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  • 1.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. University of Babylon, Coolege of Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Kufa University.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Abdullah, Twana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Abid Hamza, Basher
    University of Babylon, Coolege of Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Seepage Velocity of Dibdibba Formation in Karbala, Iraq2017In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 279-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq highly depends on its surface water resources. Now it is facing water shortage problems. For these reasons, the utilization of groundwater will be increasing with time. Karbala Governorate is located in the central part of Iraq. It covers an area of 5034 km2 and the population exceeds one million. It is characterized by an arid or semiarid environment. Karbala Governorate lack surface water resource and consequently, groundwater is the only available resource. The main groundwater aquifer within the area is Dibdibba formation. It is composed of poorly sorted sand and sand stone with gravel. In this research hydrological and hydrogeological information were used to find out the magnitude and the direction of groundwater seepage velocity. The results indicate that groundwater flow toward the flood plain to the east of the study region. The seepage velocity ranges from 0 to 0.18 m/d, with a general increase when moving from the west to the east.

  • 2.
    Elhammeli, Alaaeddin A.
    et al.
    Mechanical Engineering Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial Univ of Newfoundland, St. John's, NF.
    Muntasser, Mohamed A.
    Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Faculty of Engineering, Tripoli University.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Producing water by condensation of humid air in buried pipe2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management: Rabat, Morocco, April 11-13, 2017, IEOM Society , 2017, p. 2270-2281Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the possibility of using warm humid air for irrigation and drinking water production, by flowing air over the water surface in a solar still with saline or polluted water. Vapor will be saturated during mixing with the warm air in buried pipe. Finite difference method is employed to simulate the flow of the air long the pipe. The amount of water produced and buried pipe length depends upon the flow velocity, humid air properties and buried pipe diameter. The amount of water produced is 0.02525kg/s (0.0909m3/h). The length of the buried pipe needed in this study is 77.36m for a selected air flow velocity 5m/s with the properties of 70°C, 100% relative humidity at pipe inlet, 40°C and 100% relative humidity at pipe outlet of 0.2m pipe diameter. The results agree with a previous study (Gustafsson & Lindblom, 2001) with -4.0% deviation in water production and 7% of required pipe length

  • 3.
    Elhammeli, Alaaeddin A.
    et al.
    Mechanical Engineering Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial Univ of Newfoundland, St. John's, NF.
    Muntasser, Mohamed A.
    Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Faculty of Engineering, Tripoli University.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Producing water by condensation of humid air in buried pipe2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, IEOM Society , 2017, p. 2270-2281Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the possibility of using warm humid air for irrigation and drinking water production, by flowing air over the water surface in a solar still with saline or polluted water. Vapor will be saturated during mixing with the warm air in buried pipe. Finite difference method is employed to simulate the flow of the air long the pipe. The amount of water produced and buried pipe length depends upon the flow velocity, humid air properties and buried pipe diameter. The amount of water produced is 0.02525kg/s (0.0909m3/h). The length of the buried pipe needed in this study is 77.36m for a selected air flow velocity 5m/s with the properties of 70°C, 100% relative humidity at pipe inlet, 40°C and 100% relative humidity at pipe outlet of 0.2m pipe diameter. The results agree with a previous study (Gustafsson & Lindblom, 2001) with -4.0% deviation in water production and 7% of required pipe length

  • 4.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Condensation irrigation: a combined system for desalination and irrigation2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Condensation Irrigation (CI) is a new irrigation method that combines desalination and subsurface irrigation by making use of saline water for supplying clean irrigation. In this system, solar stills are used for evaporating non-potable water, and the formed vapour heats and humidifies the ambient air above the water surface. The warm, humid air is led from the stills into a system of horizontally buried drainage pipes. While flowing through the pipes, the air is cooled by the ground and vapour precipitates as freshwater inside the pipes. The perforations in the pipe wall enable the formed freshwater to percolate into the surrounding soil, and thereby irrigate it. Some of the humid air also infiltrates the soil through the perforations, which further increases irrigation by vapour condensation in the cooler ground. The airflow through the ground supplies soil aeration, which is important for high crop yield.Because the CI system generates freshwater from saline or otherwise contaminated water sources, this system can operate in locations that would normally lack irrigation possibilities. This subsurface irrigation system has also further advantages, such as reduced water losses through surface evaporation and deep percolation, increased soil aeration, and low tech / low cost design. To investigate the potential of the CI system, an implicit transient finite element simulation model, CI2D, was developed in Matlab, that was able to simulate the complex coupled mechanisms of gas, liquid and heat transfer in the soil-pipe system, including water evaporation and condensation. The validated and verified model also included solar radiation, root water extraction, and surface evaporation.The CI2D model was used to simulate a reference example of a theoretical CI facility in Malta. The irrigation rate under steady operation was 3.44 mm d-1 and the root water uptake was 19.8% of the supplied water. By lowering the inlet air temperature, the crop could be placed closer to the pipes without the roots being overheated. The irrigation rate obtained by decreasing the inlet air temperature from 70°C to 50°C, and reducing the pipe spacing from 1.2 m to 0.6 m, was 3.00 mm d-1. The root water uptake was, however, increased to 48% of the irrigation, resulting in a higher root water uptake.The principle behind CI can be used for drinking water production by using pipes without perforations in the ground. The condensed freshwater can then be collected at the pipe endings. This system was simulated under the same reference scenario as the irrigation system. The daily water production rate in a 50 m long pipe was in the example 135 kg d-1, corresponding to 2.26 mm d-1.A small scale laboratory setup where humid air was led through a perforated pipe in a sand box was tested and theoretically simulated. In the experiments, the importance of a free flow path for the gas phase through the soil was visualized. It could therefore be concluded that the CI system should not be implemented in low-permeability soils. From simulations in CI2D, it was evident that soils with high capillarity are unsuitable for CI systems as well, because the water accumulation around the pipe prevents humid air from entering the soil through the perforations.CI is a system with many unexplored possible designs and applications. For example, by leading the cooler saline feed water to the solar stills through the perforated irrigation pipes, the vapour condensation in the pipes would increase. This would also increase the solar still efficiency since the incoming saline water would be preheated by the humid airflow. In future work on this system, this, and other suggested improvements should be explored.

  • 5.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Condensation irrigation: simulations of heat and mass transfer2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing water demand in the world. Along with the deterioration of existing water supplies, the escalating world population leads to the assumption that two out of three people will lack sufficient freshwater by the year 2025. As competition for freshwater increases, water of lower quality, for example saline or waste water, is often used in irrigation at the risk of seriously degrading the farmland. Desalination is the only possible way to produce more freshwater. Each day, 23„ª106 m3 of freshwater is produced from seawater by Reverse Osmosis, Multi Stage Flash and Multi Effect distillation. Most of these plants are driven by fossil fuels and only 0.02% by renewable energy. A sustainable development requires simple inexpensive desalination systems driven by renewable energies. Condensation irrigation (CI) is a newly developed idea that meets these requirements. CI is a combined system for solar desalination and irrigation and/or drinking water production. Solar stills are used for humidifying ambient air flowing over the saline water surface in the still. This warm, humid air is then led into an underground pipe system where it is cooled and vapour precipitates as freshwater on the pipe walls. If drainage pipes are used the water and some of humid air percolate through the pipe perforations and irrigates and aerates the ground. Drinking water can be collected at the pipe endings when using non-perforated pipes. The CI system has attracted attention from several North African countries. Pilot plants are now in operation in Tunisia and Algeria where LTU is collaborating with the Tunisian Institute for Research on Rural Engineering, Water and Forestry and the University of Tlemcen in Algeria. LTU is also collaborating with Al Fatah University and the International Energy Foundation in Tripoli, Libya. Ongoing work aims at developing a design tool and monitoring program for the CI system to be used in the design and operation of a demonstration plant in Libya. Mass and heat transfer in the soil around the buried pipes has been modelled in Matlab to evaluate the theoretical potential for these types of systems and to gain understanding of the mechanisms governing their productivity. It was concluded that CI could be used for both irrigation and drinking water production at relatively low operational costs. For a presumed reference system, the mean water production rate in the drinking water system was 1.8 kg per meter of pipe and day. When using drainage pipes for subsurface irrigation, this number increased to 3.1 kg/m/d, corresponding to 2.3 mm/d of supplied irrigation water. The main parameters affecting the water production efficiency were inlet air temperature and humidity, and the pipes were in both systems recommended to be placed at shallow depths. However, since the numerical models disregard from solar radiation and crops, somewhat different conclusions on how the pipe configuration affect the irrigation yield is expected when these factors are included in succeeding models. When irrigation is intended, the pipe spacing must be determined with respect to the soil and local climate as well as the type of crops to be cultivated. Future work on the CI system will include validation of numerical simulations, studies on how solar irradiation and vegetation affect the system, and the construction of a full-scale pilot plant in Libya.

  • 6.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Solar thermal technologies for seawater desalination: state of the art2003Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Possibilities of reducing energy consumption by Optimization of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Babylon, Iraq2016In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 130-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is located in the Middle East with an area that reaches 437072 km2 and a population of about 36 million. This country is suffering from severe electricity shortage problems which are expected to increase with time. In this research, an attempt is made to minimize this problem by combining the borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) with a heat pump, the indoor temperature of a residential building or other facility may be increased or reduced beyond the temperature interval of the heat carrier fluid.Due to the relatively high ground temperature in Middle Eastern countries, the Seasonal thermal energy storages (STES) and Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) systems have a remarkable potential, partly because the reduced thermal losses from the underground storage and the expected high COP (ratio of thermal energy gain to required driving energy (electricity)) of a heat pump, partly because of the potential for using STES directly for heating and cooling. In this research, groundwater conditions of Babylon city in Iraq were investigated to evaluate the possibility of using GSHP to reduce energy consumption. It is believed that such system will reduce consumed energy by about 60%.

  • 8.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordell, Bo
    Condensation irrigation: a solar desalination system for irrigation and drinking water production2006In: Full proceedings: World Renewable Energy Congress IX : August 19 - 25, 2006, Florence, Italy, Brighton, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9. Lindblom, Jenny
    et al.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Condensation Irrigation: a system for desalination and irrigation2003In: Proceedings: Futurestock 2003, 9th International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage : Warsaw, Poland, September 1 - 4, 2003, Warszawa: PW Publishing House , 2003, p. 615-619Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Experimental Study of Underground Irrigation by Condensation of Humid Air in Perforated Pipes2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A small scale Condensation Irrigation (CI) system was constructed to investigate the flow patterns of water, air and heat in the soil surrounding a perforated pipe from which water, heat and humid air was transferred. A 0.2 m long cross-section of sand and pipe was used to emulate a two-dimensional section of a CI system. Under these downscaled conditions, the mean irrigation rate in the sand box was 1.03 mm d-1. The major heat transfer mechanism in the sand profile was gas advection, which greatly reduced the sand temperature around the pipe.Nearly 50% of the vapour leaving the airflow inside the pipe, was transported to the sand surface by gas advection.

  • 11.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordell, Bo
    Underground condensation of humid air for drinking water production and subsurface irrigation2007In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 203, no 1-3, p. 417-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Condensation Irrigation (CI) is a combined system for solar desalination and irrigation and/or drinking water production. Solar stills are used for humidifying ambient air flowing over the saline water surface in the still. This warm, humid air is then led into an underground pipe system where it is cooled and vapour precipitates as freshwater on the pipe walls. If drainage pipes are used the condensed water and some of humid air percolate through the pipe perforations and irrigates and aerates the ground. Drinking water can be collected at the pipe endings when using non-perforated pipes. The CI system has attracted attention from several North African countries, and pilot plants are now in operation in Tunisia and Algeria. Mass and heat transfer in the soil around the buried pipes has been modelled to evaluate the theoretical potential for these types of systems and to gain understanding of the mechanisms governing their productivity. For a presumed reference system, the mean water production rate in the drinking water system was 1.8 kg per meter of pipe and day. When using drainage pipes for subsurface irrigation, this number increased to 3.1 kg/m/d, corresponding to 2.3 mm/d of supplied irrigation water.

  • 12. Lindblom, Jenny
    et al.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Underground condensation of humid air for irrigation and drinking water production2006In: World Renewable Energy and Environmental Conference, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13. Lindblom, Jenny
    et al.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Water production by underground condensation of humid air2006In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 189, no 1-3, p. 248-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Condensation irrigation (CI) is a combined system for desalination and irrigation. By evaporating seawater in, for example, solar stills and letting the humidified air transport the formed vapour into an underground pipe system, fresh water will precipitate as the air is cooled by the ground. By using drainage pipes for underground air transportation, perforations in the pipes enable the water to percolate into the soil. This study of Cl focuses on the transport of humid air inside buried plain pipes, where the condensed water stays inside the pipe and may thus be collected at the pipe endings and used for drinking. Numerical simulations of this system result in a mean water production capacity of 1.8 kg/m and day over a 50-m long pipe in a diurnally steady system, though shorter pipes result in a higher mean production. A performed theoretical analysis also indicates that Cl is a promising alternative irrigation method as it enables the use of saline water for irrigation.

  • 14.
    Nordell, Bo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Condensation irrigation: a system for desalination and irrigation2005In: Energy and Life Journal, no 20, p. 61-66Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Nordell, Bo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Subsurface irrigation by condensation of humid air2006In: Sustainable Irrigation Management, Technologies and Policies, WIT Press, 2006, Vol. 96, p. 181-189Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Condensation Irrigation (CI) is a combined system for solar desalination and irrigation. Solar stills are used to humidify ambient air flowing over the saline water surface in the stills. This warm, humid air is then led into an underground system of drainage pipes where it is cooled and vapour precipitates as freshwater. The condensed water and some humid air percolate through the pipe perforations and irrigate and aerate the ground. Mass and heat transfer in the soil-pipe system has been modelled to evaluate the theoretical productivity for these types of systems. For a presumed pipe configuration and climate, 3. 1 kg water per pipe-meter and day was condensed inside the buried pipe, yielding 2. 3 mm/d irrigation water. Pilot plants on the CI system and are now in operation in Tunisia and Algeria. Another CI plant is planned in Libya.

  • 16.
    Silva, Ingrid
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Viklander, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Assessment of internal erosion in the glacial till core of a Swedish dam2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zoned embankment dams are a common type of dam in Sweden consisting of an impermeable central glacial till core flanked by zones of filter materials and rockfill shoulders. Dams with internal unstable core material allow fine particles to be transported by seepage, which may result in leakage paths and pore-pressure variations. These last two conditions are signs of initiated internal erosion. However, the effectiveness of the filter zone determines if the internal erosion will continue or not. This paper presents the assessment of internal erosion susceptibility of the glacial till core of a hydropower dam located in northern Sweden. The dam has experienced historical damages mainly in the form of sinkhole and leakage related to internal erosion. The study includes the analysis of the particle size distribution of samples obtained from boreholes, as well as a comparison of the geotechnical properties of the core with the Swedish dam safety guidelines available both during the dam construction in 1958 and today. The capability of the filter to stop the erosion process is not investigated.The results show that a well designed and constructed dams can be affected by local layers of internally unstable (suffusive) material susceptible to internal erosion.

    The capability of the filter to stop the erosion process is not investigated.The results show that a well-designed and constructed dams can be affected by local layers of internally unstable (suffusive) material susceptible to internal erosion.

  • 17.
    Yousefi, Bagher
    et al.
    Airrigation and Drainage Engineering Department, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz.
    Boroomand-Nasab, Saeed
    Airrigation and Drainage Engineering Department, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz.
    Moazed, Hadi
    Airrigation and Drainage Engineering Department, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Condensation Irrigation Field Test: Measurements of Soil Moisture2017In: International Journal of Basic Sciences & Applied Research, ISSN 2147-3749, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 263-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the growing population and scarcity of fresh water it is increasingly important to produce potable water by desalination of saline water. However, desalination requires energy and in a sustainable world it has to be based on renewable energy. Condensation irrigation (CI) is a method that combines desalination and irrigation. In such systems solar energy could be used to provide needed energy. By letting air flow over the water surface in a solar still with saline or polluted water, the air is humidified. The vapor-saturated airflow is then lead into buried pipes, where the air gradually cools and the water precipitates along the pipe surface. In current field study perforated PVC pipes were used i.e. the condensed water left the pipe through its walls and irrigated the surrounding soil. In PVC pipes without perforations the produced water was collected at the pipe outlet. A fan was used to force the air through the 25 m pipes of the CI system. The resulting amount of produced water per 8 hours for drinking water and irrigation was 4.0 and 6.0 l, respectively.

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