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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Managing complex projects in the infrastructure sector: A structural equation model for flexibility-focused project management2017Ingår i: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 35, nr 8, s. 1512-1523Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex construction projects in the infrastructure sector are often beset with delays, which cause benefit shortfalls and increased costs. Prior project management literature and practice have mostly adopted a traditional control-focused approach, but recent research suggests that complex projects need more flexible practices to manage inevitable project change. Thus, the objectives of this study were to develop and empirically test a model for flexibility-focused project management practices to improve time performance in complex projects in the infrastructure sector. Based on empirical data from 138 construction projects procured and managed by the Swedish Transport Administration, the structural equation model shows that complexity and collaboration drive explorative learning, which improves adaptation and thereby improves time performance. Hence, the empirical test verifies that flexibility-focused project management practices based on collaboration, explorative learning, and adaptation enhance time performance in complex projects in the infrastructure sector.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Reactive Problem Solving and Proactive Development in Infrastructure Projects2019Ingår i: Current Trends in Civil & Structural Engineering, ISSN 2643-6876, Vol. 3, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Volker, Leentje
    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands.
    Kadefors, Anna
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. Chalmers University Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering (SEED), School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Rosander, Lilly
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Collaborative Procurement Strategies for Infrastructure Projects: A Multiple Case Study2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Management, procurement and law, ISSN 1751-4304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the announcement to tender a project, several strategic decisions are made that have significant impact on the innovation and efficiency potential of a project. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare how different types of integrative and collaborative procurement strategies may enhance the opportunities for improved efficiency and innovation in infrastructure projects. Hence, it contributes to the scientific debate on buyer-supplier relationships in relation to project performance. Furthermore, it guides public client organizations in steering explicitly for integration and innovation in their projects. Interview-based case studies of ten public infrastructure projects procured based on four different types of collaborative procurement strategies in Sweden and the Netherlands were conducted. The findings indicate that the duration of the collaboration is fundamental in setting the limits for innovation, and that early involvement as well as long-term commitments in maintenance open up for more innovation. Naturally, the potential for increased efficiency is higher than for innovation, and also occurs in collaborations with limited duration. The findings confirm the importance of a learning perspective on procurement strategies for public client organizations and show the importance of explicit considerations on incentives and project governance issues in the front-end phase of a project.

  • 4.
    Gustavsson, Tina Karrbom
    et al.
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kadefors, Anna
    Department of Service Management and Logistics, Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Laedre, Ola
    Department of Civil and Transport Engineering, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Klakegg, Ole Jonny
    Department of Civil and Transport Engineering, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Olsson, Nils
    Department of Production and Quality Engineering, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Procurement Research: Current State and Future Challenges in the Nordic Countries2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of the study is to map previous and current construction procurement research to further develop the research in the Nordic counties.

    Design/Methodology/Approach

    Mapping of previous and current research based on search in national database. The analysis is based on research perspectives, empirical contexts and research methods.

    Findings

    That the blind spots are partly overlapping, but that there is potential for knowledge transfer in some areas. There is also the potential for a Nordic research program on one or several of the blind spots.

    Research Limitations/Implications

    The study is limited to PhD and licentiate-thesis reports in Norway and Sweden. Further research should include the other Nordic countries and a more extensive literature review including journal articles to broaden the scope. Findings have implications on collaborative Nordic research initiatives, knowledge transfer and in a longer perspective on the level of procurement knowledge in industry and society.

    Practical Implications

    Findings provide a base for future research collaborations, initiatives and applications.

    Originality/Value

    Findings provide a comprehensive understanding of construction procurement research in the Nordic countries, starting with Norway and Sweden. This understanding is needed for developing research collaborations and applications.

