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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Laury, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Evaluating a constant-current load model through comparativetransient stability case studies of a synchronous-synchronous rotary frequencyconverter fed railway2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper continues the pursuit of getting a deeperunderstanding regarding the transient stability of lowfrequencyAC railway power systems operated at 162⁄3 Hzsynchronously to the public grid. The focus is set on theimpact of different load models. A simple constant-currentload model is proposed and compared to a previously proposedand studied load model in which the train’s activepower is regulated.The study and comparison is made on exactly the samecases as and grid as with the already proposed and moreadvanced load model. The railway grid is equipped witha low-frequency AC high-voltage transmission line whichis subjected to a fault. The study is limited to railwaysbeing fed by different distributions of RFC (Rotary FrequencyConverter) types. Both AT (auto transformer) andBT (booster transformer) catenaries are considered.The RFC dynamic models are essentially Anderson-Fouad models of two synchronous machines coupled mechanicallyby their rotors being connected to the same shaft.The differences in load behaviour between the proposedconstant-current load model and the previously proposedand studied voltage-dependent active power load model areanalyzed and described in the paper.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Laury, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Further studies on the transient stability of synchronous-synchronous rotary frequency converter fed railways with low-frequency AC high-voltage transmission2018In: International Journal of Energy Production and Management, ISSN 2056-3272, E-ISSN 2056-3280, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 266-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper continues the pursuit of getting a deeper understanding regarding the transient stability of low-frequency AC railway power systems operated at 16 2/3 Hz that are synchronously connected to the public grid. Here, the focus is set on such grids with a low-frequency AC high-voltage transmission line subject to a fault. The study here is limited to railways being fed by different distributions of Rotary Frequency Converter (RFC) types. Both auto transformer (AT) and booster transformer (BT) catenaries are considered. No mixed model configurations in the converter stations (CSs) are considered in this study. Therefore, only interactions between RFCs in different CSs and between RFCs, the fault, and the load can take place in this study. The RFC dynamic models are essentially two Anderson-Fouad models of synchronous machines coupled mechanically by their rotors being connected to the same mechani- cal shaft. Besides the new cases studied, also a new voltage-dependent active power load model is presented and used in this study.

  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Serrano Jimenez, Daniel
    University Carlos III.
    Laury, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    AC cables strengthening railway low frequency AC power supplysystems2017In: ASME/IEEE 2017 Joint Rail Conference, ASME Press, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In present-day railway power supply systems using an AC frequency lower than the one in the public power system of 50/60 Hz, high voltage overhead transmission lines are used as one measure of strengthening the railway power supply system grids. This option may be economically beneficial, compared to strengthening the grid purely by increasing the density of converter stations or increasing the cross section areas of the overhead catenary wires. High voltage AC transmission lines in the railway power supply system allow larger distances between converter stations than would otherwise be possible for a given amount of train traffic. Moreover, the introduction of AC transmission lines implies reduced line losses and reduced voltage level fluctuations at the catenary for a given amount of train traffic. However, due to the increased public and government resistance for additional overhead high voltage AC transmission lines in general, different alternatives will be needed for the future improvements and strengthening of railway power systems. For a more sustainable transport sector, the share and amount of railway traffic needs to increase, in which case such a strengthening becomes inevitable. Earlier, usage of VSC-HVDC transmission cables has been proposed as one alternative to overhead AC transmission lines. One of the main benefits with VSC-HVDC transmission is that control of power flows in the railway power systems is easier and that less converter capacity may be needed. Technically, VSC-HVDC transmission for railway power systems is a competitive solution as it offers a large variety of control options. However, there might be other more economical alternatives reducing the overall impedance in the railway power system. In public power systems with the frequency of 50/60 Hz, an excess of reactive power production in lowly utilized cables imposes an obstacle in replacing overhead transmission lines with cables. In low frequency AC railway power system, the capacitive properties are less significant allowing longer cables compared to 50/60 Hz power systems. Moreover, in converter-fed railways, some kind of reactive compensation will automatically be applied during low-load. At each converter station, voltage control is already present following the railway operation tradition. Therefore, in this paper, we propose AC cables as a measure of strengthening low-frequency AC railway power systems. The paper compares the electrical performances of two alternative reinforcement cable solutions with the base case of no reinforcement. The options of disconnecting or toggling the cables at low load as well as the automatic reactive compensation by converter voltage control are considered. Losses and voltage levels are compared for the different solutions. Investment costs and other relevant issues are discussed.

  • 4.
    Laury, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Stability of Low-Frequency AC Railways: Models and Transient Stability2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-frequency AC railway grids are unique in the sense that a only few countries around the world uses them, still however, they are an important parts of their countries infrastructures. Due to the usage of a dierent frequency than the public grid of the country, conversion of frequency is needed for the interconnection. The frequency conversion is done by machine based rotary frequency converters or power electronic based static frequency converters.

    When reinforcing with new power conversion capacity, mostly static frequency converters are installed since rotary frequency converters for railways have not been manufactured for some time. As more static frequency converterare introduced, the share of rotary frequency converters is reduced. It is not well explored how the stability of low-frequency AC railways is affected with a large share of static frequency converters.

    In this thesis, the main goal has been to obtain knowledge of the stability of low-frequency AC railway grids, with focus on synchronous ones. The electromechanical stability of a synchronous low-frequency AC railway is explored through numerical simulations, where the transient stability is the main focus.

    The main contributions of this thesis is proposing a model of a rotary frequency converter, proposing a model of a static frequency converter, and transient stability simulations. The model of the rotary frequency converter uses established machine models, whereas the static frequency converter model has been developed with help of measurements. It can be concluded that the proposed static frequency converter model captures the main behaviour of the measurements of a static frequency converter.

    The transient stability of synchronous AC railway grids is studied, through numerical simulations. The studied cases are for instance dierent railway grid congurations with dierent types rotary frequency converters and railway grids with mixes of static frequency converters and static frequency converter.

    The main conclusion is that the rotary frequency converter fed synchronous railway grids studied are transiently stable, and the studied railway grids where rotary frequency converters are gradually replaced with static frequency converter are also transiently stable. However, it was found that the studied railway grids obtain a heavier oscillatory behaviour when there is a mix of rotary frequency converters and static frequency converters.

  • 5.
    Laury, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Transient Stability in Low Frequency Railways with Mixed Electronic and Rotational Generation2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transient stability concerns the ability of a power system to maintain synchronism after a large disturbance. Transient stability plays an important role in guaranteeing operational security and reliability and has been extensively studies for large 50 Hz and 60 Hz transmission systems. However, transient stability of low frequency railway grids has not been properly investigated.As low frequency railway grids operate at another frequency than the public grid, conversion of frequency is needed. This conversion is performed by Rotary Frequency Converters or by Static Frequency Converters. These two types of converters have a different impact on stability. In this thesis, the overall aim is to obtain knowledge on transient stability in low frequency railway grids, with focus on the Swedish synchronous-synchronous railway grid with a mix of Rotary and Static Frequency Converters.The transient stability problem is approached by developing a simplified model of a Static Frequency Converter that can be used for the stability studies in low frequency railways. The Static Frequency Converter is modelled as single phase generator with an equivalent inertia and damping. However as Static Frequency converters cannot handle currents much above their ratings, current limitation is implemented. The current limitation is needed to avoid unnecessary tripping of the converter during fault or other high current situations. With the model developed for a Static Frequency Converter and with a simplified model of a Rotary Frequency Converter, transient stability studies have been performed for several test systems representing the Swedish railway grid.The simulations performed shows the appearance of power oscillations after a large disturbance, between a Static Frequency Converter and a Rotary Frequency Converter when these are operating in parallel. The simulations also showed that the systems studied were stable for realistic values of the fault-clearing time.

  • 6.
    Laury, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    A rotary frequency converter model for electromechanical transient studies of 16 (2/3) Hz railway systems2019In: International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, ISSN 0142-0615, E-ISSN 1879-3517, Vol. 106, p. 467-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway power systems operating at a nominal frequency below the frequency of the public grid (50 or 60 Hz) are special in many senses. One is that they exist in a just few countries around the world. However, for these countries such low frequency railways are a critical part of their infrastructure.

    The number of published dynamic models as well as stability studies regarding low frequency railways is small, compared to corresponding publications regarding 50 Hz/60 Hz public grids. Since there are two main type of low frequency railways; synchronous and asynchronous, it makes the number of available useful publications even smaller. One important reason for this is the small share of such grids on a global scale, resulting in less research and development man hours spent on low frequency grids.

    This work presents an open model of a (synchronous-synchronous) rotary frequency converter for electromechanical stability studies in the phasor domain, based on established synchronous machine models. The proposed model is designed such that it can be used with the available data for a rotary frequency converter.

    The behaviour of the model is shown through numerical electromechanical transient stability simulations of two example cases, where a fault is cleared, and the subsequent oscillations are shown. The first example is a single-fed catenary section and the second is doubly-fed catenary section.

