective in reducing pollutant loads and significantly improving stormwater quality

  • 48.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Using urban runoff simulations for addressing climate change impacts on urban runoff quality in a Swedish town2012In: Urban Drainage Modelling: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling, Belgrade, Serbia, 4-6 September 2012, Belgrade: Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of climate change on urban stormwater quality was studied by means of computer simulations conducted with the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) for common climate change scenarios developed for northern Sweden. The simulation results showed that stormwater quality depended on rainfall characteristics; a climate scenario implying increased rainfall depths and intensities produced higher pollutant loads carried by stormwater, but reduced concentrations, particularly for medium to high intensity storm events. This type of stormwater quality response was explained by pollutant supply limited transport processes and the resulting dilution of such pollutants. Medium intensity events showed the highest sensitivity to climatic changes, since such events strongly affected the contributions of pervious surfaces. This has significant implications for stormwater management, because those relatively frequent events generally carry a high percentage of the annual pollutant load.

  • 49.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    An exploratory study of the effects of stormwater pipeline materials on transported stormwater quality2017In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 247-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implications of three sewer pipe materials (concrete, galvanized corrugated steel, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) for stormwater quality were explored in laboratory experiments, in which three types of stormwater, SW1-SW3, were circulated in 0.5 m long sewer pipe sections. SW1 and SW2 represented synthetic rainwater, without and with fine street sediment added (CTSS = 150 mg/L), respectively, and SW3 was actual stormwater with the same sediment addition as SW2. Following 20-min runs, with an equivalent distance of 500 m travelled by water particles, a number of statistically significant changes in the stormwater chemistry were observed: (i) pH of all the simulated stormwaters increased in the concrete pipe (from 7.0-7.3 to 8.1-9.3), (ii) turbidity decreased in two stormwaters with sediments (SW2 and SW3) in concrete and galvanized corrugated steel pipes (by 50 and 85%, respectively), (iii) the type of stormwater affected the observed copper (Cu) concentrations, with Cudiss concentrations as high as 25.3 μg/L noted in SW3 passing through the PVC pipe, and (iv) zinc (Zn) concentrations sharply increased (Zntot = 759-1,406 μg/L, Zndiss = 670-1,400 μg/L) due to Zn elution from the galvanized steel pipe by all three stormwaters. Such levels exceeded the applicable environmental guidelines.

  • 50.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Contribution of coarse particles from road surfaces to dissolved and particle-bound heavy metal loads in runoff: A laboratory leaching study with synthetic stormwater2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 573, p. 212-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory leaching experiments were performed to study the potential of coarse street sediments (i.e. > 250 μm) to release dissolved and particulate-bound heavy metals (i.e. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) during rainfall/runoff. Towards this end, street sediments were sampled by vacuuming at seven sites in five Swedish cities and the collected sediments were characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. In the laboratory, the sediments were combined with synthetic rainwater and subject to agitation by a shaker mimicking particle motion during transport by runoff from street surfaces. As a result of such action, coarse street sediments were found to release significant amounts of heavy metals, which were predominantly (up to 99%) in the particulate bound phase. Thus, in dry weather, coarse street sediments functioned as collectors of fine particles with attached heavy metals, but in wet weather, metal burdens were released by rainfall/runoff processes. The magnitude of such releases depended on the site characteristics (i.e. street cleaning and traffic intensity), particle properties (i.e. organic matter content), and runoff characteristics (pH, and the duration of, and energy input into, sediment/water agitation). The study findings suggest that street cleaning, which preferentially removes coarser sediments, may produce additional environmental benefits by also removing fine contaminated particles attached to coarser materials

1234567 1 - 50 of 323
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf