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  • 1.
    Bark, Glenn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Life cycle assessment of European copper mining: Aims of the SUPRIM project and difficulties in dealing with geologically complex ore deposits2019In: p. 8-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Gumsley, Ashley P.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Chamberlain, Kevin R.
    University of Wyoming.
    Bleeker, Wouter
    Geological Survey of Canada.
    Söderlund, Ulf
    Lund University.
    de Kock, Michiel O.
    University of Johannesburg.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    Lund University.
    Larsson, Emilie R.
    Lund University.
    Bekker, Andrey
    University of Johannesburg.
    The timing of the Palaeoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event using Dykes, Sills and Volcanics of the Ongeluk Large Igneous Province, Kaapvaal Craton2016In: Acta Geologica Sinica, ISSN 1000-9515, E-ISSN 1755-6724, Vol. 90, no S1, p. 67-68Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Gumsley, Ashley Paul
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Chamberlain, Kevin
    University of Wyoming.
    Bleeker, Wouter
    Geological Survey of Canada.
    Söderlund, Ulf
    Lund Universitet, Department of Geology, GeoBiosphere Science Centre, Lund University.
    Kock, Michiel Olivier de
    University of Johannesburg.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    Lund Universitet.
    Larsson, Emilie
    Lund Universitet.
    U-Pb TIMS and in-situ SIMS dating of baddeleyite and zircon from sub-volcanic sills of the Ongeluk Formation (Transvaal Supergroup) in the Griqualand West sub-basin, Kaapvaal Craton, with implications for Snowball Earth and the Great Oxygenation Event2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Great Oxygenation Event (GOE) in the Paleoproterozoic coincides with a complex series of glacial episodes preserved in supracrustal successions on the world’s cratons. These Paleoproterozoic glacial rocks are bracketed in age between 2.46 and 2.22 Ga, based on the glacial record in the Huronian Supergroup on the Superior Craton in Canada). In southern Africa, the cover successions of the western Kaapvaal Craton preserve possible glacial correlatives of the Huronian Supergroup in the Griqualand West sub-basin of the Transvaal Supergroup. This potential correlative is the glacial diamictites of the Makganyene Formation. The Makganyene Formation is in turn conformably overlain by the Ongeluk Formation, a series of subaqueous mafic volcanic rocks with a putative age of ca. 2.22 Ga. However, both local and global correlations using glacial units of the Transvaal and Huronian supergroups are hampered by a lack of robust well-placed geochronological data. The timing of the Ongeluk Formation itself has been challenged. Here, the sub-volcanic sills of the Ongeluk volcanic rocks have been dated using U-Pb in-situ SIMS analysis on baddeleyite to ca. 2.43 Ga. This has been coupled with ID TIMS dating and paleomagnetism studies on the coeval Westerberg Sill Suite. This suggests that the Ongeluk Formation volcanic rocks, and the immediately underlying Makganyene Formation glacial deposits, are approximately 200 Myr older than generally assumed. These new ages lend support to three glacial epochs around the GOE, of which the first was low-latitude in the Makganyene Formation. The Makganyene diamictites could correlate to diamictites from the Duitsland Formation in the more eastern Transvaal sub-basin of the Transvaal Supergroup, with a significant revision of regional stratigraphic correlations, that is in itself not without challenges. In such a scenario, the Ongeluk volcanic rocks could be correlated with the Bushy Bend volcanics, and not the ≤ 2.25 Ga Hekpoort Formation volcanics. This new magmatic event may be linked with the evolution of the Vaalbara continent, the Kenorland supercontinent, and global environmental changes related to magmatism and weathering in the Paleoproterozoic Era.

  • 4.
    Hansen, Jonathan
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Development Centre X-ray Technology EZRT, Fürth Germany.
    Voland-Salamon, Virginia
    Fraunhofer Development Centre X-ray Technology EZRT, Fürth Germany.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Firsching, Markus
    Fraunhofer Development Centre X-ray Technology EZRT, Fürth Germany.
    Samodviga, Oleksiy
    Fraunhofer Development Centre X-ray Technology EZRT, Fürth Germany.
    Ennen, Alexander
    Fraunhofer Development Centre X-ray Technology EZRT, Fürth Germany.
    Uhlmann, Norman
    Fraunhofer Development Centre X-ray Technology EZRT, Fürth Germany.
    Sensor fusion and correlation of X-ray tomography and XRF data for drill core analysis2019In: International Symposium on Digital Industrial Radiology and Computed Tomography – DIR2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    State of the art analysis techniques on drill cores for exploration purposes, including X-ray fluorescence (XRF), laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) or Raman spectroscopy are used to derive mineralogical information. Since this sensor data corresponds to materials that occur on the surface of the core, inclusions (e.g. diamonds) cannot be detected. In addition, information outside of the measurement position is not taken into account and may lead to misinterpretation or the miss of certain elements. X-ray computed tomography (CT) and radioscopy provide data about the entire sample as well as inlying structures based on X-ray absorption. As a drawback, CT is time-consuming and the material information is not explicit.For the enhancement of geological interpretation, we propose to apply sensor data fusion techniques in order to unite both depth information as well as reliable material data information from surface measurement techniques. This leads to more substantial information of the drill core.For further insights in the feasibility we investigate the correlation of XRF data at varying abstraction levels with CT data, i.e. grey value information.The applied XRF technique involves the fact that the data is not acquired continuously but discrete point by point. This is accompanied by the circumstance that the spatial resolution of the acquired data has a different magnitude than the CT-data. Both facts result in the challenge to register the XRF data coming from a one-dimensional scan line with a micro-CT volume. The experiments must be planned in a way that location and orientation of the scan data are well-known and reproducible.In the experiments, the acquired and registered data of a defined drill core is analysed with respect to correlation and fusion capability. The experimental setup will be presented and results will be discussed.

  • 5.
    Jansson, Nils F.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kampmann, Tobias C.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Contrasting fluid types involved in the genesis of ca. 1.89 Ga, syngenetic polymetallic sulfide deposits, Falun and Zinkgruvan, Bergslagen, Sweden2017In: Mineral Resources to Discover / [ed] Mercier Langevin, P; Dube, B; Bardoux, M; Ross, PS; Dion, C, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits , 2017, p. 613-616Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metamorphosed polymetallic sulfide deposits in Bergslagen, Sweden, are currently divided into 1: Strata bound volcanic-associated limestone-skarn Zn-Pb-Ag-CuAu sulfide deposits (SVALS) and 2: Stratiform ash-siltstonehosted Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide deposits (SAS). It has not been completely resolved if these deposit types formed from similar hydrothermal fluids. Recent investigations at the Falun SVALS deposit and the Zinkgruvan SAS deposit suggest that fluids of contrasting pH, fO(2), salinity and T were involved in their origin. Whereas Falun formed by cooling and neutralization of acidic (pH<4), hot (300-400 C) and reducing fluids carrying metals and sulfur together, Zinkgruvan formed by reduction of oxidized brines at a near-neutral pH. Falun is a vent-proximal, synvolcanic carbonate-replacement deposit with similarities to VMS and skarn deposits, whereas Zinkgruvan is a post-volcanic, exhalative deposit with similarities to some SEDEX deposits. Our results suggest that the different character of SVALS and SAS deposits in part are functions of fundamental differences in fluid chemistry, controls on sulfide precipitation and relationship to volcanism.

  • 6.
    Jansson, Nils
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Contrasting fluid types involved in the genesis of ca. 1.89 Ga, syngenetic polymetallic sulfide deposits, Falun and Zinkgruvan, Bergslagen, Sweden2017In: Mineral Resources to Discover: Proceedings of the 14th SGA Biennial Meeting, Québec City, Canada, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits , 2017, Vol. 2, p. 613-616Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metamorphosed polymetallic sulfide deposits in Bergslagen, Sweden, are currently divided into 1: Stratabound volcanic-associated limestone-skarn Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu-Au sulfide deposits (SVALS) and 2: Stratiform ash-siltstone hostedZn-Pb-Ag sulfide deposits (SAS). It has not been completely resolved if these deposit types formed from similar hydrothermal fluids. Recent investigations at the Falun SVALS deposit and the Zinkgruvan SAS deposit suggest that fluids of contrasting pH, ƒO2, salinity and Twere involved in their origin. Whereas Falun formed by cooling and neutralization of acidic (pH<4), hot (300-400ºC) and reducing fluids carrying metals and sulfur together, Zinkgruvan formed by reduction of oxidized brines at a near-neutral pH. Falun is a vent-proximal, synvolcanic carbonate-replacement deposit with similarities to VMS and skarn deposits, whereas Zinkgruvan is a post-volcanic, exhalative deposit with similarities to some SEDEX deposits. Our results suggest that the different character of SVALS and SAS deposits in part are functions of fundamental differences in fluid chemistry, controls on sulfide precipitation and relationship to volcanism.

  • 7.
    Kampmann, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Age, Origin and Tectonothermal Modification of the Falun Pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) Sulphide Deposit, Bergslagen, Sweden: Supplementary data tables2017Data set
  • 8.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    3D structural framework and constraints on the timing of hydrothermal alteration and ore formation at the Falun Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit, Bergslagen, Sweden2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit, situated in the Palaeoproterozoic (1.9–1.8 Ga) Bergslagen lithotectonic unit in the south-western part of the Fennoscandian Shield, is one of the major base and minor precious metal sulphide deposits in Sweden. Host rocks to the deposit as well as the ores and altered rocks were metamorphosed and affected by heterogeneous ductile strain during the Svecokarelian orogeny the total duration of which was 2.0–1.8 Ga. These processes both reworked the mineral assemblages of the original hydrothermal alteration system and reshaped the structural geometry of the deposit, following formation of the ores and the associated hydrothermal alteration.In order to study primary geological and ore-forming processes at Falun, it is necessary firstly to investigate the nature of the tectonothermal modification. In this licentiate thesis, a three-dimensional modelling approach is used in order to evaluate geometric relationships between lithologies at the deposit. This study demonstrates the polyphase character (D1 and D2) of the strong ductile deformation at Falun. The major rock-forming minerals in the silicate alteration rocks are quartz, biotite/phlogopite, cordierite, anthophyllite, chlorite, and minor almandine and andalusite. On the basis of microstructural investigations, it is evident that these minerals grew during distinct periods in the course of the tectonic evolution, with major static grain growth between D1 and D2, and also after D2. Furthermore, the occurrence of F2 sheath folds along steeply south-south-east plunging axes is suggested as a key deformation mechanism, forming cylindrical, rod-shaped ore bodies which pinch out at depth. The sheath folding also accounts for the same stratigraphic level (footwall) on both the eastern and western sides of the massive sulphide ores. A major, sulphide-bearing high-strain zone defines a tectonic boundary at the deposit and bounds the massive sulphide ores to the north.The geological evolution in the Falun area involved emplacement of felsic sub-volcanic intrusive and volcanic rocks and some carbonate sedimentation; followed by hydrothermal alteration, ore formation and the intrusion of dykes and plutons of variable composition after burial of the supracrustal rocks. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb (zircon) geochronology of key lithologies in and around the Falun base metal sulphide deposit indicates a rapid sequence of development of different magmatic pulses with individual age determinations overlapping within their uncertainties. The intense igneous activity, as well as the feldspar-destructive hydrothermal alteration and ore formation are constrained by two 207Pb-206Pb weighted average (zircon) ages of 1894 ± 3 Ma for a sub-volcanic host rock not affected by this type of alteration and 1891 ± 3 Ma for a felsic dyke, which cross-cuts the hydrothermally altered zone and is also unaffected by this alteration. All other ages, including the granitic plutonic rocks, fall in the interval between these ages.The lithological, structural and geochronological observations have implications for the environment and the conditions of ore formation at the Falun deposit. Several aspects argue for an ore system resembling a classic volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) system in terms of type of alteration, metal zonation, the pyritic character of massive sulphides and an inferred vent-proximal location in relation to the convection-driving magmatic system. The bowl-shaped, sub-seafloor feeder part of such a system might have served as an initial inhomogeneity in the strata for the later development of strong stretching along steep axes and sheath fold formation during ductile strain. Possible discordant relationships along the margins of the massive sulphide ores, coupled with the syn-magmatic, pre-tectonic timing of ore formation are in accordance with a general VMS-type model for the Falun base metal sulphide deposit. These results provide a compromise solution to the previous debate around two opposing models of strictly syn-genetic vs. epigenetic, post-deformational carbonate-replacement processes for ore formation at the deposit.

  • 9.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Lund University.
    Age, origin and tectonothermal modification of the Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit, Bergslagen, Sweden2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit, situated in the Palaeoproterozoic (1.9–1.8 Ga) Bergslagen lithotectonic unit in the south-western part of the Fennoscandian Shield, is one of the major base and precious metal sulphide deposits in Sweden. Felsic volcanic rocks and limestone hosting the deposit, as well as their hydrothermally altered equivalents and the mineralization, were affected by heterogeneous ductile strain and metamorphism under low-pressure, lower amphibolite-facies conditions during the Svecokarelian orogeny (2.0–1.8 Ga). These processes reworked the mineral assemblages of the original hydrothermal system and the mineralization, and also reshaped the structural geometry of the deposit.

    A three-dimensional modelling approach has been used in order to evaluate geometric relationships between lithologies at the deposit. The polyphase character (D1 and D2) of the strong ductile deformation at Falun is apparent. The main rock-forming minerals in the altered silicate-rich rocks are quartz, biotite and anthophyllite with porphyroblasts of cordierite and garnet, as well as retrogressive chlorite. Major static grain growth occurred between D1 and D2, inferred to represent the peak of metamorphism, as well as after D2 with growth (or recrystallization) of anthophyllite. A major shear zone with chlorite, talc and disseminated sulphides bounds the pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-rich massive sulphide mineralization to the north, the latter being surrounded elsewhere by disseminated to semi-massive Cu-Au mineralization. F2 sheath folding along axes plunging steeply to the south-south-east is suggested as a key deformation mechanism, accounting for the cone-shaped mineralized bodies, which pinch out at depth, and explaining the similar character of intensely altered rocks on all sides of the massive sulphide mineralization. Immobile-element lithogeochemistry suggests that they share a common volcanic precursor. These relationships are consistent with a model in which the pyritic massive sulphide mineralization is located in the core of a sheath fold structure, surrounded by the same altered stratigraphic footwall rocks with Cu-Au mineralization.

    The geological evolution in the metavolcanic inlier that hosts the Falun deposit, constrained by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U–Pb (zircon) geochronology, involved emplacement of a felsic volcanic and sub-volcanic rock suite at 1894±3 Ma, followed by hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Subsequent burial and intrusion of late- to post-mineralization dykes occurred between 1896±3 Ma and 1891±3 Ma, followed by further burial and emplacement of plutons with variable composition during the time span 1894±3 Ma to 1893±3 Ma. The age determinations for all these magmatic suites overlap within their uncertainties, indicating a rapid sequence of continuous burial and different magmatic pulses. A metamorphic event, herein dated at 1831±8 Ma and 1822±5 Ma (SIMS U–Pb monazite), falls in the age range of a younger Svecokarelian metamorphic episode (M2). U-Th-Pb isotope systematics in monazite was completely reset during this event.

    During hydrothermal alteration and mineralization, a hot, reducing and acidic fluid carrying metals and sulphur together flowed upward along syn-volcanic faults, leading to intense chloritization, sericitization and silicification of calc-alkaline volcanic rocks in the stratigraphic footwall to the deposit. This resulted in proximal siliceous associations including Fe-rich chlorite, and dominant Mg-rich chlorite and sericite in more peripheral parts. Cu-Au stockwork mineralization formed in the siliceous core of the hydrothermal system as result of fluid cooling. Neutralization of the metal-bearing fluids upon carbonate interaction stratigraphically higher in the sub-seafloor regime led to formation of Zn-Pb-Cu-rich massive sulphide mineralization, the space for which was created by a combination of carbonate dissolution, primary porosity in the overlying volcanic rocks and secondary porosity produced during syn-volcanic faulting. A hybrid model for mineralization is suggested by alteration styles, metal zoning and textures indicating replacement of carbonate rock or highly porous pumice breccia by pyritic massive sulphide. Aspects of a sub-seafloor volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) system and carbonate replacement are both present. Partly Zn-Pb-(Ag) mineralized skarns comprise a separate and subordinate type of mineralization, probably formed after burial of the hydrothermal system to the contact-metasomatic regime.

    Textures and microstructures in the massive sulphide mineralization indicate that the ductile deformation and metamorphism resulted in internal mechanical and chemical remobilization of sulphide minerals. Laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis of the main sulphide minerals suggests, for example, that trace elements (including Au) were liberated from pyrite during metamorphism. A system of auriferous quartz veins, affected by D2 ductile strain, occurs in intensely altered and mineralized rocks on the eastern side of the deposit. It is suggested that they formed after the peak of metamorphism and prior to the completion of the D2 tectonic event, as a result of fluid-assisted remobilization of sulphides and Au in the disseminated to semi-massive Cu-Au mineralization and possibly also the massive sulphide mineralization.

  • 10.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Djupt nere i Falu Gruva: Hur det går till att leta efter värdefulla mineral.2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Life cycle assessment in mining: Assembling the necessary data (SUPRIM WP3)2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    MINERS – Ett nätverk för doktorander inom gruv- och prospekteringsrelaterad forskning i Sverige2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ny mineralutställning på gång2019In: Geologiskt Forum, ISSN 1104-4721, Vol. 101, p. 9-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    På Luleå tekniska universitet håller vi just nu på med att skapa en modern mineralutställning som visar den geologiska forskningen vid universitetet, men som också ska väcka intresse för prospektering och industriprocesser kopplade till mineral och metallurgi.

  • 14.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sustainability assessment: Data concerns of geoscientists2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    The Falun deposit – genetic constraints from geology, geochemistry and U-Pb isotope systematics2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Towards better collaboration in geomodel visualization: The Visual3D network of infrastructure2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Sanjuan-Delmás, David
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Lindblom, Mats
    Boliden Mineral AB, Sweden.
    Life cycle assessment of European copper mining: A case study from Sweden2019In: Proceedings of the 15th SGA Biennial Meeting, 27-30 August 2019, Glasgow, Scotland: Life with Ore Deposits on Earth, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits , 2019, Vol. 4, p. 1577-1580Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology in the mining sector has the potential to evaluate the environmental sustainability of the primary production of metals. As part of a wider project on developing LCA models and methods for mining, life cycle inventory (LCI) data have been collected at two European copper-producing mine sites, Aitik (Sweden) and Cobre las Cruces (Spain). Results from Aitik, including their impact analysis, identify the use of diesel and explosives, the emission of sulfur dioxide, as well as nitrogen and other emissions in the upstream supply chain of explosives and electricity, as significant contributors to the environmental impact. These outputs have influence on the impact categories Climate Change, Photochemical Ozone Formation, Acidification, as well as Terrestrial and Marine Eutrophication. Due to the increasing incorporation of LCA into legislative demands on the mining sector, mining companies need to establish the necessary infrastructure and framework to be able to provide the required data in a fast, transparent and cost-efficient manner. For this reason, some recommendations to improve communication and data management within the companies have been established from the experience gained within this project.

  • 18.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bauer, Tobias E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Visual3D: A European network of infrastructure with focus on 3D/4D geomodelling2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the territory of the EU in many parts shows a very high exploration potential and many EU countries remain attractive to investors (e.g. Fraser Institute, 2015), a mere 4% of global exploration expenditure is currently invested within European countries. One tool to trigger a higher degree of investment in exploration and to secure the domestic supply of both main commodities and critical raw materials (CRM) is to enhance our three-dimensional geometric understanding of the Earth’s crust.

    For these reasons, EIT Raw Materials decided to fund a network of infrastructure (NoI) –Visual3D – for three years (2017–2019). Visual3D involves to-date 14 partner organisations from nine EU countries. The NoI aims to integrate expertise within exploration and 3D modelling from industry, academia and research institutes, with the ambition to increase the understanding of geological bodies in 3D and 4D through improved visualisation techniques.

    During its first year, Visual3D has worked to identify common issues in the field of geomodelling, the solutions to which may be facilitated by a Pan-European network approach:

    1. Data compatibility. The vast majority of European mining companies are currently working with 3D solutions for mine planning, resource estimation and production, utilizing a vast variety of expert programs (e.g. Leapfrog, Vulcan, Surpac, gOcad, MOVE). This leads to a wide range in character of 3D-models, as well as various types of data and file formats. Especially the combination of models on different scales, such as the incorporation of deposit scale models into regional-scale models, often necessitates simplifications and may lead to a loss of data. Therefore, a NoI that improves the interchangeability of models and furthermore enables full data integration will increase the usability of geomodels in exploration and research.
    2. Communication of geomodels. Commonly, specific expert software in order to make different data formats readable and communicate geomodels between collaborators, clients, stakeholders and decision makers. This limits the group of possible co-workers in a modelling project and the group of people that can utilize such models to the amount of available and often expensive licenses. A network of 3D-modelling users can substantially widen the possibilities to make geomodels accessible to a wider audience.
    3. Complexity and variety of CAM software. Software packages for computer-aided modelling (CAM) for geology and for industry standard mineral resource and reserve models are rather complex. Furthermore, there is a wide variety of available CAM software, each yielding individual functions, advantages and disadvantages. Changing a software or personnel within an organisation necessitates investment in additional training and causes downtimes. Implementing work flows for data interoperability may minimize expenditures on software and training for mining and exploration companies. Hence the NoI aims to work on solutions in order to optimize the generation, interpretation and application of geomodels, and improve the time and cost efficiency of these processes.

    Integration and improved outward communication of the available visualisation tools at the NoI partners will support better targeting of new mineral resources at depth, and eventually reduce environmental impacts and costs by enhancing the efficiency of exploration workflows. The distribution and possible commercialization of the NoI´s outcomes among stakeholders of the extractive industry will improve the competitiveness of European exploration and mining.

  • 19.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Cwiertnia, Tomasz
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland.
    The 6th Annual Baltic Student Chapter meeting 2015: A journey to the active and historical mines in Poland2015In: SGA News, no 37, p. 1,10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gumsley, Ashley Paul
    Lund University.
    Kock, Michiel Olivier de
    University of Johannesburg.
    Söderlund, Ulf
    Department of Geology, GeoBiosphere Science Centre, Lund University, Lund University.
    U-Pb geochronology and paleomagnetism of the Westerberg Sill Suite, Kaapvaal Craton – support for a coherent Kaapvaal–Pilbara Block (Vaalbara) into the Paleoproterozoic?2015In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 269, p. 58-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise geochronology, combined with paleomagnetism on mafic intrusions, provides first-order information for paleoreconstruction of crustal blocks, revealing the history of supercontinental formation and break-up. These techniques are used here to further constrain the apparent polar wander path of the Kaapvaal Craton across the Neoarchean–Paleoproterozoic boundary. U–Pb baddeleyite ages of 2441 ± 6 Ma and 2426 ± 1 Ma for a suite of mafic sills located on the western Kaapvaal Craton in South Africa (herein named the Westerberg Sill Suite), manifests a new event of magmatism within the Kaapvaal Craton of southern Africa. These ages fall within a ca. 450 Myr temporal gap in the paleomagnetic record between 2.66 and 2.22 Ga on the craton. Our older Westerberg Suite age is broadly coeval with the Woongarra magmatic event on the Pilbara Craton in Western Australia. In addition, the Westerberg Suite on the Kaapvaal Craton intrudes a remarkably similar Archean-Proterozoic sedimentary succession to that on the Pilbara Craton, supporting a stratigraphic correlation between Kaapvaal and Pilbara (i.e., Vaalbara). The broadly coeval Westerberg–Woongarra igneous event may represent a Large Igneous Province. The paleomagnetic results are more ambiguous, with several different possibilities existing. A Virtual Geomagnetic Pole obtained from four sites on the Westerberg sills is 18.9°N, 285.0°E, A95 = 14.1°, K = 43.4 (Sample based VGP, n = 34: 16.8°N, 2879.9°E, dp = 4.4°, dm = 7.7°). If primary (i.e., 2441–2426 Ma), it would provide a further magmatic event within a large temporal gap in the Kaapvaal Craton's Paleoproterozoic apparent polar wander path. It would suggest a relatively stationary Kaapvaal Craton between 2.44 Ga and 2.22 Ga, and ca. 35° of latitudinal drift of the craton between ca. 2.66 Ga and 2.44 Ga. This is not observed for the Pilbara Craton, suggesting breakup of Vaalbara before ca. 2.44 Ga. However, it is likely that the Woongarra paleopole represents a magnetic overprint acquired during the Ophtalmian or Capricorn Orogeny, invalidating a paleomagnetic comparison with the Westerberg Sill Suite. Alternatively, our Westerberg Virtual Geographic Pole manifests a 2.22 Ga magnetic overprint related to Ongeluk volcanism. The similarity between Ongeluk and Westerberg paleopoles however may also infer magmatic connections if both are primary directions, despite the apparent 200 million year age this difference.

  • 21.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Jansson, Nils F.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Stephens, Michael B.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Olin, Paul H.
    CODES ARC Centre of Excellence and TMVC ARC Research Hub, University of Tasmania.
    Gilbert, Sarah
    CODES ARC Centre of Excellence and TMVC ARC Research Hub, University of Tasmania.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Syn-tectonic sulphide remobilization and trace element redistribution at the Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit, Bergslagen, Sweden2018In: Ore Geology Reviews, ISSN 0169-1368, E-ISSN 1872-7360, Vol. 96, p. 48-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mineralization types at the Palaeoproterozoic Falun base metal sulphide deposit are predominantly pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-rich massive sulphide mineralization, disseminated to semi-massive Cu-Au mineralization, auriferous quartz veins, and mineralized shear zones of talc-chlorite-dominated schist. The massive and disseminated to semi-massive sulphide mineralization types were subject to polyphase ductile deformation (D1 and D2) and metamorphism under low-P, lower-amphibolite facies conditions, which led to the development of ore textures and paragenetic relationships indicating both mechanical and chemical remobilization of sulphides. In the massive sulphide mineralization, rare inclusion-rich pyrite occurs as relic cores inside inclusion-poor metamorphosed pyrite. Imaging and spot analysis using multielement laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) reveal that inclusion-poor pyrite was depleted in trace elements, which were originally present as non-stoichiometric lattice substitutions or in mineral inclusions. The inclusion-rich pyrite was shielded from depletion and, at least partly, retained its initially higher trace element concentrations, including Au.

    Gold is also associated with chalcopyrite in the disseminated to semi-massive Cu-Au mineralization and in the system of auriferous quartz veins hosted therein, the latter being also affected by the D2 ductile strain. It is inferred that emplacement of the vein system took place after the peak of metamorphism, which occurred between D1 and D2, but prior to and possibly even shortly after completion of the D2 deformational event. Similarities in trace element signatures in chalcopyrite are compatible with the interpretation that the quartz veins formed by local chemical remobilization of components from the Cu-Au mineralization. Transport of liberated Au from pyrite during grain growth in the massive sulphide mineralization may have upgraded the Au endowment in the quartz veins, leading to the additional formation of native gold in the veins. A strong correspondence between elements liberated from pyrite (e.g. Pb, Bi, Se and Au) and those forming discrete and characteristic mineral phases in the quartz veins (Pb-Bi sulphosalts, native gold) supports this hypothesis.

    Trace element signatures for the main sulphide minerals pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena are similar to previously published data from other metamorphosed massive sulphide deposits. The association of the Falun mineralization with elevated Bi is reflected by its occurrence in sulphide minerals (e.g. galena) and in abundant mineral inclusions of Pb-Bi sulphosalts (e.g. weibullite), especially in the disseminated to semi-massive Cu-Au mineralization. Elevated Sn concentrations in the lattice and/or as cassiterite inclusions in chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena are compatible with a hot, acidic and reducing fluid during formation of the syn-volcanic, base metal sulphide mineralization and associated host-rock alteration.

  • 22.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Jansson, Nils
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Stephens, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Majka, Jarosław
    Uppsala universitet, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza.
    Lasskogen, Jonas
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Systematics of Hydrothermal Alteration at the Falun Base Metal Sulfide Deposit and Implications for Ore Genesis and Exploration, Bergslagen ore district, Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden2017In: Economic geology and the bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, ISSN 0361-0128, E-ISSN 1554-0774, Vol. 112, no 5, p. 1111-1152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paleoproterozoic Falun Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) pyritic sulfide deposit in the Bergslagen ore district, Sweden, is enveloped by hydrothermally altered rocks metamorphosed to the lower amphibolite facies. Immobile-element ratios suggest that the alteration precursors were volcanic rocks of mainly rhyolitic to dacitic composition. Least altered examples of these rocks plot along magmatic fractionation trends outlined by late- to post-ore feldspar-phyric metadacite dikes and post-ore granitoid plutons, consistent with a comagmatic relationship between these calc-alkaline, coeval (<10-m.y.) suites. Dolomite or calcite marble, as well as diopside-hedenbergite or tremolite skarn, form subordinate but important lithologic components in the hydrothermally altered zone. Marble occurs as fragments in the massive pyritic sulfide mineralization, suggesting that at least some mineralization formed by carbonate replacement.

    Mass-change calculations suggest that the hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks gained Mg and Fe and generally lost Ca, K, and Na. Proximal, quartz-anthophyllite-rich altered rocks additionally gained Si, whereas several types of biotite-rich altered rocks lost this element. These mass changes along with mineral chemical data for anthophyllite, biotite, cordierite, and garnet, and the common occurrence of quartz indicate that chloritization, sericitization, and silicification were the dominant premetamorphic alteration styles. A zonation from distal sericitized and silicified volcanic rocks to intermediate sericitized rocks, partly overprinted by chloritization (Mg-rich chlorite), and proximal siliceous and intensely chloritized (Fe-rich chlorite) rocks has been identified. Furthermore, mass changes in more peripheral parts of the altered zone toward the southeast of the deposit suggest that the alteration weakens gradationally toward the volcanic and subvolcanic rocks surrounding the deposit. These patterns represent vectors toward mineralization.

    Intensely chloritized rocks, largely represented by a single, rhyolitic precursor, envelop the central pyritic massive sulfide bodies to the east, south, and west, supporting a structural model in which the massive sulfide mineralization formed the stratigraphically highest preserved unit in the center, surrounded in a tubular manner by stratigraphic footwall rocks. The northern side represents a portion of the footwall, which was separated by a major shear zone. These spatial relationships also have implications for near-mine exploration, since quartz-rich footwall rocks locally host disseminated to semimassive stockwork Cu-Au mineralization.

    Cooling of a hot (300°–400°C), acidic (pH ≤4) and reducing fluid carrying metals and sulfur is suggested for formation of stockwork Cu-Au vein mineralization and hydrothermal alteration in the stratigraphic footwall. The Zn-Pb-Cu-rich massive sulfide mineralization is inferred to have formed by fluid neutralization upon interaction with carbonates and mixing with cooler seawater upon fluid entry into porous pumice breccia in a subseafloor setting. Dissolution processes, primary porosity in the pumice breccia, and secondary porosity produced during synvolcanic faulting are all suggested to have contributed to the creation of space necessary for the formation of the massive sulfide mineralization. Falun differs from other deposits of the same type in Bergslagen mainly in the high pyrite content of the massive sulfide mineralization, the absence of related Fe oxide deposits, as well as the dominant replacement of volcaniclastic sediments compared to carbonates. The types of host rocks, the inferred premetamorphic feldspar-destructive alteration types, and the style of mineralization and alteration zonation at the deposit are reminiscent of pyritic volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. However, the importance of chemical trapping by fluid-limestone interaction, as well as the spatial association with subordinate skarn alteration constitute important differences to a classic VMS model.

  • 23.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Skyttä, Pietari
    University of Turku.
    Bauer, Tobias E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lynch, Edward P.
    Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Ore Deposits and 3D/4D modelling in Northern Fennoscandia: Fruitful knowledge exchange about one of Europe’s most prospective regions for metal exploration2016In: SGA News, no 39, p. 26-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Stephens, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Structural geology and spatial patterns of hydrothermal alteration at the Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit, Bergslagen region, south-central Sweden2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Stephens, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    3D modelling and sheath folding at the Falun Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) massive sulphide deposit and implications for exploration in a 1.9 Ga ore district, Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden2016In: Mineralium Deposita, ISSN 0026-4598, E-ISSN 1432-1866, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 665-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) deposit, situated in the Palaeoproterozoic (1.9–1.8 Ga) Bergslagen lithotectonic unit in the south-western part of the Fennoscandian Shield, is one of the major base metal sulphide deposits in Sweden. Altered rocks and ore types at Falun have been metamorphosed and deformed in a heterogeneous ductile manner, strongly modifying mineral assemblages in the original hydrothermal alteration system and the geometry of the deposit. Using a combined methodological approach, including surface mapping of lithologies and structures, drill core logging and microstructural investigation, the polyphase character (D1 and D2) of the ductile deformation is demonstrated and a 3D model for the deposit created. F2 sheath folding along axes that plunge steeply to the south-south-east, parallel to a mineral stretching lineation and the dip direction of the S2 foliation, is suggested as a key deformation mechanism forming steeply plunging, rod-shaped ore bodies. This is in contrast to previous structural models involving fold interference and, in turn, has implications for near-mine exploration, the occurrence of hanging-wall components to the ore body being questioned. Typical rock-forming minerals in the Falun alteration aureole include quartz, biotite/phlogopite, cordierite, anthophyllite and minor almandine, andalusite and chlorite, as well as dolomite, tremolite and actinolite. Where observable, the silicate minerals in the alteration rocks show growth patterns during different phases of the tectonothermal evolution, considerable static grain growth occurring between D1 and D2 and even after D2. A major high-strain zone, characterized by the mineral assemblage talc-chlorite-(quartz-biotite/phlogopite) defines a boundary between northern and southern structural domains at the deposit, and is closely spatially associated with the polymetallic massive sulphide ores. A possible role as a metal-bearing fluid conduit during ore genesis is discussed.

  • 26.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Stephens, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hydrothermal alteration, 3D modeling and sheath folding at the volcanic-hosted Falun Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) deposit – implications for exploration in a 1.9 Ga ore district, Fennoscandian Shield, central Sweden2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paleoproterozoic (1.9 Ga), volcanic-hosted Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulfide deposit at Falun is located in the Bergslagen lithotectonic unit, central Sweden, which includes one of the major ore districts in the Fennoscandian Shield, northern Europe. The Falun deposit is known mainly as one of the world’s leading copper suppliers over many centuries. During the 20th century, the mine was a major base (Zn, Pb, Cu) and precious (Ag, Au) metal producer until it closed during 1992.This study has the following four aims: (i) Identify the style and spatial distribution of hydrothermal alteration; (ii) determine the geometry of the different types of ore bodies; (iii) provide a mechanism for the structure of the deposit; and (iv) address broader implications for the Bergslagen ore district. Petrographic and structural data were collected during surface mapping and microscope work; modeling of the different ore bodies in 3D space was completed using available mine level maps and data collected during new logging of available drill cores. The Falun deposit is affected by polyphase ductile deformation and metamorphism under amphibolite facies conditions. The metamorphosed alteration rocks are dominated by distal quartz-mica-cordierite-(anthophyllite) and proximal quartz-anthophyllite assemblages, interpreted to represent Si-, Fe-, Mg-metasomatism of felsic volcanic rocks. Dolomite and calc-silicate (tremolite, actinolite, diopside)-skarn assemblages are interpreted as the equivalent alteration of carbonate rocks. Surface mapping in the open pit indicates that the ore bodies are completely enveloped by these altered rocks. Structural data suggest the presence of a reclined F2 fold that plunges steeply to the southeast, with a stretching component defined by a linear grain-shape fabric sub-parallel to the fold axis. Modeling in 3D space reveals the presence of several rod-shaped ore bodies that also plunge steeply to the southeast and thicken and merge upwards into a single ore body that is up to 270 m in diameter at the ground surface. The ore body close to this surface is zoned in a concentric pattern, from a massive, pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-sulfide core in the inner part to a more Cu-rich sulfide zone and then a semi-massive to disseminated Cu-Au mineralization in the outer part. The cone-shaped and zoned ore bodies are interpreted as steeply-plunging megascopic sheath folds, formed in a ductile, high-strain tectonic regime. The viscosity contrast between competent, strongly silicified and metamorphosed felsic volcanic host rock and softer massive sulfide ore is suggested to have enhanced the development of these sheath folds. Steeply plunging, rod-shape geometries have commonly been reported for several volcanic-hosted sulfide and Fe oxide ore deposits in the Bergslagen lithotectonic unit and megascopic sheath folds have been identified in a high-strain belt in the northern part of this unit. If sheath fold formation can be confirmed as a key deformation mechanism for ore bodies in this mineral district, in contrast to the classical model of dome and basin fold interference structure, this will influence near-mine exploration strategies. Previous structural concepts and models for footwall/hanging wall relationships will need radical revision and areas previously considered as barren hanging wall lithologies may have a higher exploration potential.

  • 27.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Debatt: Falu gruvas 1,9 miljarder år gamla geologiska processer kan säkra samhällets framtida behov av metaller2017In: Dala-Demokraten, ISSN 1103-9183, article id 20 majArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Stephens, Michael B.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Structural investigation and 3D modelling of the Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit, Bergslagen region, south-central Sweden2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the prominent ore deposits of the Bergslagen region in south-central Sweden is located in Falun in the northern part of this mining district. A belt of 1.91-1.89 Ga metavolcanic rocks hosts both the ores and an alteration aureole of several hundreds to thousands of metres in extent at the ground surface. Analysis of the structures in the area reveals a polyphase ductile deformational history and a major, steeply plunging F2 reclined fold. 3D modelling of the boundary surface to the pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu sulphide ore has been used to visualize the geometry of this ore body at depth, constraining its steeply plunging rod-like and NW-SE elongate shape and a geometric control by the F2 fold structure.

  • 29.
    Kampmann, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Jansson, Nils
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Stephens, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Majka, Jarosław
    Uppsala universitet.
    Systematics of hydrothermal alteration at the volcanic-hosted Falun Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) deposit: implications for ore genesis, structure and exploration in a 1.9 Ga ore district, Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden2016In: Geophysical Research Abstracts, ISSN 1029-7006, E-ISSN 1607-7962, Vol. 18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Kampmann, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Stephens, Michael
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Ripa, Magnus
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Timing of Magmatism and Mineralisation at Falun, a Major Base Metal Sulphide Deposit in the Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden2015In: Mineral Resources in a Sustainable World / [ed] A.S. Andre-Mayer; M. Cathelineau; P. Muchez; E. Pirard; S. Sindern, 2015, p. 591-594Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    U-Pb (zircon) ion probe geochronology on key lithologies at the Palaeoproterozoic Falun Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit in the south-western part of the Fennoscandian Shield has been carried out. Results suggest that dominantly felsic sub-volcanic intrusion, hydrothermal alteration, ore formation and intrusion by dykes and plutons took place in a short time interval between 1894 +/- 3 Ma and 1891 +/- 3 Ma. Analogues to intra-arc VMS mineralisation in Peru are discussed.

  • 31.
    Kampmann, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Stephens, Michael
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Ripa, Magnus
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Timing of magmatism and mineralisation at Falun, a major base metal sulphide deposit in the Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Kampmann, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Stephens, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Ripa, Magnus
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Majka, Jarosław
    Uppsala universitet.
    Time constraints on magmatism, mineralisation and metamorphism at the Falun base metal sulphide deposit, Sweden, using U-Pb geochronology on zircon and monazite2016In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 278, p. 52-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    U–Th–Pb (zircon and monazite) ion probe data have provided constraints on the timing of emplacement and metamorphism of magmatic rocks close to the Palaeoproterozoic, Falun base metal sulphide deposit in the Bergslagen lithotectonic unit, Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden, and, thereby the timing of mineralisation. Hydrothermal alteration and mineralisation at Falun are constrained to a short interval of several million years between a 207Pb/206Pb weighted average age of 1894 ± 3 Ma for a rhyolitic sub-volcanic rock in the felsic volcanic to sub-volcanic host rock suite, and a 207Pb/206Pb weighted average age of 1891 ± 3 Ma for a post-sulphide, porphyritic dacite dyke. Magmatism also included the emplacement of granite plutons with igneous crystallization ages of 1894 ± 3, 1894 ± 2 Ma and 1893 ± 3 Ma. The felsicsub-volcanic to volcanic activity and the emplacement of dacite dykes and granite plutons overlap in age within their respective analytical uncertainties, indicating hydrothermal alteration and sulphide mineralisation inside a narrow time span of intense magmatic activity, and burial of the supracrustal rocks.Two distinct patchy and homogeneous metamorphic monazite types in a felsic volcanic rock around and hydrothermally altered rocks at the Falun deposit yield 207Pb/206Pb weighted average ages of 1831 ± 8 Ma and 1822 ± 5 Ma, respectively. These ages fall well within the temporal range of a younger1.84–1.81 Ga (M2) metamorphic episode during the 2.0–1.8 Ga Svecokarelian orogeny, with the older episode (M1) inside the Bergslagen lithotectonic unit at around 1.86 Ga. This shows the major influence of the M2 event in the north-western part of this unit, leading to a complete resetting of the U–Th–Pb isotopesystem in monazite.

  • 33.
    Kock, Michiel Olivier de
    et al.
    University of Johannesburg.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    Lund University.
    Söderlund, Ulf
    Department of Geology, GeoBiosphere Science Centre, Lund University, Lund University.
    U-Pb geochronology and paleomagnetism of the Westerberg sill, Kaapvaal Craton - Support for Vaalbara into the Paleoproterozoic2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise geochronology combined with paleomagnetism provides first-order information necessary for paleoreconstructions of crustal blocks and for revealing the history of supercontinent formation and break-up. These techniques are used here in an attempt to further constrain the apparent polar wander path of the Kaapvaal craton through the Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic. A new baddeleyite U-Pb age of 2440.2 ± 5.9 Ma for the intracratonic Westerberg sill manifests a new event of mafic magmatism within the Kaapvaal Craton of southern Africa and falls in the center of a ca. 450 Ma gap in the paleomagnetic record, between 2.66 and 2.22 Ga. The Westerberg sill is coeval with the Woongarra sills on the Pilbara craton and intrudes into a remarkably similar sedimentary succession, hence supporting a coherent Kaapvaal-Pilbara block (i.e., Vaalbara) spanning the Archean-Proterozoic boundary interval. The coeval Westerberg-Woongarra igneous event may represent a large igneous province, here recognized for the first time on the Kaapvaal craton. The virtual geomagnetic pole obtained for the Kaapvaal craton for the Westerberg sill fits well into a large gap of the craton’s apparent polar wander path. Furthermore, combined with a coeval Pilbara pole, it allows for a reconstruction of Vaalbara that places Pilbara in relative close proximity and to the north of the Kaapvaal craton.

  • 34.
    Ripa, Magnus
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Geological Survey of Sweden.
    SIMS U-Pb (zircon) geochronology at the Kuså Ni-Cu deposit, south-central Sweden2017In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 139, no 3, p. 233-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kuså orthomagmatic Ni-Cu sulphide deposit is situated c. 13 km west of Falun in Bergslagen, southcentral Sweden. Ion probe data on zircon from the mafic to ultra-mafic host rocks yield a 207Pb/206Pb weighted average age of 1798 ± 4 Ma, suggesting a genetic connection to intrusive activity forming theTransscandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB-1 phase). TIB-1 ages have recently been reported also for the Kleva deposit of similar type in Southern Sweden. The presence of these two occurrences suggests prospectivity potential for Ni-Cu mineralisation in mafic to ultramafic members of the areally extensive TIB.

1 - 34 of 34
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