  • 7.
    Laury, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Modified voltage control law for low frequency railway power systems2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE/ASME Joint Rail Conference, ASME Press, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's Swedish and Norwegian low frequency railway power system the voltage at a converter is controlled such that its voltage will drop with increased reactive power output. However, for low frequency railways the influence of active power on voltage is larger compared to public power systems and alternative methods are interesting to investigate. This paper presents a modified voltage control law for increased load sharing between converter stations and reduce the risk for converter overload in low frequency railways power systems. The modified voltage control law is derived mathematically and tested with different droops for two case studies. The results confirms the increased load sharing between the converter stations. The results are analysed and discussed; ideas are presented to counteract some of the negative impacts of the modified voltage control law

  • 8.
    Laury, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Transient Stability of a Rotary Frequency Converter fed railway, interconnected with a parallel low frequency high voltage transmission system2018In: WIT Transactions on the Built Environment, ISSN 1746-4498, E-ISSN 1743-3509, Vol. 181, p. 15-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using low frequency High Voltage Transmission systems (HV-T) in parallel with the catenary systemstrengthens the railway system by reducing the total impedance of the railway grid. A consequence ofthe reduced impedance is that converter stations are electrically closer to each other.Inside a converter station, different types of Rotary Frequency Converters (RFCs) are used. It is not wellexplored how different RFCs behaves and interacts with each other during and after a large disturbance,like a short circuit.The dynamics of an RFC are modelled by using the Andersson-Fouad model of a synchronous machine.The study presented in this paper investigates interactions inside and between converter stations, withdifferent types of RFC, for an HV-T system in parallel with a Booster Transformer catenary system.The numerical simulation results show, for instance, that the main power oscillation take place inside aconverter station with mixed configuration of RFC type after fault clearance.

  • 9.
    Laury, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Transient stability of rotary frequency converter fed low frequency railway grids: The Impact of Different Grid Impedances and Different Converter Station Configurations2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One method of strengthening low frequency AC railway grids is to upgrade Booster Transformer (BT) catenary systems, to Auto Transformer (AT) catenary systems. An AT catenary system has lower equivalent impedance compared to a BT system. Thus, an upgrade makes the existing converter stations electrically closer.

    Converter stations may have different types of Rotary Frequency Converters (RFCs) installed in them, and it is not well explored how different RFCs behaves and interact during and after a large disturbance.

    Using the Anderson-Fouad model of synchronous machines to describe the dynamics of RFCs, several case studies have been performed through numerical simulations. The studies investigate the interactions within and between converter stations constituted with different RFC types, for BT as well AT catenary systems.

    The numerical studies reveal that replacing BT with AT catenary systems, results in a more oscillatory system behaviour. This is seen for example in the power oscillations between and inside converter stations, after fault clearance.

  • 10.
    Laury, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Multi-machine transient stability for railways2015In: Computers in Railways XIV Special Contributions: Railway Engineering Design and Optimization / [ed] C.A. Beribba, Southampton: WIT Press, 2015, Vol. 155Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This papers concern the replacement of Static Frequency Converters (SFC) by Rotary Frequency Converters (RFC) in Railway Power Supply Systems (RPSS) operating at 16⅔ Hz. There is a need to investigate how such a system behaves with only one or with a small number of RFCs. This is of great importance as SFCs do not contribute to the inertia of the RPSS. Thus, the remaining RFCs have to keep the stability during a large disturbance.Few studies investigate the stability of a RPSS and most of them study only the behaviour of a RFC in a converter station against an infinite bus. However, there are very few studies investigating a system with several RFCs in converter stations. Against this background, the aim of this paper is to present the results of a multi-machine transient stability study with several RFCs. Different cases have been investigated: regenerative braking of a train; a fault in the overhead contact line and a fault in the parallel 132 kV line.For the investigated cases the system with RFCs is stable but oscillations in the rotor angle swing occur due to no damping being modelled in the system.

  • 11.
    Laury, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Transient stability analysis of low frequency railway grids2016In: WIT Transactions on the Built Environment, ISSN 1746-4498, E-ISSN 1743-3509, Vol. 162, p. 213-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the replacement of Rotary Frequency Converters(RFCs) with Static Frequency Converters (SFCs) in the Swedish synchronous-synchronous Railway Power Supply System (RPSS) operating at1623Hz. Thereis a need to investigate how such a system behaves when RFCs are partly replacedwith SFCs, as the SFCs do not have any physical inertia.Most of the transient stability studies published for synchronous-synchronousRPSS address the behaviour of a single RFC or SFC against an infinite bus.However, there are very few studies investigating a system with several RFCs,SFCs or a mix of both in the same converter station. This paper presents the resultsof a transient stability study with both RFCs and SFCs. The investigated casesconsist of faults at different locations, and present the results when an RFC isreplaced with an SFC in a converter station.

  • 12.
    Laury, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Östlund, Stefan
    Some benefits of a HVDC feeder solution for railways2014Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 12 of 12
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