  • 5.
    Jensen, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Simonsson, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Improving buildability with platforms and configurators2013Ingår i: Proceedings IGLC-21: Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction / [ed] Carlos T. Formoso; Patricia Tzortzopoulos, Fortaleza, Brazil, 2013, s. 771-780Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The different stages in construction projects are often separated with little interaction between the different trades. Many researchers proclaim that this separation between design and production limits the buildability of construction designs. Thus there is a need for providing knowledge of rules and constraints imposed from production in the design of construction products. A way of integration of production knowledge in the design is by implementing product platforms and configurators in construction projects. This paper describes the development of a configurator for a modularized concrete bridge that can be produced efficiently. Production of bridges can be selected to be built either on site or prefabricated. Previous work to develop configurators has mainly focused on the efficiency of the design phase and is usually not linked to production improvements and simplifications. By defining the product platform for a certain bridge variant within its market segment, the technical solutions can be designed to be flexible while ensuring the buildabuility in the construction phase.The developed configurator is built in SolidWorks and parametrically coupled using Tacton Studio. The first version generates geometrical drawings. Whereas validation show that parametric modelling configurators can be used for increasing buildability and efficiency at site, and also increasing the range of feasible alternatives and for speeding up the design process.

  • 6.
    Järvenpää, Anna-Therése
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    The Transition from Design-Bid-Build Contracts to Design-Build2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose–For a number of years, the construction industry has seen an ongoing shift from design-bid-buildto design-build contracts. This transition in contract type entails changes for both the organizations and theindividuals involved. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how the client manages thetransition between the different contract types from an organizational change perspective in a project-ledorganization.

    Design/Methodology/Approach–A multiple case study of six infrastructure projects with DBcontracts, all managed by the Swedish Transport Administration, was conducted. The major source of data issemi-structured interviews with respondents from both the client and the contractors.

    Findings–Results suggest that the transition has resulted in a mix of design-bid-build and design-build ascontract type owing to issues when changing in a project-led organization. A change in vision also requires aconcomitant change in culture, systems and roles.

    Research Limitations/Implications–The study only includes cases from the Swedish transportinfrastructure sector, which limits the generalizability. Thefindings are also indicative owing to the smallnumber of cases.

    Practical Implications–Thefindings further our understanding of managing change in complexprojects, which might help practitioners to manage change in a more integrated way.

    Originality/Value–Thefindings enrich our understanding of the systemic change that a switch incontract types can have in inter-organizational complex projects such as transport infrastructure projects.Furthermore, it emphasizes the intricate task of change management in project-led organizations and itseffects on roles and responsibilities.

  • 7.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Feng, Kailun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande. Department of Construction Management, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    ‘Eco-Hauling’ Principles to Reduce Carbon Emissions and the Costs of Earthmoving: a Case Study2019Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 208, s. 479-489Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitigating emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is critical if we are to meet the increasing threats posed by global warming. Previous studies have shown conclusively that a substantial part of all carbon dioxide emissions comes from transportation, and that Eco-Driving principles based upon strategic, tactical, and operational decisions have the potential to reduce these emissions. However, these well-established principles have been neglected within the construction industry despite the large number of transport-related activities that attend most construction projects. This paper therefore aims to increase awareness and understanding within the industry of the potential reductions of both carbon dioxide emissions and the costs of earthmoving activities that could be achieved through the use of Eco-Driving principles. A new concept labeled ‘Eco-Hauling’, which extends the Eco-Driving concept to earthmoving, is proposed. A case study of a road project has been conducted and used to demonstrate the new concept. Discrete-event simulation is used to support the data analysis as it enables modeling of the dynamic interactions between equipment and activities of multiple different construction scenarios. The presented findings show that a combination of decisions taken from the proposed Eco-Hauling concept can enable earthmoving contractors to substantially reduce carbon dioxide emissions and costs while maintaining productivity. This study has implications for the general advancement of Eco-Driving theory, as well as for project management as it sets out a viable approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in construction projects.

  • 8.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Exploring the Case Study Usage in Construction Engineering and Management Research2017Ingår i: ICCREM 2017: Project Management and Construction Technology : Proceedings of the International Conference on Construction and Real Estate Management 2017 / [ed] Yaowu Wang, Yongshi Pang, Geoffrey Q. P. Shen, and Yimin Zhu,, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2017, s. 38-46Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Case studies have become more common and accepted among researchers across a wide array of academic disciplines including construction engineering and management (CEM) research. Among mainstream case study literature, the case study approach is seen primarily as a research method to be used in social sciences to study social phenomena. However, CEM is not considered a social science and construction engineering (CE) often do not study social phenomena. Instead, the field revolves around quantitative and engineering-based matters. This paper aims at studying the usage and characteristics of case studies in CEM research to determine if current literatures on case studies are sufficient for the field or if new approaches are needed. This is conducted through a quantitative inquiry into data from scientific databases and a qualitative analysis of several case study papers in the field of CEM. The results show that case studies are common in the field and in CE they often are used to demonstrate proposed frameworks or models. However, case study literature does not sufficiently describe this approach to case studies, which suggests that the literature needs to be complemented to meet the needs in CEM research.

  • 9.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Assessing Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Infrastructure Projects2015Ingår i: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 1156-1170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from construction processes are a serious concern globally. Of the several approaches taken to assess emissions, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based methods do not just take into account the construction phase, but consider all phases of the life cycle of the construction. However, many current LCA approaches make general assumptions regarding location and effects, which do not do justice to the inherent dynamics of normal construction projects. This study presents a model to assess the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions, which is specifically adapted to address the dynamics of infrastructure construction projects. The use of the model is demonstrated on the superstructure of a prefabricated bridge. The findings indicate that Building Information Models/Modeling (BIM) and Discrete Event Simulation (DES) can be used to efficiently generate project-specific data, which is needed for estimating the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions in construction settings. This study has implications for the advancement of LCA-based methods (as well as project management) as a way of assessing embodied energy and associated GHG emissions related to construction.

  • 10.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Shadram, Farshid
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    A Model for Assessing Embodied Energy and GHG Emissions in Infrastructure Projects2015Ingår i: ICCREM 2015: Environment and the Sustainable Building : proceedings of the 2015 international conference on construction and real estate management : August 11-12, 2015 Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Yaowu Wang; Thomas Olofsson; Geoffrey Qiping Shen; Yong Bai, Reston, Va: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2015, s. 1070-1077Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction and operation of buildings and infrastructure is a main contributor to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in Sweden. The embodied energy of construction, meaning all the energy that is used until the completion of the construction project (see Figure 1), cause roughly 10 million tones of CO2 equivalent emissions each year which equals to the emissions from all cars in Sweden (IVA 2014). About 6 million tones of CO2 equivalent emissions are attributed to the embodied energy of roads, railroads and other civil works while the remaining 4 million tones are attributed to the embodied energy of buildings (IVA 2014). Although reducing energy use and associated GHG-emissions in road and railroad construction is prioritized by the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket 2012), the GHG-emissions from such construction projects have increased in recent years (Boverket 2014). Many of the existing efforts to reduce energy use and associated GHG-emissions focus on individual phases of the life cycle and don’t take into consideration the effects at other stages during the whole life cycle of a project (Boverket 2011). A crucial step in the assessment of energy use and associated GHG-emissions is to clarify and categorize the different phases of a life cycle. Figure 1 shows a proposed categorization of life cycles phases and use of energy based on previous research (Davies et al. 2014). Buildings’ main use of energy happens during its operational phase from e.g. heating, lighting and use of electrical appliances (Sartori and Hestnes 2007). In infrastructure projects such as road construction the embodied energy is roughly equal to the operational energy for roads with lighting, or in fact considerably higher if the road lacks lighting (Stripple 2001).

  • 11.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Managing radical innovation in the Swedish infrastructure sector: A study of industrialized construction2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialized construction has been a key enabler for managing increasing customer demands and addressing low productivity problems in the house building industry. It has also been proposed as a solution for low productivity in the infrastructure construction sector, but diffusion has been slow. The focus in industrialized construction is on maximizing the efficiency of the whole production system by implementing both novel products and processes in a traditionally project-based industry. Hence, industrialized construction should be considered and managed as a radical innovation involving multiple stakeholders throughout the supply-chain. Thus, the purpose of the research underlying this thesis was to increase understanding of the management of radical innovation in the infrastructure sector, as exemplified by industrialized construction.To increase knowledge of the whole innovation process, an exploratory approach including both case studies and surveys was applied. A contractor perspective was adopted in an initial study, focusing on the development phase of industrialized construction. It revealed that industrialized construction is a comprehensive and multi-faceted activity that must be managed strategically rather than at a project level. However, early studies also revealed major challenges in the diffusion of the concept. Consequently, the research underpinning this thesis has also addressed the diffusion phase, which occurs in the Swedish infrastructure sector mostly in construction projects managed by a public client (often the Swedish Transport Administration, STA). Five studies were conducted during the course of the research, which have contributed insights into different aspects of the challenging management of radical innovation in the mature Swedish infrastructure sector.The findings reveal that the radical innovation process involves a clear separation between the development and diffusion phases, but these are strongly intertwined. They also show that the major role of public clients (especially STA) in management of the diffusion of innovations developed by contractors exacerbates difficulties of diffusing industrialized construction in the infrastructure sector. Both the client and contractor need to acknowledge the nature of industrialized construction as a radical innovation with two separate phases. The contractor, who drives the development phase of a radical innovation, must apply an appropriate process that addresses needs of stakeholders (both internal and external) who may affect the diffusion phase, while the client must act as a problem owner and facilitate diffusion, due to the strength of the client’s position. The findings further reveal major shortcomings in the current diffusion phase and show that procedures in Swedish infrastructure projects must be modified to facilitate increased diffusion of radical innovations such as industrialized construction. The STA has recognized the need to increase rates of innovation, both by initiating an innovation program and by increasing the rate of design-build contracts, to resolve the issue of low productivity. Diffusion of industrialized construction has been slow. However, the insights regarding management of the radical innovation process presented in this thesis could be beneficial for industry representatives seeking to raise rates of the implementation of such innovation. The thesis addresses various aspects of the radical innovation process and emphasizes the difficulty of diffusing innovations in the current industry climate. The more comprehensive understanding of the system thereby provided may increase the ability of stakeholders, especially the STA, to make appropriate long-term decisions to facilitate increases in productivity.

  • 12.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Mapping the concept of industrialized bridge construction: potentials and obstacles2013Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving productivity is a central challenge in most industries and so also in construction. In many countries, such as Great Britain and US (Egan, 1998; Huang et al., 2009; Teichholz, 2001), governmental reports and research publications have highlighted the slow growth of productivity in the construction industry. In Sweden the urgency of improving productivity and client satisfaction in the construction industry have initiated a number of government investigations (SOU, 2002; SOU, 2009; SOU, 2012).A recent investigation of government clients' actions to improve productivity and innovation in infrastructure projects have recommended better planning regarding the procurements of projects, increased amount of turnkey contracts and that the sector must become more industrialized. As a response, the Swedish Transportation Administration has launched a research and innovation program where an increased industrial mindset and standardization of products is on the agenda. With the exception of the process-based housing sector, increased industrialization has however been difficult to achieve in the project-based construction industry.The aim of the research is to find the most important parts and processes that can be industrialized to make bridge construction projects more efficient. Empirical data has been collected through questionnaire surveys, workshop and case studies. The data has resulted in four appended papers with focus on mapping the concept of industrialization. Each paper contributes to the aim, but focuses on different aspects of the concept.An interesting aspect of the empirical results from the research is the multi-facetted view practitioners and industry experts have on industrialization, a concept involving elements like prefabrication, standardization and processes. Many of the identified core elements of industrialization focus on processes (long-term) rather than projects (short-term). Some major barriers for industrialization are identified involving: lack of repetition possibilities, strict norms and rules, Design-bid-build contracts, government regulations, and the existing conservatism in the infrastructure sector. Interesting is that out of the five largest barriers, three could be traced back to the client role. As such, the clients (i.e. STA in Sweden) must address these barriers in order to enhance increased industrialization. Launch of the long-term research and innovation program by STA, where increased industrialization throughout the value chain and standardization of products are on the agenda, is a first step toward breaking down barriers, hence possibilities for increased productivity. Standardization of parts and products is shown to be a possible way of decreasing complexity related to on-site construction. Case studies have shown that massive saving in terms of time can be achieved utilizing prefabrication instead of traditional on-site construction. But standardization and prefabrication will not be more common as long as identified barriers like aesthetics issues and assumptions that quality is decreasing are available among practitioners. Also the small chances for large-scale production and repetitiveness are hindering standardized parts and products to be more commonly used.The general conclusion of this research is that massive savings in terms of time can be achieved when utilizing more industrialized methods and techniques during construction of concrete bridges, but barriers have to be dealt with before long-term productivity increases can be achieved.

  • 13.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Potenciál vývoje výstavby betonových mostu ve Svédsku2012Ingår i: Beton TKS, ISSN 1213-3116, nr 4, s. 92-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bridge construction in Sweden has been considered to have a clear potential for a development to a higher degree of industrialization and efficiency. Despite the availability of new techniques for concrete bridge construction, the tradition of on-site constructing with old methods still is the dominating construction method. To be able to describe, interpret and give an explanation to this phenomenon, this paper will investigate why new techniques are not commonly used. A comprehensive survey has been conducted and the result shows that codes, conservatism, short-term thinking and thoughts that the industry is unique are some of the reasons for slow development.

  • 14.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    A study of the future for concrete bridge construction in Sweden2011Ingår i: Nordic Concrete Research: Proceedings of the XXI Nordic Concrete Symposium, Hämeenlinna, Finland 2011, Oslo: The Nordic Concrete Federation , 2011, s. 533-536Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    The importance of hard project management and team motivation for construction project performance2018Ingår i: International Journal of Managing Projects in Business/Emerald, ISSN 1753-8378, E-ISSN 1753-8386, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 275-288Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Hard project management practices, based on strict planning and control, are traditionally applied in construction projects, although research frequently promotes the importance of teams for various project outcomes. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of hard project management and team motivation for process performance in construction projects. A hypothesis tested is that hard project management can impair process performance if team motivation is not promoted.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper presents and empirically tests a structural equation model, with and without a mediating link between hard project management and process performance, based on data from a survey of 2,175 respondents, representing contractors and clients involved in 109 Swedish construction projects.

    Findings

    The results confirm that hard project management is best conveyed through teams to enhance process performance. “Path analysis,” using the model with the mediating link, confirms that neglecting team motivation can significantly impair process performance.

    Research limitations/implications

    The data set provides unusually high representation of views of contractors and clients involved in diverse Swedish construction projects. Thus, the results have likely relevance in other project-based industries and/or national settings, but this possibility requires further investigation.

    Originality/value

    The findings show that team motivation is a key process performance factor; hard project management may indeed be important, but its effects will be enhanced by (and partially mediated through) team motivation. Thus, the findings have important theoretical and practical implications for the development of project management practices.

  • 16.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Simonsson, Peter
    Swedish Transport Administration Luleå.
    Erratum for “Leadership in Civil Engineering: Effects of Project Managers’ Leadership Styles on Project Performance” by Johan Larsson, Per Erik Eriksson, Thomas Olofsson, and Peter Simonsson2016Ingår i: Journal of Management in Engineering, ISSN 0742-597X, E-ISSN 1943-5479, Vol. 32, nr 4, artikel-id 8216001Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Simonsson, Peter
    Swedish Transport Administration Luleå.
    Industrialized construction in the Swedish infrastructure sector: core elements and barriers2014Ingår i: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, nr 1-2, s. 83-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving productivity and innovation is a central challenge in all industries, but particularly in construction where improvements have been slow. To meet this challenge, a recent investigation into the actions of Swedish government clients has recognized needs to improve planning during project procurement phases, increase numbers of turnkey contracts and raise industrialization of the sector. In response, the Swedish Transportation Administration has launched a research and innovation programme to foster an industrial approach and identify ways to increase the standardization of products and processes. However, increasing industrialization has been difficult to achieve in the project-based construction industry except in the process-based housing sector. Further, there has been little research on the concept of industrialized infrastructure construction and barriers to its implementation. Opinions and attitudes of clients, consultants and contractors in the infrastructure sector were investigated in relation to the core elements of industrialized construction, and the barriers hindering its development. Opportunities and obstacles related to both product and process standardization for continuous improvements and the relationships between clients and contractors are revealed. Hence, the implementation of industrialized construction requires tightly focused governance at the outset of projects and profound changes to established attitudes, norms and regulations

  • 18.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Simonsson, Peter
    Swedish Transport Administration Luleå.
    Leadership in Civil Engineering: Effects of Project Managers’ Leadership Styles on Project Performance2015Ingår i: Journal of Management in Engineering, ISSN 0742-597X, E-ISSN 1943-5479, Vol. 31, nr 6, artikel-id 4015011Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful completion of a construction project requires the ability to coordinate activities of numerous individuals participating in tasks that often have high levels of complexity and uncertainty. Thus, the project manager plays crucial roles, often setting the ground rules and fostering a collective approach that strongly influence project performance. However, there are uncertainties regarding various aspects of project managers’ influence, particularly related to their leadership style. Thus, the research reported in this paper explores the degrees to which leadership styles affect project outcome and specific leadership styles are appropriate in specific types of situations. The analysis is based on a questionnaire survey of views of 162 project managers employed by the largest public infrastructure client in Sweden. The results indicate that project performance (in terms of cost, time, and quality) is affected by leadership, suggesting that the project manager’s leadership style is a significant project success factor. Further, the results show that certain styles are appropriate in different situations, highlighting the importance of a contingency perspective

  • 19.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Simonsson, Peter
    Trafikverket.
    Increased innovation through change in early design procedures2016Ingår i: 19th IABSE Congress Strockholm 21-23 September 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative ans Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid, CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland, 2016, s. 685-692Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing industrial productivity and innovation is essential to meet needs to reduce lead times and costs. However, diffusion of systemic innovations in project-based industries (PBIs), such as the infrastructure sector, has proven difficult. The Swedish Transport Administration (STA) has unique opportunity to influence the degree of innovation in the sector, due to its strong position as the largest public client of infrastructure in Sweden. Therefore, the aims of an ongoing study reported here are to identify and evaluate challenges and requirements affecting the diffusion of innovation related to this key client. This is being done by examining relevant aspects of construction infrastructure projects executed via the pre-defined design procedure currently applied by STA. The results reveal that the procedure hampers diffusion since certain activities must be performed early, is applied indiscriminately to all types of projects, and hinders inter-organizational collaboration.

  • 20.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Larsson, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Success factors for managing innovation projects in productionIngår i: International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management (IJMTM), ISSN 1368-2148, E-ISSN 1741-5195Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Krantz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Discrete Event Simulation Analysis of Product and Process Platforms: A Bridge Construction Case Study2016Ingår i: Journal of construction engineering and management, ISSN 0733-9364, E-ISSN 1943-7862, Vol. 142, nr 4, artikel-id 4015097Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Product and process platforms have been promoted as possible enablers of increased productivity in civil engineering. However, such platforms are traditionally applied in mass manufacturing industries where production assets are employed in continuous production of uniform products, which strongly facilitates continuous improvement. The discontinuous nature of project-based production in civil engineering restricts such possibilities. Thus, if platforms are implemented there is a need for methods capable of evaluating the performance of integrated product and production process configurations in specific projects. A possibility, explored in this paper, is to use database-driven simulation. As a case study, a configurable simulation model, based on standardized process patterns and values stored in a platform, has been developed of the production for a bridge concept. The presented results provide evidence that database-driven simulation can support efficient platform evaluation and development by integrating product and process information, even in discontinuous, project-based industrial sectors. The results specifically demonstrate that this approach can be used to evaluate effects of different configurations of construction methods on working time requirements without time-consuming updates of models.

  • 22.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Platform concepts in bridge construction2014Ingår i: Computing in civil and building engineering: proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering : June 23-25, 2014, Orlando, Florida / [ed] Raymond Issa; Ian Flood, Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2014, s. 1473-1480Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving productivity and innovation is a central challenge in all industries, but particularly in construction where improvements have been slow. The Swedish Transportation Administration, the largest public client in Sweden, has launched a research and innovation program to increase productivity by foster an industrial approach and identify ways to increase the standardization of products and processes. The use of customizable platforms in bridge construction is in this paper explored as a tool for increasing the standardization. Especially the connection between the product and process platforms is exemplified using a developed bridge concept by a Swedish contractor. The development of modular platforms needs to consider which components and processes that can be specified (standardized) in advance and which that needs to be uniquely adapted to the specific project. Also, the encapsulation of knowledge in standardized design and construction modules in supporting platforms and configuration tools turn tacit personal know-how into formal explicit knowledge that can be managed and continuously improved by the construction company.

  • 23.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Simonsson, Peter
    Barriers and drivers for increased use of off-site bridge construction in Sweden2012Ingår i: Association of Researchers in Construction Management (ARCOM): Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference, 3-5 September, Edinburgh, Scotland / [ed] Simon Smith, Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2012, Vol. 2, s. 751-761Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is great pressure to change the civil engineering industry in Sweden, which is said not to follow efficiency growth other manufacturing sectors are achieving. This increases a demand for innovative construction methods and a growing industrialised thinking for sustainable construction. By implementing off-site manufacturing (OSM) into bridge construction, client satisfaction can increase, bridges can be constructed faster using less resource, and more bridges for the same invested capital can be realised. A questionnaire survey and a workshop have been undertaken partly to identify benefits and drawbacks for OSM in bridge construction and partly to study if OSM satisfies the client better than on-site construction. The outcome shows that drivers of OSM meet client needs better than on-site construction alternatives. Time, cost and working environment are large drivers, correlating well with previous surveys undertaken. However, quality, as in other surveys tend to stand out as a driver, is a barrier in comparison with on-site construction. This opinion may be due to both the generally negative views for OSM bridges in Sweden and also due to previous bad experiences. Despite these negative views, results show that the hypothesis of OSM being a better alternative for satisfying the client is true. To increase its market share, barriers like reduced quality and not aesthetically pleasing must be overcome. OSM bridges are to date a rare feature in Sweden, but by display the drivers, it could become a common construction method in Sweden.

  • 24.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Simonsson, Peter
    Decreasing complexity of the on-site construction process using prefabrication: a case study2012Ingår i: Proceedings IGLC-20: Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction, 18-20 July, San Diego, USA / [ed] Iris D Tommelein; Christine L Pasquire, 2012, s. 841-850Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Implementing prefabrication is by many seen as means to improve construction in terms of managing variability and productivity. However, regarding Swedish civil engineering works this has not been adequately documented to date. This case study uses Value Stream Mapping (VSM) to document the construction of a semi-prefabricated superstructure. The intention of the project is to investigate if the bridge construction process becomes less complex to manage and control when using prefabrication instead of traditional on-site construction.By relocating parts of traditional on-site construction to a factory, the time spent on site performing traditional work tasks such as constructing formwork, mounting and fixing of rebar and casting concrete, could be decreased. Nevertheless, mapping the process revealed shortcomings such as problems placing the prefabricated beams onto the on-site constructed plate structures and also that clear communication between actors tend to increase in importance when choosing prefabrication as construction method.Results from the VSM show that the semi-prefabricated superstructure, future state, became less complex compared to current state construction and also 75% quicker to construct on-site. By redesigning the bridge to eliminate some of the infant “diseases”, prefabrication will become more common in the future of small bridge construction in Sweden.

  • 25.
    Larsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Människa och teknik.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Sustainable Development in Project-Based Industries: Supporting the Realization of Explorative Innovation2018Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikel-id 683Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Both exploitative and explorative innovations are needed for sustainable developmentin any industry, but balancing the two types is a delicate matter, and exploitation tends to bestrongly prioritized in many industries. This is typically evident in project-based industries (PBIs), which are characterized by a fragmented supply chain and the delivery of one-off solutions in business projects. Realizing explorative innovations in this context is complex due to the need to transfer new knowledge between the organization developing the innovations and actors in inter-organizational business projects. The aim of this paper is to highlight areas in the management of explorative innovations developed outside business projects, to increase the understanding of where the specific market setting of PBIs might necessitate an adapted approach for successful realization. A case study of three innovation projects in organizations operating in PBIs have been conducted. The findings confirm that the major challenges lie in the transition between development project and business project. We highlight three aspects linked to this transition that require a flexible management approach: the assignation and acceptance of suitable responsibilities and roles, flexible support for the innovation process, and system acceptance. The findings may provide guidance for actors in PBIs strategically seeking to promote sustainable development, and provide foundations for further research to develop support for explorative innovation.

  • 26.
    Larsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Stahre, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Rönnbäck, Anna Öhrwall
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Innovation for competitive manufacturing2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports perspectives on values and contributions manufacturing innovation bring to meet increased competition in the current changing manufacturing climate. This is obtained through a multiple case study of three manufacturing innovations, mapping values from each case, and analysing how the innovations have contributed to each of the studied firm’s competitiveness. Results show that manufacturing innovation mainly addresses cost and time reductions, but also customer value, to gain competitive advantage and opportunities such as reaching new markets. However, other values such as social and environmental benefits are brought up, which also can be linked to emergent customer demands. The paper contributes to the research community and industry with a new approach to innovation in manufacturing, where global trends of today are taken into consideration.

  • 27.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Jensen, Patrik
    Design Evolution.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Product and Process Platforms in Transport Infrastructure Projects2016Ingår i: IABSE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid, CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland, 2016, s. 529-536Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction is traditionally a trade that produces unique, one-off products designed specifically according to the project requirements. However, recently developed flexible product and process platforms in industrialized house building based on the theory of mass customisation offer products that can be customized to a large extent with affordable costs. In this paper we present a framework for how a product and process platform can be developed and used in a traditional engineer-to-order design and construction of transport infrastructure products. The framework is exemplified in a case study, where a typical concrete bridge type is modularised and customized using a product configurator.  A database driven simulation model using process patterns and values stored in the platform, is then constructed to test the buildability of the bridge configuration. The results presented provide evidence that product and process platforms can support the design, and planning process of transport infrastructure projects, by integrating product and process information. The results specifically demonstrate how product configuration and database-driven simulation can be used to evaluate the effects of design alternatives and construction methods on performance measures such as productivity and environmental impact.

  • 28.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Role of Performance Feedback on Process Performance in Construction Projects: Client and Contractor Perspectives2018Ingår i: Journal of Management in Engineering, ISSN 0742-597X, E-ISSN 1943-5479, Vol. 34, nr 4, artikel-id 04018023Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addressed a perceived research gap by examining the role of performance feedback in construction process performance from both client and contractor perspectives using a database of unprecedented scale, with 2,175 sets of observations (expressed views of 579 clients and 1,596 contractors involved in diverse Swedish construction projects). Following validation of latent concepts by multigroup assessment of responses across the two groups (clients and contractors), using confirmatory factor analysis, this enabled robust tests of evidence of structural paths (potentially causal or mediating relationships) embedded in both groups’ responses. The results confirmed, with unprecedented clarity, that performance feedback has significant, direct positive effects on construction process performance, and that performance feedback mediates (i.e., strengthens) effects of learning and collaboration on process performance.

  • 29.
    Rwamamara, Romuald
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Simonsson, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Ojanen, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Advantages of industrialized methods used in small bridge construction2010Ingår i: Proceedings of IGLC-18: 18th Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction / [ed] Ken Walsh; Thais Alves, Haifa: Technion-Israel Institute of Technology , 2010, s. 569-579Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating to what extent industrialized production methods used during the steel reinforcement, formwork and concrete casting of small bridges are beneficial to the construction industry. The study evaluates the economical value of the construction of small bridges in terms of design and constructability from a production point of view. Moreover, the health and safety issues of the production processes are considered. The study method used is the internal documents study involved in the construction of the bridges. A comparison between data collected for previous studies on bridge construction projects and data collected from internal company documents will be performed. The study uses an economic analysis to evaluate alternative construction materials, assemblies, and bridge services with the objective to improve project planners or owners' decision making during the course of planning, designing and constructing a bridge. The use of bridge economic analysis to determine the most economically efficient choice among bridge design alternatives when it comes to steel reinforcement, formwork and concrete casting in regard to improved quality and working environment. The study discusses and offers recommendations for a cost effective bridge construction process which reduces waste in the production process and keeps the project schedule.

  • 30.
    Volker, Leentje
    et al.
    Department of Management in the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Kadefors, Anna
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    A case based comparison of the efficiency and innovation potential of integrative and collaborative procurement strategies2018Ingår i: Proceeding of the 34th Annual ARCOM Conference, ARCOM 2018 / [ed] Gorse, C. & Neilson, C.J., Association of Researchers in Construction Management (ARCOM), 2018, s. 515-524Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate and compare in what ways different types of integrative and collaborative procurement strategies may enhance efficiency and innovation in public infrastructure projects. Further, implementation challenges are identified and discussed. Interview-based case studies were performed of ten infrastructure projects in Sweden and the Netherlands. The projects involve four types of collaborative procurement strategies - collaborative Design-Build (DB) contracts, Early Contractor Involvement (ECI) agreements, Design-Build-Maintain (DBM) contracts and Design-Build-Finance-Maintain (DBFM) contracts. The findings indicate that the duration of the collaboration is fundamental in setting the limits for innovation and that early involvement as well as long-term commitments open up for more innovation. Naturally, the potential for increased efficiency is higher than for innovation and also occurs in collaborations with limited duration. These integrated project approaches, however, still appear to be in an early stage of learning. For a public repeat client to realise the full potential of a new strategy, it is important to have a long-term perspective and capabilities to analyse and learn from the experiences.

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